Conditions We Treat

Browse Conditions A-Z

22q Deletion Syndrome

22q11.2 deletion syndrome, also known as DiGeorge Syndrome, is a condition where there is a small amount of genetic material missing (a microdeletion) on the long arm (the q arm) of chromosome 22. 22q has the potential to impact every system in the body and can lead to a range of health issues.

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22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome in Children

22q11.2 deletion syndrome is a genetic disorder that can cause many health problems. These problems may range from heart defects and developmental delays to seizures.

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A Child Living with a Pacemaker or Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

Detailed information on living with a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator

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Abdominal Pain

Functional abdominal pain is a common problem that interferes with a child’s daily life. Some red flags to look for include weight loss, vomiting, lack of energy and bloody diarrhea. A physician can perform tests to determine the cause of abdominal pain. Treatment plans vary depending on the cause.

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Abdominal Pain: Outpatient

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss what steps to take if the cause of your child's abdominal pain cannot be determined. It is important that you watch your child closely for the next 24 hours and go back to your child’s doctor or the emergency department if they show more serious symptoms.

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About Poison Control Centers

Poison control centers are always open - 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. They're staffed by pharmacists, healthcare providers, nurses, and other experts who are available by phone.

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About the Heart and Blood Vessels

Detailed anatomical description of the heart's blood vessels, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration

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Abrasions

An abrasion is a superficial rub or wearing off of the skin, usually caused by a scrape or a brush burn. Abrasions are usually minor injuries that can be treated at home.

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Acanthosis Nigricans

Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a dark patch that appears on a child's neck, armpit, under the breast or a skin crease. It is usually a sign that the body is making extra insulin that it cannot use well. Eating a healthy diet and increasing physical activity are steps to help cure acanthosis nigricans.

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Achalasia in Children

Achalasia is a rare disease that makes it hard to swallow foods and liquids. In achalasia, there is a problem with the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach (esophagus).

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Achondroplasia

Achondroplasia is the most common form of short-limb dwarfism. Individuals who have achondroplasia have short limbs but normal trunk height and head size with a prominent forehead. Children with achondroplasia can lead normal lives provided they receive appropriate care by knowledgeable providers.

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Achondroplasia in Children

Achondroplasia is a group of rare genetic (inherited) bone disorders. Achondroplasia is the most common type of what was once called dwarfism, in which the child's arms and legs are short in proportion to body length.

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Acne

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss the causes and treatment of acne. Acne is one of the most common skin problems that young people have. Almost everyone will develop acne to some degree and some people have more pimples than others. Treatment often requires time, patience and medicine.

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Acne in Children

Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Hair follicles are the areas around the base or root of each hair. Sebaceous glands are the tiny glands that release oil (sebum) into the hair follicles. The sebum moistens the skin and hair. The sebum and hair get to the skin surface through tiny holes called pores.

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Acquired Hypothyroidism in Children

Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland doesn't make enough thyroid hormone. The condition is more common in adults. But it’s the most common thyroid disorder in children. Not enough thyroid hormone leads to signs such as slow growth, lack of activity, and poor performance in school.

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Active Tuberculosis Disease

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss Tuberculosis (TB). Active TB disease (the common name for Mycobacterium tuberculosis) is contagious. It is most often spread through the air. The standard of care for treatment of active TB is daily administration of medicines from health department nurses.

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Acute Bronchitis in Children

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the large breathing tubes (bronchi) in the lungs. Short-term (acute) bronchitis means that the symptoms often develop quickly and don't last long.

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Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy

AFLP is a rare, but serious, liver problem in pregnancy. With AFLP the liver cells have too much fat, which can damage the liver.

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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

Leukemia is cancer of the blood. It’s the most common form of cancer in childhood.

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Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)

Leukemia is cancer of the blood. It’s the most common form of cancer in childhood.

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Acute Renal Failure

Acute kidney disease starts suddenly. In some cases, it may be reversed and the kidneys can work normally again.

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Acute Respiratory Disorders

Detailed information on acute respiratory disorders in children

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Acute Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) in Children

Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is when the spinal cord is damaged from an accident or other situation. An SCI may be a bruise (contusion), a partial tear, or a complete tear (transection) in the spinal cord.

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Addiction

Addiction refers to a wide range of compulsive behaviors. Traditionally, addiction refers to the excessive use of substances, including alcohol, drugs, cigarettes and food. Addiction has a wider meaning for children and teens, including attachment to things like the Internet and video games.

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Adding to Mother's Milk

Your milk is best, but it's not always complete with the nutritional needs of very small premature babies or some very sick newborns.

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Addison Disease in Children

Addison disease is when the adrenal glands don't make enough of two steroid hormones. The hormones are cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol controls the body's metabolism, blocks inflammatory reactions, and affects the immune system. Aldosterone manages sodium and potassium levels. Addison disease is fairly rare and may first appear at any age.

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Adenovirus Infection in Children

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that cause a variety of infections. These include the common cold, conjunctivitis, and croup.

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Adjustment Disorders

An adjustment disorder is an unhealthy emotional or behavioral reaction to a stressful event or change in a person’s life.

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Adjustment Disorders in Children

An adjustment disorder is an unhealthy emotional or behavioral reaction to a stressful event or change in a person's life. The response happens within 3 months of the stressful event.

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Adnexal Cysts

The adnexa are made up of the fallopian tubes and ovaries. Cysts are fluid-filled structures that can develop in the adnexa. Cysts on the ovaries are usually caused by hormonal stimulation or bleeding at the time of ovulation (hemorrhagic ovarian cysts). Most ovarian cysts require no treatment.

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Adnexal Torsion

Adnexal torsion, when the adnexa twist inside the pelvis, may involve the fallopian tube, ovary or both. Torsion causes disruption in the blood flow to and from the adnexa, potentially causing tissue necrosis and damage. Adnexal torsion requires emergency surgery to detorse (untwist) the adnexa.

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Adolescent (13 to 18 Years)

Detailed information on adolescence, ages 13 to 18 years

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Adolescent Growth and Development

Detailed information on adolescent growth and development

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Adolescent Health Problems and Injuries

Detailed information on adolescent health problems and injuries, including acne, asthma, breast conditions, breast self-examination, diabetes, eye care, eye safety, gynecological conditions, menstrual conditions, gynecologic problems, pap test, vaginitis, vulvitis, menstrual disorders, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), high blood pressure, infectious mononucleosis, obesity, oral health, orthodontics, braces, wisdom teeth extraction, periodontal disease, orthopedic problems, osgood schlatter disease, scoliosis, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, sexually transmitted diseases, safer sex guidelines, sports safety, sports injuries, sprains, strains, tennis elbow, mouthguards, heat related illness, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke

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Adolescent Mental Health

Detailed information on adolescent mental health disorders, including schizophrenia, mood disorders, major depression, dysthymia, manic depression (bipolar disorder), teen suicide, anxiety disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, behavior disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, substance abuse/chemical dependence, and adjustment disorders

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Adolescent Mental Health

Learn about the different mental health problems affecting adolescents that require the clinical care of a physician or other healthcare professional.

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Adolescent Problems of the Teeth and Mouth

Detailed information on adolescent problems of the teeth and mouth

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After a Burn: When to Call Your Child's Healthcare Provider

These are reasons to call your child's healthcare provider after a burn: signs of infection, uncontrollable itching, or a scar that cracks open or splits.

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Age-Appropriate Speech and Hearing Milestones

A hearing problem may be suspected in a child who is not responding to sounds or who is not developing language skills appropriately.

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Age-Appropriate Speech and Language Milestones

Here are guidelines on speech and language development that may help you decide if your child is experiencing hearing problems.

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AIDS-Related Lymphoma in Children

AIDS-related lymphoma is a type of cancer called non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It grows in some people with AIDS. AIDS is a disease that weakens the immune system. AIDS raises the risk for long-term (chronic) disease, such as cancer.

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Airway Obstruction Index

Infants and children under age 4 are particularly at risk for choking on food or small objects because their upper airways are smaller, and they tend to explore things with their mouths.

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Airway Obstruction: Prevention

Because most accidental child strangulations, chokings, and suffocations happen in the home, it's important to carefully childproof your residence.

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Airway Obstruction—Identifying High-Risk Situations

Choking hazards in the home: round, firm foods, such as grapes and popcorn, and small nonfood items, such as coins, balloons, and marbles.

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Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is a common condition caused by an abnormal reaction of the body’s immune system to various allergens. In this condition, the nasal lining can become very inflamed and swollen from the over-response of the body. Common allergens include dust, grass, pollen, mold, trees and dander.

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Allergic Rhinitis

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss allergic rhinitis. There are two main types of allergic rhinitis: seasonal (occurs certain times of the year) and perennial (happens all year). When symptoms occur in late summer or early fall, some people call it hayfever. Small changes at home can help.

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Allergic Rhinitis in Children

Allergic rhinitis can happen on a seasonal basis or year-round. There is often a family history of allergic rhinitis, eczema, asthma, or food allergy. Read on to learn details about treating and managing this condition.

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Allergies in Children

Allergies are problems of the immune system. Most allergic reactions happen when the immune system reacts to a “false alarm.” Normally, the human body defends itself against harmful things such as viruses or bacteria. But sometimes the defenses violently attack mostly mild things, such as dust, mold, or pollen.

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Allergies to Foods

A food allergy occurs when the body’s immune system overreacts to certain foods. The body then makes antibodies to that food and an allergic reaction occurs. Anaphylaxis is a severe and possibly life-threatening reaction. If a severe reaction occurs, use the EpiPen and call 9-1-1 immediately.

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Allergy

Detailed information on allergy, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

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Allergy to Dust Mites

Dust mites are tiny insects that live indoors. The enzymes in their feces and their hard shells can cause allergy and asthma symptoms. When a person who is sensitive to the dust mite breathes in these particles, they can cause sneezing, coughing, runny nose, congestion and itchy, watery eyes.

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Allergy to Latex

Latex is the milky sap from the rubber tree. It is used to make many rubber products that are used in the hospital and home. Signs of a latex allergy include skin rash or scaliness, itching, hives, swelling, watery or puffy eyes, sneezing, coughing, wheezing or difficulty breathing.

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Allergy to Mold

Mold is a fungus that can be found almost anywhere, both indoors and outside. Only a few types of mold cause an allergic reaction. Mold seeds (or spores) get into the air and are then breathed in. For children at risk, this can cause allergy-like symptoms or trigger breathing problems like asthma.

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Allergy to Stinging Insects

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss local and systemic reactions to stinging insects. The most common stinging insects found in the Ohio area are honeybees, wasps, yellow jackets and hornets. Doctors often prescribe an automatic injector device such as an EpiPen® to treat severe reactions.

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Alopecia Areata

Alopecia areata is a form of hair loss that occurs in children and adults. It is considered an autoimmune condition that results in inflammation and loss of hair. Alopecia areata is non-scarring, which means that the hair follicle is not destroyed and that it has the ability to regrow hair.

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Alpha Thalassemia in Children

Alpha thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. This means it is passed down through the parent’s genes. It causes anemia in affected children. Anemia is a low red blood cell or low hemoglobin level. Hemoglobin is the part of red blood cells. It carries oxygen to organs, tissues, and cells. Alpha thalassemia affects the production of hemoglobin.

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Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Screening Test

Alpha-fetoprotein screening is a blood test that measures the level of AFP in the mothers' blood. Abnormal levels may indicate certain problems with the fetus.

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Alternative Therapy for Cancer

Alternative therapy is a nonconventional approach to healing. it may be used instead of standard treatment or in combination with standard medicine.

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Alveolar Cleft

An alveolar cleft is a cleft of the upper gum line. It most often accompanies and cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Bone graft repair allows permanent teeth to descent into the cleft while providing stability to the upper jaw and support to the nose.

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Amenorrhea

Amenorrhea means a lack of menstrual periods. Primary amenorrhea means a patient has never had her first menstrual cycle. Secondary amenorrhea means the patient had menstrual cycles, but they are no longer happening at healthy intervals.

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Amenorrhea

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Amenorrhea in Teens

Amenorrhea is when a girl's menstrual bleeding (period) doesn't occur.

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Anaphylaxis

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Anaphylaxis in Children

Anaphylaxis is a severe and sometimes life-threatening reaction to an allergen. An allergen is something that your child is allergic to. Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency. Your child can have a reaction within seconds or as long as an hour after contact.

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Anatomy and Development of the Mouth and Teeth

Children's teeth begin developing in the fetus. Good nutrition from the mother during pregnancy is important in the development of the teeth.

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Anatomy and Function of the Electrical System

Detailed anatomical description of the heart's electrical system, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration

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Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves

Detailed anatomical description of the heart valves, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration

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Anatomy and Function of the Liver

A detailed anatomical description of the liver and how it works.

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Anatomy and Physiology of the Ear

The main parts of the ear are the outer ear, the eardrum (tympanic membrane), the middle ear, and the inner ear.

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Anatomy and Physiology of the Nose and Throat

A helpful guide to the nose, the sinuses, and the throat.

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Anatomy of a Child's Brain

The brain can be divided into three areas, the cerebrum, the brainstem, and the cerebellum.

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Anatomy of the Endocrine System in Children

Detailed information on the endocrine system, its anatomy and function, including a full-color, labeled illustration

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Anatomy of the Newborn Skull

Detailed anatomical information on the newborn skull.

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Anatomy of the Respiratory System in Children

A detailed anatomical description of the respiratory system, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations

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Anemia

Detailed information on anemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, causes, types, and treatment

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Anemia

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Anemia B12 Deficiency

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Anemia in Pregnancy

Anemia is when your blood has too few red blood cells. Having too few red blood cells makes it harder for your blood to carry oxygen or iron. This can affect how cells work in nerves and muscles. During pregnancy, your baby also needs your blood.

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Anemia of Chronic Disease

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Anencephaly in Children

Anencephaly is a birth defect that affects the brain and skull bones. With this condition, the brain is not fully formed. It often lacks part or all of the cerebrum.

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Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

An aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a highly destructive, blood-filled benign (non-cancerous) bone tumor. ABCs can cause pain, swelling and fractures. Doctors at Nationwide Children's have developed a minimally invasive approach to treating aneurysmal bone cysts utilizing sclerotherapy techniques.

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Anger Management: Strategies for Parents and Grandparents

Anger management helps you deal with your child or grandchild in a kind and constructive way. It also sets a good example of how to handle challenging situations and work out conflicts.

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Animal Bites

Detailed information on animal bites and rabies, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

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Animals

Detailed information on animals as allergens

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Ankle Sprain

An ankle sprain is a stretching or tearing of the ligaments. Signs of an ankle injury include pain, swelling or trouble walking. This often happens after an injury that involves twisting or rolling of the ankle. Sprains can often be treated at home, but a doctor may need to be seen if symptoms remain.

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Ankyloglossia in Children

Ankyloglossia, or “tongue-tie,” is a type of anatomical problem of the tongue that is present from birth. It causes speech and eating difficulties in some children.

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Anomalous Coronary Artery in Children

An anomalous coronary artery (ACA) is a heart defect. This is something your baby is born with (congenital). In ACA, the blood vessels that supply blood to your child’s heart muscle aren’t normal.

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Anorectal Malformation (ARM) or Imperforate Anus: Female

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss the symptoms and treatment of anorectal malformations (imperforate anus) in females. Different types of ARMs include perineal fistula, vestibular fistula, cloaca and no fistula. Young girls may be at risk for urology problems and gynecology problems.

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Anorectal Malformation (ARM) or Imperforate Anus: Male

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss the symptoms and treatment of anorectal malformations (imperforate anus) in males. Different types of ARMs include perineal fistula, rectourethral fistula, cloaca and no fistula. Young boys may be at risk for urology, spine and sacrum problems.

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Anorectal Malformation in Children

Anorectal malformations are birth defects, or problems that happen as an unborn baby is developing during pregnancy. With this defect, the anus and rectum don’t develop properly. They are the lower part of the digestive tract.

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Anorectal Malformations or Imperforate Anus

Imperforate anus (or anorectal malformation) is a congenital defect that happens early in pregnancy, while a baby is still developing. In this defect, the baby’s anal opening, the rectum and nerves do not develop properly, preventing the child from being able to have normal bowel movements.

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Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is a type of eating disorder in which a person severely limits the amount of food he or she eats to prevent weight gain or lose weight.

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Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa, also known as just anorexia, is an eating disorder. This disorder makes you obsess about your weight and food.

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Anorexia Nervosa in Children

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder. It is a form of self-starvation. Children and teens with this health problem have a distorted body image. They think they weigh too much.

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Answers to Questions About Your Child's Mental Health

The following answers to questions parents often ask can help you protect your child's mental health.

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The ACL is one of four main ligaments in the knee. Surgery to rebuild the ACL is called arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. It usually takes 6 to 9 months of recovery before returning to normal activities.

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Anterior Pituitary Disorders

Detailed information on anterior pituitary disorders, including hypopituitarism

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Anticipatory Grief

Anticipatory grief is similar to the normal process of mourning, but it happens before the actual death.

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Antiphospholipid Syndrome in Pregnancy

Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disease. This happens when your immune system fights against normal cells. In this condition, your body makes antibodies that attack a kind of fat in cells. This makes your blood clot too easily.

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Anxiety

Anxiety disorders are the most common type of mental health disorder in children. There are many types of anxiety disorders (each with its own distinct symptoms) including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and others.

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Anxiety Disorders in Children

Detailed information on the most common types of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias

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Aortic Stenosis

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Aortic Stenosis in Children

Aortic stenosis means that your child has a heart valve that is too narrow or is blocked.  The aortic valve is 1 of 4 heart valves that keep blood flowing through the heart. The valves make sure blood flows in only one direction. The aortic valve keeps blood flowing from the left ventricle to the aorta.

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Apert Syndrome

Apert syndrome affects the skull, face, hands and feet. It is a genetic syndrome, which is due to a mutation on the FGFR2 gene.

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APGAR Scoring

The Apgar score helps find breathing problems and other health issues.

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Aplastic Anemia

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Aplastic Anemia in Children

Detailed information on aplastic anemia, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment

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Apnea

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss apnea, which is a pause in breathing that lasts 20 seconds or longer for full-term infants. There are many reasons why a baby may have periods of apnea including brain immaturity, neurological issues, heart disease, gastrointestinal issues and others.

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Apnea of Prematurity

Apnea is a term that means breathing has stopped for more than 20 seconds. It can happen in full-term babies, but it is more common in premature babies. The more premature the baby, the greater the chances that apnea will occur.

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Appendicitis in Children

Appendicitis is a painful swelling and infection of the appendix.  It is a medical emergency. The appendix can burst or rupture. This is serious and can lead to more infection. If not treated, it can be fatal.

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Arrhythmia

An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart. In an arrhythmia, abnormal electrical signals through the heart muscle may cause the heart to beat too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.

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Arteriovenous Malformations

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Arthrogryposis

Arthrogryposis, also called arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC), involves a variety of non-progressive conditions that are characterized by multiple joint contractures (stiffness) and involves muscle weakness found throughout the body at birth. AMC is not a progressive disorder.

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Asperger's Syndrome

Asperger’s Syndrome, a form of Autism Spectrum Disorder, is a developmental disorder. Young people with Asperger’s Syndrome have a difficult time relating to others socially and their behavior and thinking patterns can be rigid and repetitive. They also may have trouble understanding body language.

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Aspiration in Babies and Children

Aspiration is when something enters the airway or lungs by accident. It may be food, liquid, or some other material. This can cause serious health problems, such as pneumonia.

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Assessments for Newborn Babies

Each newborn baby is carefully checked at birth for signs of problems or complications.

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Asthma

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Asthma and Reactive Airway Disease (RAD) (Wheezing)

Asthma is a disease of the lungs in which the airways are sensitive to things in the air. During a flare-up the airways swell and fill with mucus. The muscles around the airways also tighten and squeeze. This can cause noisy breathing or wheezing. Asthma action plans involve taking rescue medicine.

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Asthma in Children

Asthma is a long-term (chronic) lung disease that causes your child's airways to become sensitive to certain things (triggers).

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Asthma in Children Index

Detailed information on asthma, including triggers of an asthma attack, symptoms, diagnosis, management, and treatment

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Asthma Triggers

Your child's asthma may be triggered by a number of things: pollen, molds, certain foods, strong odors, or even exercise.

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Astrocytoma in Children

Astrocytoma is the most common type of brain tumor in children. It is usually low grade, which means slow-growing.

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Atopic Dermatitis in Children

Atopic dermatitis is a long-term (chronic) skin condition. It causes dry, itchy skin. It’s a very common condition in babies and children. It usually first appears between ages 3 and 6 months.

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Atrial Septal Defect

Atrial septal defects (ASD) are a congenital heart defect characterized by a hole in the wall (septum) that divides the upper chambers (atria) of the heart.

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Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) in Children

The atrial septum is the wall between the 2 upper chambers of the heart (right and left atria). An atrial septal defect (ASD) is an abnormal hole in this wall. ASD is a heart problem that is present at birth (congenital).

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Atrioventricular (AV) Canal in Children

An atrioventricular (AV) canal defect is a congenital heart defect. This means that your child is born with it. These defects may range from partial to complete. These conditions cause oxygen-rich (red) blood and oxygen-poor (blue) blood to mix. This sends extra blood to the child's lungs.

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder. It affects about ten percent of school-age children. Boys are more likely than girls to be diagnosed with it. Young people with ADHD have an impulsive nature that is difficult for them to control.

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a condition characterized by inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms are usually noticed by the time a child starts school. Treatment of ADHD may include family or individual counseling. Medicines may also be prescribed.

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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavior disorder. It is often first diagnosed in childhood.

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Audiology

As part of a hearing evaluation, your child's healthcare provider will do a complete medical history and physical exam. In addition, there are many different types of hearing tests.

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Auditory Processing Disorder

Auditory Processing Disorder (APD), also referred to as Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD), is a disorder of the auditory (hearing) system that causes a disruption in the way that an individual’s brain understands what they are hearing. It is not a form of hearing loss.

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Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that impacts a child’s ability to communicate and interact socially. It also impacts the way the child thinks and behaves.

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Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children

Autism spectrum disorder is a problem that affects a child's nervous system and growth and development. It often shows up during a child's first 3 years of life.

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Autoimmune Diseases and Pregnancy

Detailed information on autoimmune diseases and pregnancy

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Autosomal Dominant Opitz G/BBB Syndrome

22q.11.2 deletion syndrome includes the autosomal dominant form of Opitz G/BBB Syndrome.

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Autosomal Recessive: Cystic Fibrosis, Sickle Cell Anemia, Tay Sachs Disease

Overview of autosomal recessive inheritance, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and Tay Sachs disease

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AVMs (Arteriovenous Malformations)

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Baby's Care After a Cesarean Delivery

Because babies born by cesarean may have difficulty clearing some of the lung fluid and mucus, extra suctioning of the nose, mouth, and throat are often needed.

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Baby's Care After a Vaginal Delivery

Healthy babies born in a vaginal delivery are usually able to stay with the mother. In many cases, immediate newborn assessments are performed right in the mother's room.

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Baby's Care After Birth

Detailed information on baby's care after birth

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Baby's Care in the Delivery Room

A newborn baby is wet from the amniotic fluid and can easily become cold. Drying the baby and using warm blankets and heat lamps can help prevent heat loss. Often a knitted hat is placed on the baby's head.

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Bacterial Endocarditis in Children

Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart (endocardium), and the heart valves. It does not happen very often, but when it does, it can cause serious heart damage.

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Bacterial Skin Infections

Detailed information on bacterial skin infections, including impetigo, cellulitis, scarlet fever, folliculitis, boils, carbuncles, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

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Bacterial Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis or BV is an infection of the vagina. BV is not a sexually transmitted disease. It is an overgrowth of specific anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that do not need oxygen to grow) in the vagina. Women with BV report a fishy-smelling discharge (fluid) that is white to gray in color.

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Bathing and Skin Care for the Newborn

Bath time is a great time to bond with your newborn while keeping his or her skin healthy and cuddly soft. Get the fact - îand proper supplies - to make these moments safe and enjoyable for both you and baby.

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Batten Disease

Batten Disease, also known as Spielmeyer-Vogt-Sjogren-Batten disease, is the most common form of a group of disorders called neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (or NCLs). Although Batten disease is usually regarded as the juvenile form of NCL, it has become the term which encompasses all forms of NCL.

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Becker Muscular Dystrophy

Becker muscular dystrophy is the same basic disease as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, except it is less common and the symptoms are milder and slower to progress. It only affects males. Once symptoms begin, they follow a slower, but similar, course to that of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

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Behavior Changes

Your baby's activity level, appetite, and cries normally vary from day to day, and even hour to hour. But a distinct change in any of these areas may signal illness.

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Behavior Disorders

Detailed information on behavior problems in adolescents, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder

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Behavior Disorders

Learn more about conditions associated with behavior disorders.

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Benign Skin Growths and Pigmentation Disorders

Detailed information on benign skin growths and pigmentation disorders in children

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Beta Thalassemia in Children

Beta thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. This means it is passed down through the parent’s genes. It is a form of anemia. Anemia is a low red blood cell or low hemoglobin level. Hemoglobin is part of red blood cells. It carries oxygen to organs, tissues, and cells. Beta thalassemia affects the production of hemoglobin.

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Bicuspid Aortic Valve

Bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV) is an irregularity in the heart where there are only two leaflets on a valve, instead of the normal three.

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Bicycle / In-Line Skating / Skateboarding Safety

Detailed information on bicycle, in-line skating, and skateboarding safety

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Bicycle, In-Line Skating, Skateboarding Safety—Prevention

Skateboards should never be used on surface streets. Your child should wear protective gear, such as helmets, padding, and closed-toe and slip-resistant shoes.

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Bifid Uvula

A bifid uvula, also known as a cleft uvula, is a uvula that is split in two. A bifid uvula may be an isolated finding or it may be related to submucous cleft palate. In cases of isolated bifid uvula, and in cases of submucous cleft palate without hypernasality, no surgical intervention is needed.

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Biliary Atresia

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Biliary Atresia in Children

Biliary atresia is a rare liver disease that occurs in infants. It is often found shortly after birth. The disorder affects tubes in the liver called bile ducts. If not treated with surgery, it can be fatal.

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Binge Drinking Dangers for Young People

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Biochemical Genetic Testing

Detailed information on biochemical genetic testing

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Biophysical Profile

A biophysical profile is a test that is sometimes used during the third trimester of pregnancy. It is often done if there is a question about the baby’s health. This may be because of other test results or certain pregnancy symptoms, or because your pregnancy is high risk.

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Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic-depression, is a chronic mental illness that causes extreme mood swings from high to low and vice versa.

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Bipolar Disorder in Teens

Bipolar disorder is a type of depression. A teen with bipolar disorder often has extreme mood swings. These mood swings go beyond the day's normal ups and downs.

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Birth Defects in Children

A birth defect is a health problem or abnormal physical change that is present when a baby is born. Birth defects can be very mild, where the baby looks and acts like any other baby. Or birth defects can be more severe.

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Birth Defects in Newborn Babies

Birth defects may be caused by inherited (genetic) problems or by environmental things such as exposure to certain toxic substances during pregnancy. Some birth defects can be linked to a direct cause. Other reasons are not as clear.

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Birth Defects Index

Detailed information on birth defects, including their cause and frequency

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Birth Injuries

Some babies have a more difficult trip through the birth canal than others, resulting in physical injuries. These injuries usually are not serious and clear up or improve within a few days or weeks after the birth.

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Birth Injury

Detailed information on birth injury, including the most common types of birth injury

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Birthmarks

More than 80 percent of babies have some type of birthmark. Most birthmarks are harmless and require no treatment. Vascular birthmarks include macular stains, hemangiomas and port wine stains. Pigmented birthmarks include congenital melanocytic nevi (moles), dermal melanosis and café-au-lait spots.

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Birthmarks

Detailed information on birthmarks and the different types, including vascular birthmarks, hemangiomas, and port-wine stains.

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Bites

Detailed information on bites, including human bites, animal bites, and insect bites

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Bites and Stings

Detailed information on insect bites, including bee stings, flea bites, mite bites, chigger bites, spider bites, tick bites, and lyme disease

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Biting

Young children may bite others out of frustration or stress, or because they feel powerless. Infants and toddlers often bite as a way of exploring their world.

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Bladder Exstrophy and Epispadias

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Bleeding Disorders

Detailed information on bleeding disorders, including Hemophilia and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura

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Blepharitis in Children

Blepharitis is an inflammation in the oil glands of the eyelid. It causes swollen eyelids and crusting around the eyelashes. Even after it’s treated and goes away, it can often come back again and again for years. It can often lead to an infection of the eye and a loss of eyelashes.

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Blisters in Children

Detailed information on blisters, including cause, first aid, and treatment.

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Blocked Tear Duct (Dacryostenosis) in Children

In some babies, the openings into the tear duct don’t form the right way. This causes a blockage. The tears have no place to drain.

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Blood Circulation in the Fetus and Newborn

During pregnancy, the fetal lungs are not used for breathing - the placenta does the work of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide through the mother's circulation. With the first breaths of air the baby takes at birth, the fetal circulation changes.

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Blood Clots

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Blood Clotting Disorders in Children

Blood-clotting disorders are a group of conditions in which there is too much clotting. They are often inherited.

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Blood in the Eye (Hyphema) in Children

Hyphema is blood in the front (anterior) chamber of the eye. This is located between the clear front part of the eye (cornea) and the colored part of the eye (iris). This section is where fluid flows in and out. The fluid gives nourishment to the eye and tissues around it.

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Blood Tests and Your Child's Heart

Detailed information on blood tests used to diagnosis heart disease

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Blood Types in Pregnancy

A baby may have the blood type and Rh factor of either parent, or a combination of both parents.

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Bone Cancers in Children

Detailed information on bone cancer in children, including Ewing sarcoma and osteogenic sarcoma

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Bone Marrow

Detailed information on bone marrow and bone marrow transplantation in children

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Bone Marrow Aspirates and Biopsies

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Bone Marrow Aspiration

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Bone Marrow Suppression During Cancer Treatment in Children

Bone marrow suppression is when fewer blood cells are made in the marrow. It's a common side effect of some strong medicines, such as chemotherapy.

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Bone Marrow Transplant for Children

A bone marrow transplant (BMT) is a treatment for children with certain types of cancer or other diseases. The goal of BMT is to replace a child's diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow.

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Bottle-Feeding

Detailed information on bottle-feeding, including information on the different types of baby formulas.

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Brachial Plexus

The brachial plexus is a bundle of nerves that separates into the major nerves that supply movement and touch function to the arm.

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Brain Abscess in Children

An abscess is a pocket of infection. In the brain, an abscess may be in one or more areas. This condition may cause problems with how the brain and spinal cord function. It is a serious and life-threatening condition that needs to be treated right away.

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Brain Tumors

Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Primary brain tumors start in the brain and usually do not spread outside the brain tissue.

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Brain Tumors in Children

A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The brain is part of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS also includes the spinal cord.

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Branchial Cleft Abnormalities in Children

A branchial cleft abnormality is a cluster of abnormally formed tissue in the neck. A branchial cleft abnormality is a birth defect. It happens when the area does not form as it should during the early stages of an embryo’s development.

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Branchial Cleft Cyst/Sinus/Fistula

During early prenatal development, gill-like structures (branchial) usually resorb but in rare circumstances, they may remain. These are referred to as branchial anomalies. They include branchial sinus, branchial fistula and branchial cyst. Branchial anomalies can be removed surgically.

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Breast Conditions in Young Women

Some breast changes or conditions are related to a young woman's menstrual cycle, but others may occur at any time. Most breast conditions are benign.

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Breast Health and Adolescents

Detailed information on breast health for children

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Breast Milk Collection and Storage

Detailed information on breast milk collection and storage

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Breast Milk Expression

Most mothers who plan to continue breastfeeding will need to express their breast milk during the work or school day if away from the baby for more than three or four hours.

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Breastfeeding and Delayed Milk Production

If your milk is delayed coming in, or you're not making enough milk, don't give up. Read on for some helpful tips.

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Breastfeeding and Returning To Work

Detailed information on breastfeeding while at work

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Breastfeeding at Work

Discuss your plan to continue to breastfeed, and your need to pump or express breast milk during the workday, with your employer when you are pregnant or before you return to work.

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Breastfeeding Difficulties - Baby

Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the baby, including ineffective latch-on, ineffective sucking, slow infant weight gain, poor infant weight gain, mismanaged breastfeeding, over-active breast milk let down

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Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother

Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the mother, including sore nipples, low breast milk production, flat nipples, plugged milk ducts, and mastitis

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Breastfeeding the High-Risk Newborn

Detailed information on breastfeeding the high-risk newborn

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Breastfeeding When Returning to Work

Helpful advice on how to maintain your milk production when going back to work.

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Breastfeeding Your Baby

Click on the links below to learn more about this topic. Breast Milk is the Best Milk Getting Started How Milk is Made Effective Breastfeeding Effective Sucking Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother Sore Nipples Insufficient or Delayed Milk Production Low Milk Production Flat or Inverted Nipples

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Breastfeeding Your High-Risk Baby

Learning to breastfeed effectively is a process that may take days or weeks for premature and many other high-risk babies. But you and your baby can become a breastfeeding team if you are patient and persistent.

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Breastfeeding Your Premature Baby

Breastfeeding your premature infant is not only possible, it's the best thing for your baby.

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Breastfeeding: Getting Started

The first weeks of breastfeeding should be considered a learning period for both you and your baby. Here's what you need to know.

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Breastfeeding: Returning to Work

It's important to give yourself enough time to practice pumping and get your body used to pumping before you return to work. Read on for some helpful tips.

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Breastmilk Is Best

Your milk contains just the right balance of nutrients in a form most easily used by your baby's immature body systems.

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Breastmilk: Pumping, Collecting, Storing

"Fresh breastmilk" contains the most active anti-infective properties. Refrigerated breastmilk has fewer anti-infective properties than fresh milk and frozen breastmilk has the least.

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Breathing Problems

If you listen closely, you'll notice that your baby's breathing isn't like yours. Babies breathe much more frequently and with different patterns than adults. Here's how to recognize normal breathing in your infant - and how to spot signs of respiratory distress.

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Broken Bone

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Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis is an infection of the small airways (bronchioles) caused by a virus. The most common viruses that cause it are RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), para influenza virus, rhinovirus (common cold), human metapneumovirus and adenovirus. Bronchiolitis is also often called "RSV infection."

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Bronchiolitis in Children

Bronchiolitis is an infection of the lungs. It's when your child has swelling in the smaller airways (bronchioles) of the lung. This swelling blocks air in the smaller airways.

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Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a term used to describe long-term breathing problems for premature babies. It involves abnormal development of the lungs, and sometimes the lungs are scarred and inflamed.

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Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) is a term used to describe long-term breathing problems for premature babies. BPD involves abnormal development of the lungs, and in the most severe cases the lungs are scarred and inflamed.

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Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy is the examination of the main airways of the lungs using a flexible tube. It helps assess and diagnose lung problems, assess blockages, take samples of tissue or fluid, or help remove a foreign body.

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Brown Recluse and Black Widow Spider Bites in Children

All spiders in the U.S. are poisonous. The fangs of most spiders are too short or too fragile to break through human skin. Or their poison (venom) is too weak to cause damage. Most spider bites cause only minor, local reactions. But some spider bites can be deadly.

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Bruises

A bruise is a collection of blood underneath the skin that is caused by injury to an area of the body. Sometimes enough bleeding occurs so that a lump also forms.

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Bruising or Black Eye (Ecchymosis)

A black eye should be seen by a healthcare provider to make sure no injury has happened to the eye itself. Most black eyes heal completely and do not cause any damage.

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Brushing and Toothpaste for Children

You should begin brushing your child's teeth around 24 months of age, or as directed by your child's doctor. Children will need help brushing their teeth until they are 7 to 8 years old.

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Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is a type of eating disorder in which a person regularly eats excessive amounts of food and then attempts to eliminate the consequences of overeating by vomiting, taking laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or exercising excessively.

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Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder. It’s also called bulimia. A child with bulimia overeats or binges uncontrollably.

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Bulimia Nervosa in Children

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder. A child with bulimia overeats or binges uncontrollably. This overeating may be followed by self-induced throwing up (purging).

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Burkitt Lymphoma in Children

Burkitt lymphoma is a rare, fast-growing form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It’s a type of cancer of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections.

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Burkitt's Lymphoma

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Burkitt's Lymphoma/Burkitt's Like Lymphoma

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Burners and Stingers Syndrome in Children

Burners and stingers syndrome is a type of sports injury. It is a pain in the shoulder or neck that causes a burning or stinging feeling down an arm to the hand.

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Burns

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Burns Caused by Heat

A heat-induced or thermal burn can occur when the skin comes in contact with any heat source, such as a cooking pan, an iron, a fire, a hot surface, or a hot, scalding liquid.

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Burns in Children

Detailed information on burns, burn types, classification of burns, and burn treatment

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Burns Overview

Burns are a type of injury caused by thermal, electrical, chemical, or electromagnetic energy. Most burn accidents happen at home.

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Burns: Symptom Management

Most children with burns have pain, which can be controlled with medicine. They also usually experience itching at some point during the healing process.

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Bursitis

Bursitis is swelling or irritation of a bursa. A bursa is a fluid-filled sac that acts as a cushion between tendons, ligaments, bones, and skin.

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Campylobacter Infection in Children

Campylobacter infection is a mild to serious digestive illness. It is caused by bacteria.  Symptoms often include cramping, diarrhea, belly pain, and fever.

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Cancer

Detailed information on cancer in children, including causes, diagnosis, treatment, and coping

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Cancer Treatment for Children

The specific treatment for your child's cancer will be determined by your child's healthcare provider, based on a variety of factors, including the type of cancer and the extent of the disease.

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Candidiasis in Children

Candidiasis is an infection caused by yeast called Candida. Candida normally causes no harm, and is found on the skin, vaginal area, and digestive system. But in some cases, it can overgrow. This can cause a rash, itching, and other symptoms.

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Canker Sores (Aphthous Ulcers) in Children

Canker sores are small sores inside the mouth. They are often found inside the lips, on the cheeks, or on the tongue.

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Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

Carbon monoxide poisoning is an illness that occurs from breathing in carbon monoxide (CO) gas. It is a medical emergency and needs treatment right away.

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Cardiac Catheterization for Children

Cardiac catheterization is a procedure in which a long, flexible tube (catheter) is put into a blood vessel. The doctor then guides the catheter into the heart to find and treat heart problems.

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Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy is disease of the heart muscle that reduces the heart's ability to pump blood effectively. Different kinds of cardiomyopathy cause the heart muscle to enlarge, thicken, or become stiff.

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Cardiomyopathy and Your Child

Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.

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Care of the Baby in the Delivery Room

A newborn baby is wet from the amniotic fluid and can easily become cold. Drying the baby and using warm blankets and heat lamps can help prevent heat loss. Often a knitted hat is placed on the baby's head.

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Care of the Uncircumcised Penis in Teens

In an uncircumcised boy, the foreskin will begin to separate from the tip of the penis. This happens naturally while the boy is a baby. This is called foreskin retraction.

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Caring for Babies in the NICU

Detailed information on caring for babies in the NICU

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Cast Types and Maintenance Instructions

The outside of a cast can be made of plaster or fiberglass. Cotton and synthetic materials line the inside of the cast to make it soft and to provide padding around bony areas, such as the wrist or elbow.

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Cat Scratch Disease in Children

Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection carried in cat saliva. It is passed from a cat bite or scratch to a human. It can also result from a fleabite, but cats are the main source.

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Cataracts in Children

A cataract is a clouding over the lens of the eye. This area is normally clear (transparent). Some cataracts are small and don’t cause any trouble with vision. Others can cause visual problems in children. Cataracts are rare in children.

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Cauliflower Ear

Cauliflower ear is the result of a direct blow to the outer ear. Blood or other fluids fill the space in between and disrupts normal blood flow. Without adequate blood flow, the cartilage is starved of vital nutrients.

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Causes of Cancer

There is no one single cause for cancer. Scientists believe that it is the interaction of many factors—genetic, environmental, or constitutional characteristics of the individual.

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Cayler Cardiofacial Syndrome

Cayler Cardiofacial Syndrome is also known as 22q.11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Celiac Disease

Celiac disease is a chronic condition that results in damage to the lining of the small intestines. Symptoms are triggered by the ingestion of products that contain wheat, barley or rye proteins, collectively known as gluten.

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Cellulitis in Children

Cellulitis is a spreading skin infection. It may affect the upper skin layer. Or it may affect the deeper skin and layer of fat under the skin. When cellulitis affects the upper skin layer, it may be called erysipelas. This type of infection is more common in children.

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Cellulitis of the Eye in Children

Cellulitis is a serious type of infection and inflammation. It can occur in various parts of the body. When it occurs in the eyelid and tissues in the front part of the eye area, it’s called pre-septal cellulitis. When it occurs behind and around the eye in the eye socket (orbit), it’s called orbital cellulitis. Both of these conditions are serious.

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Cerebral Palsy (CP)

Cerebral Palsy is an injury or abnormality of the developing brain that affects movement. CP can be described by the number of limbs involved: quadriplegic, hemiplegic, diplegic and triplegic.

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Cerebral Palsy in Children

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a lifelong condition that affects how the brain and muscles communicate. CP affects body movement, muscle control, coordination, reflexes, posture, and balance.

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Chalazion in Children

A chalazion (kuh-LAY-zee-un) is a slow-growing, painless lump in the eyelid that forms because of the swelling of an oil gland. It’s more common in adults between ages 30 and 50 than in children.

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Chance a Chromosome Abnormality Will Occur Again: Numerical, Structural (Inherited and De Novo), Mosaicism

Detailed information on mosaicism and the chance that a chromosome abnormality will occur again

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Chemical Burns

Chemical burns can occur when strong acids or alkalies come in contact with the skin and/or the eyes.

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Chemical Burns

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Chemical Burns of the Eye in Children

Chemical burns happen when a chemical gets into your child’s eye.

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Chemotherapy

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Chemotherapy for Children

Chemotherapy is the use of medicines to treat cancer or kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy has been used for many years. It’s one of the most common treatments for cancer.

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Chemotherapy for Children: Side Effects

Detailed information on chemotherapy and managing chemotherapy side effects in children

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Chemotherapy-Related Hair Loss (Alopecia) in Children

Hair loss is a common side effect of chemotherapy. It can affect the hair on the head, and also the eyebrows, eyelashes, and facial and pubic hair. Not all chemotherapy causes hair loss. And not all children lose hair in the same way.

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Chemotherapy-Related Mouth Mucositis in Children

Chemotherapy is the use of medicines to treat cancer. The medicines can cause an inflammation of the lining of the mouth. The mouth is lined with mucous membranes. When these are inflamed, it’s called mouth mucositis.

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Chest Wall Tumors

A variety of soft tissue tumors can present in the chest wall. Chest wall tumors include benign conditions, including neurofibromas, and malignant tumors, such as soft tissue sarcomas.

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Chiari II Malformation in Children

A Chiari II malformation is present at birth. With this condition, 2 parts of the brain at the back of the skull bulge through a normal opening in the skull where it joins the spinal canal.

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Chiari Malformation Type I in Children

A Chiari malformation (CM) is a problem with how the brain sits in the skull. The brain normally sits fully inside the skull. With a Chiari malformation, the lower part of the brain (cerebellum) dips down through a normal opening (foramen magnum) at the bottom of the skull. In some cases, more brain tissue also dips down through this opening.

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Chiari Malformations

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Chickenpox

Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease caused by a virus. The usual symptoms are an itchy skin rash that looks like little blisters filled with fluid, less energy than usual, poor appetite and mild fever. Chickenpox is spread through the air or by coming in contact with an infected person.

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Chickenpox (Varicella) and Pregnancy

Did you have chickenpox as a child? Then you've got nothing to worry about from varicella. But if you didn't, you may not be immune to this infectious disease that can cause complications for a pregnant woman and her baby. Read more to find out why and how to protect yourself.

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Child Care

Choosing a childcare provider for your baby is an important decision. Find one who supports your choice to breastfeed and is willing to carry out your plan. Doing so will give you peace of mind and make your transition back to work easier.

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Childhood Apraxia of Speech

Childhood apraxia of speech is a type of speech disorder. It is present from birth. A child with this condition has problems making sounds correctly and consistently. Apraxia is a problem with the motor coordination of speech.

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Childhood Immunization Index

Detailed information on immunizations for adults and children, including a current immunization schedule

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Childhood Immunizations

Your little one will need several immunization shots to help protect her from several childhood diseases, some of which can be deadly. Knowing which shots she needs, when, and what to do in the event of a minor reaction is important.

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Childhood Vision Problems

Detailed information on problems with vision in children

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Childproof Your Home for Poisons

Always remember that ordinary products you use each day around the home can become dangerous poisons in the hands of a child.

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Children Living with a Rheumatic Disease

Detailed information on living with a rheumatic disease

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Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI), caused by bacteria (germs). Oral or anal intercourse (sex), or any contact between a penis and a vagina can pass the germ from one person to another.

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Cholestasis of Pregnancy

Cholestasis of pregnancy is a liver problem. It slows or stops the normal flow of bile from the gallbladder. This causes itching and yellowing of your skin, eyes, and mucous membranes (jaundice). Cholestasis sometimes starts in early pregnancy. But it is more common in the second and third trimesters. It most often goes away within a few days after delivery. The high levels of bile may cause serious problems for your developing baby (fetus).

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Cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and Triglycerides in Children and Teens

The cholesterol in blood comes from two sources: the foods your teen eats and his or her liver. The liver, however, makes all of the cholesterol your teen's body needs.

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Choosing Your Child's Healthcare Provider

A pediatrician, family practice healthcare provider, physician's assistant, family nurse practitioner, or pediatric nurse practitioner can be your baby's primary care provider. The medical specialty dealing with children is called pediatrics.

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Chorioamnionitis

Chorioamnionitis [chor-y-oh-am-nee-oh-NY-tis] is an infection of the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Only a few women get it. But it is a common cause of preterm labor and delivery.

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Chorionic Villus Sampling

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a test done early in a woman’s pregnancy. CVS checks for genetic problems in your baby. During CVS, your healthcare provider takes a small piece of tissue from the placenta for testing.

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Chromosomal Abnormalities

Detailed information on the most common chromosomal abnormalities

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Chromosome Abnormalities

Detailed information on chromosome abnormalities, including trisomies, monosomies, and genetic translocations

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Chronic Constipation

Many kids will experience occasional bouts of constipation during their childhood. Chronic constipation is a slightly different, yet much more challenging condition to treat.

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Chronic Hypertension and Pregnancy

When a woman has pre-existing hypertension or develops hypertension before the 20th week of pregnancy, this is called chronic hypertension.

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Chronic Illness and Transplantation Issues and the Teen

Detailed information on chronic illness and transplantation issues and the teen.

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Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is a rare disorder of gastrointestinal motility where coordinated contractions (peristalsis) in the intestinal tract become altered and inefficient. Motility is the term used to describe the contraction of muscles in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

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Chronic Lung Disease in Premature Babies

Chronic lung disease is the general term for long-term breathing problems in premature babies. It’s also called bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Here's what you need ot know about this condition.

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Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

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Chronic Renal Failure

Kidney disease (renal failure) is short-term or permanent damage to the kidneys that results in loss of normal kidney function.

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Chronic Renal Failure

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Chronic Respiratory Disorders

Detailed information on chronic respiratory disorders in children

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Chronic Sinusitis

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Circumcision for Children

Circumcision is a surgery to remove the skin covering the end of the penis. This is called the foreskin. This surgery is most often done 1 or 2 days after a baby boy's birth.

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Classification and Treatment of Burns

Burns are classified as first-, second-, or third-degree, depending on how deep and severe they penetrate the skin's surface.

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Classification of Burns

Burns are classified as first-, second-, or third-degree, depending on how deep and severe they penetrate the skin's surface.

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Cleft Lip and Palate

Cleft lip and/or cleft palate is the most common birth defect in the United States. A cleft lip is a separation of the upper lip, often involving the upper gum line. A cleft palate is an opening or split in the roof of the mouth and may involve the soft palate alone or both the soft and hard palate.

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Cleft Lip and Palate in Children

Cleft lip and palate are openings or splits in the upper lip or roof of the mouth (palate). A child can be born with a cleft lip, cleft palate, or both. Cleft lip and palate may be the only birth defects, or they may happen with other defects.

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Cloaca

A cloaca (cloacal malformation) is a malformation in females where the rectum, vagina and urinary tract are fused together, creating a single common channel.

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Clubfoot

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss clubfoot, a foot disorder in which the foot turns inward and downward at birth and remains in this position. In some cases, clubfoot can be corrected without surgery.

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Clubfoot (Talipes Equinovarus)

Clubfoot, also known as talipes equinovarus (TEV), is a common foot abnormality, in which the foot points downward and inward. It occurs twice as often in males than in females. Signs of clubfoot include a short and/or tight Achilles tendon (heel cord) and a heel that is turned in.

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Clubfoot in Children

Clubfoot is a deformity of the foot. It's when one or both feet are turned inward. The condition affects the bones, muscles, tendons, and blood vessels.

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Coagulation Disorders

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Coarctation of the Aorta

Coarctation of the aorta is a heart defect that is present at birth (congenital) in which the aorta is narrowed and results in decreased blood flow to the lower body.

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Coarctation of the Aorta (COA) in Children

Coarctation of the aorta is a heart defect that is present at birth (congenital). It means the aorta is narrower than it should be.

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Cognitive Development in Adolescence

Cognitive development means the growth of a child's ability to think and reason. This growth happens differently from ages 6 to 12, and ages 12 to 18.

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Cold vs. Allergy in Children: How to Tell the Difference

Detailed information on the differences between cold symptoms and symptoms of allergies

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Colic

Colic is when a healthy baby cries for a very long time, for no obvious reason. It is a common problem that affects some babies during the first 6 weeks of life.

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Colic

Colic is when a healthy baby cries more than 3 hours a day for 3 or more days in a week. If this happens 3 weeks in a row, your baby may have colic. Colic usually begins by 2 to 3 weeks of age and lasts up to 3 or 4 months of age.

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Common Childhood External Ear Problems

Detailed information on common childhood external ear problems

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Common Childhood Nose and Throat Illnesses

Detailed information on common childhood nose and throat problems in children

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Common Children's Digestive Problems

Detailed information on common children's digestive problems, including colic, diarrhea, food allergies, and lactose intolerance

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Common Cold in Children

The common cold is one of the most common illnesses in children. Most children will have at least 6 to 8 colds a year.

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Common Conditions and Complications

Detailed information on common conditions and complications of the high-risk newborn

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Common Dental Problems and Concerns

Detailed information on common dental problems and concerns in children

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Common Procedures

Detailed information on the most common procedures performed on newborns

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Common Skin Disorders in Children

Detailed information on common skin disorders, including Bacterial Skin Infections, Fungal Skin Infections, Viral Skin Infections, Viral Exanthems (Rashes), and Parasitic Skin Infections

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Common Types of Pediatric Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases

Detailed information on the most common types of pediatric arthritis and other rheumatic diseases, including Juvenile Dermatomyositis, Fibromyalgia, Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, Psoriatic Arthritis, Rheumatic Fever, Scleroderma, Septic Arthritis, Infectious Arthritis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Lupus, Vasculitis, Kawasaki Disease, and Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

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Common Variable Immune Deficiency

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Common Variable Immunodeficiency in Children

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an immunodeficiency problem. It is a lifelong health problem that can lead to a reduced ability to fight infections.

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Communication Disorders

A child with a communication disorder has trouble communicating with others. He or she may not understand or make the sounds of speech and may struggle with word choice, word order or sentence structure.

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Communication Disorders in Children

A child with a communication disorder has trouble communicating with others. He or she may not understand or make the sounds of speech. The child may also struggle with word choice, word order, or sentence structure.

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Complete Blood Count (CBC)

A CBC count is a measurement of size, number, and maturity of the different blood cells in a specific volume of blood.

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Complex Heart Problems

Detailed information on complex heart problems

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Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation for Children

A psychiatric evaluation looks at the child's behaviors, when those behaviors happen, and what impact those behaviors have on school, family, and other relationships.

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Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation for Children

A comprehensive psychiatric evaluation may help diagnose any number of emotional, behavioral, or developmental disorders.

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Concussion

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Conduct Disorder in Children

Conduct disorder is a type of behavior disorder. It’s when a child has antisocial behavior. He or she may disregard basic social standards and rules.

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Conduct Disorders

Conduct disorder refers to a group of behavioral and emotional problems characterized by a disregard for others. Children with conduct disorder have a difficult time following rules and behaving in a socially acceptable way.

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Congenital and Hereditary Neurological Disorders

Detailed information on the most common congenital and hereditary disorders in children

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Congenital and Hereditary Orthopedic Disorders

Detailed information on the most common congenital and hereditary disorders in children

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Congenital Heart Disease

Heart problems are the most common kind of birth defects. While children with some heart defects can be monitored by a doctor and treated with medicine, others will need to have surgery.

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Congenital Heart Disease Index

Detailed information on congenital heart disease, including patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular canal, tricuspid atresia, pulmonary atresia, transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, double outlet right ventricle, truncus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, aortic stenosis, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome

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Congenital Hypothyroidism

When a baby is born without enough thyroid hormone, it is called congenital hypothyroidism. Most babies do not have symptoms of low thyroid levels at birth.

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Congenital Hypothyroidism in Children

Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone. Congenital hypothyroidism is when the disorder is present in a baby at birth. If not treated, it can lead to serious health problems.

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Congenital Laryngeal Stridor in Children

Congenital laryngeal stridor is a noisy or high-pitched sound with breathing. It is from an abnormally formed voice box (larynx). It is present at birth (congenital).

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Congenital Limb Defect in Children

A congenital limb defect is when an arm or leg doesn't form normally as a baby grows in the uterus. The baby is born with the defect.

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Congenital Liver Defects

Congenital liver defects are liver disorders that are present at birth. They are rare. These liver disorders usually block the bile ducts. This affects the flow of bile.

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Congenital Muscular Torticollis

Congenital torticollis means that a baby is born with an odd position of the neck. The odd position is because of a tight, short neck muscle. It affects the right side more often than the left side. It may range from mild to severe. The condition is sometimes called wryneck.

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Congenital Neurological Disorders

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Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Vessels

Congenitally corrected transposition of the great vessels (CCTGA; l-TGA) is an uncommon congenital heart abnormality, where the receiving chambers (atria) are connected to their opposite pumping chambers (ventricles) because the ventricles are switched from their normal anatomic positions.

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Congestive Heart Failure

Congestive heart failure (CHF) happens when the heart does not pump enough blood to the body for normal function and activity. When the heart is not pumping normally, fluid can build up in the lungs.

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Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

Conjunctivitis, or pink eye, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva is a clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inner part of the eyelids.

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Conjunctivitis in Children

Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye. The conjunctiva is the membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the eyeball. Conjunctivitis is also known as “pink eye.”

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Conotruncal Anomaly Face Syndrome

Conotruncal Anomaly Face Syndrome is also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Constipation

Many children have constipation at one time or another. Constipation can be defined as more than three days between bowel movements; stools that are large, hard and painful to pass; or incomplete bowel movements and stool backs up in the bowel despite daily bowel movements.

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Constipation and Fecal Soiling

Fecal soiling is the leakage of stool that a child cannot control. This is common and usually happens because the child is constipated and has a large amount of stool in his or her colon. This is also called encopresis.

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Constipation in Children

Common causes of constipation in children: a low-fiber diet, not enough fluids, lack of exercise, and emotional issues.

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Constipation: Child Over One Year of Age

Constipation is a change in the child's stool or bowel habits. Sometimes children have poor stooling habits because they are not encouraged to go to the bathroom on a regular schedule. Children may have constipation if their stools are too hard, too infrequent, too painful or too large.

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Constipation: Infant

Constipation in infants less than one year of age is common, but it can be a concern for parents. Signs of constipation include infrequent stools that are difficult to pass and straining more than normal to have a bowel movement. Even if a baby is not constipated, bowel movements may be irregular.

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Contact Dermatitis in Children

Contact dermatitis is a skin reaction from contact with certain substances. Read on to learn about its causes, symptoms, and treatment.

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Contact Sports and Kids: How to Keep Your Children Safe

Kids are more susceptible to sports injuries than adults because they are still growing and developing. The risk for injury is even greater if the child plays a contact sport such as basketball, football, or soccer.

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Contusions Bruises

Contusions, or bruises, are one of the most common types of injuries occurring in active children. A contusion is caused by a direct blow to the body that can cause damage to the surface of the skin and to deeper tissues as well.

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Coping Emotionally After a Burn

Your child's burn care and emotional recovery will continue when you leave the hospital. Along with the excitement, you and your child may also feel uneasy about what will happen next.

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Coping with a Diagnosis of Cancer in Children

A cancer diagnosis is shocking and overwhelming. But prognosis of childhood cancer continues to improve, and the chance of being cured continues to increase.

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Cord Blood Banking

Cord blood banking is an option for parents who want to preserve the blood of the umbilical cord and placenta of their baby as “insurance” to help with possible future medical needs of their child.

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Corneal Abrasions in Children

A corneal abrasion is a scratch or scrape on the cornea. This is the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye.

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Cosmetic Safety for Teen Contact Lens Wearers

Cosmetics are among some of the most common sources of problems for contact lens wearers. Misusing cosmetics can lead to severe harmful reactions.

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Cradle Cap

Cradle cap (infant seborrheic dermatitis) is scaly patches on a baby's scalp. Cradle cap isn’t serious, but it can cause thick crusting and white or yellow scales. Some babies can also have seborrheic dermatitis in the diaper area, and on the face, neck, and trunk. Cradle cap usually clears up within the first year.

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Cradle Cap

Seborrheic dermatitis, also known as cradle cap, is very common in infants and children. It appears as scaly, itchy, white, yellow or red patches. It most often appears on the scalp but can also be found on the face, ears, or in body folds such as under the arms and behind the knees.

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Craniofacial Anomalies

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Craniopharyngioma

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Craniopharyngioma in Children

Craniopharyngioma is a benign brain tumor this is found near the pituitary gland.

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Craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis occurs when one or more sutures close early. Early suture closure can cause the skull to grow in an unusual shape. Sometimes, early suture closure can also restrict overall skull growth which may be harmful to the growing brain inside.

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Craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis is a condition where one or more of the bones of the skull close too early. This can cause problems with normal brain and skull growth.

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Crohn's Disease in Children

Crohn's disease is when there is redness, swelling (inflammation), and sores along the digestive tract. It is part of a group of diseases known as inflammatory bowel disease or IBD.

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Croup

Croup is an illness that is usually caused by a virus. The tissues of the windpipe (trachea) and voice box (larynx) become swollen, which makes it harder for air to get into the lungs. Croup can cause a barky cough or hoarse voice. You may also hear a high-pitched squeaking sound called stridor.

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Croup in Children

Croup is a common infection in children. It causes swelling in the upper part of the airway in the neck. It causes a barking cough, with or without fever. And it may cause problems breathing.

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Crouzon Syndrome

Crouzon syndrome is a genetic condition that affects the skull, face and heart. It is caused by a mutation on the FGFR2 or FGFR3 gene. The treatment of Crouzon syndrome includes several operations. The Center for Complex Craniofacial Disorders expertly cares for children with Crouzon syndrome.

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Crutch Walking

Hold the top part of the crutch firmly between the chest and the inside of the upper arm. Do not allow the top of the crutch to push up into the armpit. It is possible to damage nerves and blood vessels with constant pressure.

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Cushing Syndrome in Children

Cushing syndrome is a hormone disorder. It’s caused by having high levels of the hormone cortisol over a long time. Cushing syndrome is fairly rare. It most often affects adults who are 20 to 50 years old. But it can also occur in children. It is sometimes called hypercortisolism.

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Cuts and Wounds of the External Ear

Helpful first-aid tips for handling minor cuts, wounds, or deep cuts a child may get to the outer ear.

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Cuts and Wounds of the Face

Most minor cuts or wounds to the face can be handled at home with simple first-aid treatment.

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Cuts and Wounds of the Mouth and Lips

The gums, tongue, and lips have a rich blood supply and when cuts happen, these areas may bleed excessively.

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Cuts and Wounds of the Nose

Most minor nose wounds can be handled at home, but a wound or bruise that also involves one or both eyes needs immediate medical attention.

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Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease that affects the digestive system and the glands in the lungs that produce mucus. CF also affects the glands that produce sweat and saliva.

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Cystic Fibrosis - Related Diabetes

Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is a type of diabetes that affects children and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Diabetes is a common complication for patients with cystic fibrosis.

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Cystic Fibrosis and the Digestive System

In the digestive system, cystic fibrosis (CF) mainly affects the pancreas. A child with CF has trouble absorbing fats, as well as some proteins and vitamins.

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Cystic Fibrosis and the Reproductive System

Detailed information on cystic fibrosis and its effect on the reproductive system for both men and women.

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Cystic Fibrosis and the Respiratory System

Detailed information on cystic fibrosis and its effect on the respiratory system

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Cystic Fibrosis in Children

Detailed information on cystic fibrosis, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and genetics

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Cystic Fibrosis Overview

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease of the glands that make mucus and sweat. Here's a quick look at how CF affects the body, and who may be more likely to have this disease.

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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in Newborns

CMV (cytomegalovirus) is a herpes virus. It is very common. It affects people of all ages and in all parts of the U.S. In most cases CMV causes mild symptoms, or no symptoms at all. But it can cause serious problems in an unborn baby or newborn.

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Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

Deep Vein Thrombosis is a blood clot that has formed in a large blood vessel. It may completely or partially block the blood flow in that vein. Symptoms of DVT include pain, swelling and feeling warm. In most cases, a DVT will be treated with an anticoagulation medicine.

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Dehydration

There are many reasons why children can get dehydrated or dried out. For example, a child can lose too much liquid from the body from diarrhea or vomiting. If the liquids are not replaced, the child may need to have an IV.

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Delayed Puberty

Puberty that happens late is called delayed puberty. This means a child's physical signs of sexual maturity don’t appear by age 12 in girls or age 14 in boys. This includes breast or testicle growth, pubic hair, and voice changes. These are known as secondary sexual characteristics.

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Delirium

Delirium is a serious disturbance in mental abilities. It involves changes in behavior, confused thinking, and reduced awareness of a person's surroundings. Delirium is a serious complication of medical illness.

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Dental Emergencies

One type of dental emergency is a knocked-out tooth. If it's a permanent tooth, rinse it and place it back in the socket. Then immediately take your child to the dentist.

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Dental Health and Children

Detailed information on dental health in children

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Dental Health Overview

Generally, dental examinations and cleanings are recommended every six months for children. Encourage good oral hygiene at home by helping your child brush his or her own teeth.

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Dental Procedures for Children

Detailed information on the most common dental procedures, including braces, bleaching, bridges, dentures, dental implants, fillings, root canal, sealants, and wisdom teeth extraction

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Depression

Clinical depression in children includes several disorders: major depressive disorder, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, and persistent depressive disorder.

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Dermatitis in Children

Detailed information on dermatitis, including the different types of dermatitis such as atopic dermatitis (eczema), contact dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, generalized exfoliative dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, localized scratch dermatitis, nummular dermatitis, perioral dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis

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Dermoid Cyst

Dermoid cysts, also called epidermoid cysts or dermal/epidermal inclusion cysts, are masses in children and adults, most commonly found in the head, face, neck and upper chest. Dermoid cyst ablation is a minimally-invasive procedure that is an alternative to surgically removing the dermoid cyst.

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Dermoid Cyst in Children

A dermoid cyst is a collection of tissue under the skin. It may contain hair follicles, oil, and sweat glands.

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Describing a Child's Skin Condition

A helpful look at some of the terms a healthcare provider may use to describe your child's skin condition.

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Desmopressin tablets

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Determining Body Mass Index for Teens

Although it is not a perfect measure, BMI gives a fairly accurate assessment of how much of your teen's body is composed of fat.

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Developmental Care for Babies in the NICU

Premature babies especially need a supportive environment to help them continue to mature and develop as they would in their mother's womb.

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Developmental Disorders

Detailed information on developmental disorders in children

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Developmental Disorders

Learn more about developmental disorders that could be affecting your child.

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Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Children

In a normal hip joint, the top (head) of the thighbone (femur) fits snugly into the hip socket. In a child with DDH, the hip socket is shallow. As a result, the head of the femur may slip in and out.

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Developmental Hip Dysplasia

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Diabetes During Pregnancy

Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't make enough insulin, or can't use insulin normally. Insulin is a hormone. It helps sugar (glucose) in the blood get into cells of the body to be used as fuel. When glucose can’t enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. This is called high blood sugar (hyperglycemia).

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Diabetes Index

Detailed information on diabetes, including type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, teens and diabetes, and diet and diabetes

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Diabetes Insipidus in Children

Diabetes insipidus is a condition caused by not enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the body. ADH is also known as vasopressin. This is a hormone that helps the kidneys keep the correct amount of water in the body. The condition is also called “water diabetes.”

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Diabetes Ketoacidosis (DKA)

Diabetic ketoacidosis, also known as DKA, is a serious complication of diabetes. When cells do not have glucose to use for energy, the body starts to use fat for energy.

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Diabetes Type II

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that occurs when your body makes insulin but does not know how to use it well. This is called insulin resistance.

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Diabetes: MODY

MODY is the name given to a collection of different types of inherited forms of diabetes that usually develop in adolescence or early adulthood. MODY stands for “Maturity-onset diabetes of the young.”

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Diabetes: Type 1

Type 1 diabetes, formerly known as juvenile diabetes, is a chronic condition that occurs when your body makes little to no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is made in the pancreas and keeps blood glucose (sugar) at a normal level.

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Diabetes: Type 2

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss diabetes, a disease that affects how the body uses glucose. Glucose is a type of sugar in the blood that comes from the foods we eat.

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Diagnosing and Evaluating Heart Disease in Children

Detailed information on diagnosing and evaluating heart disease in children

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Diagnosing Anemia in Children

In most cases, anemia can be diagnosed with a few simple blood tests. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all infants be given a blood test to look for anemia at 6 months, 9 months, or 12 months of age.

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Diagnosing Cancer

Many tests are necessary to determine whether a child has cancer, or if another condition is imitating the symptoms of cancer.

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Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis

A detailed look at how cystic fibrosis is diagnosed.

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Diagnostic Tests for Allergy in Children

Detailed information on allergy testing, including blood tests and skin tests.

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Diagnostic Tests for Neurological Disorders in Children

Detailed information on the most common diagnostic tests for neurological disorders in children

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Dialysis

Detailed information on dialysis, including peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis

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Diamond Blackfan Anemia

Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare blood disorder that is usually diagnosed in children during their first year of life. Children with DBA do not make enough red blood cells – the cells that carry oxygen to all other cells in the body.

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Diaper Dermatitis (Diaper Rash)

Diaper rash (diaper dermatitis) is a red, sore rash that happens when urine and bowel movements irritate your baby's skin. The Helping Hand™ will teach you how to prevent and treat diaper rash.

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Diaper Dermatitis in Children

Diaper dermatitis is inflammation of the skin in the diaper area. It’s a very common condition in babies and toddlers.

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Diapers and Diaper Rash

You have 2choices in diapers—cloth or disposable. Each type has advantages and disadvantages. You must decide which works best for your child and family.

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Diaphragmatic Hernia in Children

A diaphragmatic hernia is a birth defect. It happens in a baby during pregnancy. In this condition, there’s an opening in your baby’s diaphragm. This is the muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity.

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Diarrhea

Diarrhea (loose, watery bowel movements) is a common problem for young children. Diarrhea may be caused by a serious illness, but usually, it is only the result of a minor infection.

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Diarrhea in Children

Diarrhea is a common problem. It may last 1 or 2 days and go away on its own. If diarrhea lasts more than 2 days, your child may have a more serious problem.

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Diet and Diabetes

It is important to learn about proper meal-planning when your child has diabetes. The type and amount of food your child eats affects his/her blood sugar levels.

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Difficulty with Latching On or Sucking

Detailed information on problems with latching-on or sucking during breastfeeding, and how to handle them .

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DiGeorge Syndrome

DiGeorge Syndrome is also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Digestive and Liver Disorders

Detailed information on digestive and liver disorders during pregnancy

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Digestive and Liver Disorders Overview

What is digestion?Food and drink must be changed into smaller molecules of nutrients to be absorbed into the blood and carried to cells throughout the body.

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Digestive Disorders

Detailed information on the most common digestive disorders in high-risk newborns

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Diphtheria in Children

A detailed look at diphtheria, including symptoms, treatment, and a vaccination schedule.

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Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP)

Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are serious illnesses. A combination vaccine is given to babies and children to provide protection against all 3 diseases.

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Discharge from the Hospital

Even after minor surgery, some children will remain in the hospital overnight for observation and to receive medicines to help with pain or to prevent infection.

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Discipline

Detailed information on disciplining a child, including information on time-out, temper tantrum, lying, stealing, and television and children

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Disciplining Your Child at Any Age

Each child is different, but most children need to be given clear rules about behavior.

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Discomforts and Complications After a Child Has Surgery

Common discomforts after surgery include nausea and vomiting, soreness in the throat, and restlessness or sleeplessness.

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Discussing Death with Children

The ultimate goal in discussing death with a dying child is to optimize his or her comfort and alleviate any fears. If the child is not ready to discuss death, the most helpful step parents can take is to wait until he or she is ready.

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Dislocations

A dislocation is a joint injury. It occurs when the ends of 2 connected bones come apart. Dislocations happen more often among teens.

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Disorders Affecting Calcium Metabolism

Detailed information on disorders affecting calcium metabolism, including juvenile osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and DiGeorge syndrome

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Disorders Affecting the Adrenal Glands

Detailed information on disorders affecting the adrenal glands, including underactive adrenal glands (Addison's disease), overactive adrenal glands (Cushing's syndrome), and pheochromocytoma

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Disorders Affecting the Pituitary Gland

Detailed information on disorders affecting the pituitary gland, including posterior anterior disorders and anterior pituitary disorders

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Disorders Affecting the Thyroid

Detailed information on disorders affecting the thyroid gland, including hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) and hypothyroidism

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Disorders of Sex Development

When a child's gender is in question at birth, the child has atypical genitalia (ambiguous genitalia). This means that the genitals don't seem to be clearly male or female.

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Disorders of the Brain and Nervous System

Detailed information on the most common disorders of the brain and nervous system in high-risk newborns

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Disruptive Behavior Disorders

Children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) show ongoing patterns of uncooperative and defiant behavior. The most common types of these disorders include disruptive behavior disorder not otherwise specified (DBD NOS), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD).

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Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

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Distal Radius Buckle (Torus) Fracture

A distal radius buckle (torus) fracture causes one side of the bone to bend but does not actually break through the bone. It is an incomplete fracture that normally heals within 1 month.

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Double Outlet Right Ventricle

Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a congenital heart defect where the two great arteries are both attached to the right ventricle. In DORV, the normally separated oxygen-rich arterial blood and oxygen-poor venous blood is mixed prior to leaving the heart.

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Double Outlet Right Ventricle in Children

Detailed information about double outlet right ventricle (DORV), a heart malformation that is present from birth.

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Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) in Children

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that includes certain birth defects, learning problems, and facial features.

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D-Transposition of the Great Vessels

D-Transposition of the great vessels (d-TGA) is a congenital heart defect where the aorta and pulmonary artery are switched from their normal positions. Shortly after birth, babies with d-TGA are blue because not enough oxygen is getting to the body.

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Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder that affects all races and ethnicities. DMD only affects males. Children with DMD may lose the ability to walk as early as 7 years of age.

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Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in Children

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a rare genetic condition that weakens your child's muscles. It appears in young boys, usually between ages 2 and 5.

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Dyskeratosis Congenita in Children

Dyskeratosis congenita is a congenital disease. This means it is present at birth. It affects the skin and nails. In its most severe form, it causes bone marrow failure. When bone marrow doesn't make enough blood cells, it can be life-threatening.

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Dyskeratosis Congenital

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Dysmenorrhea

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Dysmenorrhea (Painful Menstruation)

A common reason patients experience painful menstruation, also known as dysmenorrhea, is because of inflammatory agents, called prostaglandins, which are released from the lining of the uterus during menstruation.

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Dysphagia in Children

Dysphagia means trouble swallowing. This condition happens when food or liquids can’t pass easily from your child’s mouth, into the throat, down the esophagus, and into the stomach when swallowing.

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Dysthymia

Persistent depressive disorder is a type of depression. Depression involves a child’s body, mood, and thoughts.

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Ear Disorders

Detailed information on ear disorders in children

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Ear Infections (Otitis Media)

Ear infections, also known as otitis media, occur when the middle ear is infected or inflamed. There are two main types of otitis media: acute otitis media with effusion (fluid in the middle ear space) and chronic otitis media with effusion.

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Ear Tube Insertion for Children

An ear tube insertion is when a tiny tube is placed in the eardrum to let fluid leave the middle ear. Read on to learn all about this procedure.

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Early Puberty in Boys

Puberty is the time when boys’ bodies and minds mature and they grow into young men. This usually starts when a boy is about 12 years old. Sometimes, a younger boy starts to show the signs of puberty. This is called precocious or early puberty. These early signs of puberty can be hard for a child.

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Early Puberty in Girls

Puberty is the time when girls’ bodies and minds mature and they grow into young women. This usually starts when a girl is about 10 years old. Sometimes, a younger girl starts to show signs of puberty. This is called precocious or early puberty. These early signs of puberty can be hard for a child.

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Eating Disorders and Young Athletes

Playing competitive sports can boost self-esteem and teach teamwork and leadership lessons. But sometimes being on a team that focuses too heavily on performance--or appearance--may trigger an eating disorder.

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Eating Disorders in Children

Detailed information on adolescents and eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, and obesity

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Echocardiography

Echocardiography is an imaging test. It uses sound waves to make detailed pictures of the heart.

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Echocardiography for Children

Echocardiography is an imaging test. It uses sound waves to make detailed pictures of the heart.

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Ectopic Pregnancy

A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus is called ectopic pregnancy. This nearly always happens in a fallopian tube. So it’s often called tubal pregnancy. Rarely, an ectopic pregnancy will happen in an ovary, in the cervix, or the belly (abdomen).

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Eczema

Eczema is a chronic dry, itchy skin condition that often runs in families. Eczema is not contagious. Eczema often affects the insides of elbows, backs of knees, and the face.

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Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis)

Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a chronic skin problem characterized by dry, itchy, rough skin rashes. Eczema can cause skin to appear thickened, wrinkled, red (irritated), and rough and dry.

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Effective Sucking

It's important for your baby's health to be able to effectively remove milk from your breast during nursing. To do this, your baby must learn the proper way to suck. But how do you know if your baby is actually getting the nutrition he or she needs? Here's a guide to help you.

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Egg Allergy Diet for Children

Parents of children with egg sensitivity may not be aware of the many food products that contain eggs. That's why it's important to carefully read food labels.

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Ehlers Danlos Syndrome with Associated Bleeding Disorders

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) is a genetic (inherited) disorder that affects mainly the skin and joints. There are many types of EDS. People with some types of EDS may bruise or bleed easily.

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Eisenmenger Syndrome in Children

Eisenmenger syndrome is an advanced form of

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Electrical Burns

Electrical burns occur when a child comes in contact with electricity, either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).

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Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

Electrocardiography (ECG) is a simple, fast test to check the electrical activity of your child's heart as blood moves through it. Abnormal ECG results may mean there is a problem with your child's heart.

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Electrocardiography for Children

Electrocardiography (ECG) is a simple, fast test to check the electrical activity of your child's heart as blood moves through it.

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Electroencephalogram (EEG) for Children

An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test that measures the electrical activity in the brain (brain waves). Small, round discs with wires (electrodes) are placed on the scalp during the test. The electrodes are not painful to your child.

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Emergency Contact Information

In an emergency, it is easy to "forget" even the most well-known information. That's why it is crucial to complete the information in this form for each member of your household.

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Emergency Treatment of a Burn Injury

Detailed information on emergency treatment of a burn injury

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Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is a rare form of MD that affects only males. Symptoms may begin in childhood or adolescence. The condition causes slowly progressive weakness in the muscles of the shoulders, upper arms, and lower legs and joint stiffness.

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Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy in Children

EDMD is a rare inherited muscle disease. It causes weakness in your child’s shoulders, upper arms, and calves. The disease also causes stiff joints that can’t move well.

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Emotional and Family Issues in Children with Heart Disease

A detailed look at the way children may feel about having congenital heart disease--and tips for helping them cope.

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Encephalitis in Children

Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell. This leads to changes in a child's nervous system that can include confusion, changes in alertness, and seizures.

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Encephalitis in Children

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Encopresis

Encopresis is when your child leaks stool into his or her underwear. It is also called stool soiling. It is most often because of long-term (chronic) constipation. Encopresis happens to children ages 4 and older who have already been toilet trained.

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Encopresis

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Endometriosis

Endometriosis is an inflammatory and estrogen-dependent condition in which the menstrual tissue is found outside the uterus, within the pelvis. Pain due to endometriosis is different from normal menstrual pain. Girls who have a family history of endometriosis have an increased chance of developing it.

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Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Children

Endoscopic sinus surgery is a procedure to open the passages of the nose and sinuses. It is done to treat long-term (chronic) sinus infections. An ear, nose, and throat specialist (ENT) does the surgery.

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Enlarged Adenoid

The adenoid is a structure located at the junction of the nose and throat (nasopharynx) that functions in the immune system. Adenoids sometimes become enlarged during childhood and the increased size may cause problems.

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Enlarged Lymph Nodes

There are thousands of collections of immune cells throughout the body called lymph nodes. When an infection is present, lymph nodes can become enlarged as an immune response is mounted.

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Enlarged Tonsils

The function of the tonsils is to help identify and fight infections caused by viruses or bacteria. They can cause problems if they are enlarged or become infected.

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Enterovirus D68 Infographic

Learn about Enterovirus D68, the symptoms that are associated with it and how it can be treated.

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Enteroviruses in Children

There are many types of enteroviruses. The viruses mostly cause illness in babies, children, and teens. This is because most adults have already been exposed to many enteroviruses and have built up immunity.

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Enuresis (Bedwetting)

Enuresis is the medical term for wetting the bed. It means a child urinates without meaning to. Treatment usually means helping a child to form habits that will allow him to control his need to urinate.

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Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EOE)

Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is a condition caused by inflammation of the esophagus, or swallowing tube, from the mouth to stomach. The inflammation is caused by the accumulation of white blood cells, called eosinophils, in the esophageal tissue.

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Epididymitis in Children

Epididymitis is an inflammation or infection of the epididymis. This is a thin, coiled tube that sits on top of a male testicle. In younger boys, this condition can be caused by a urinary tract infection. In older boys and teens, it's often caused by a sexually transmitted disease (STD).

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Epiglottitis in Children

The epiglottis is a flap of cartilage at the base of the tongue at the very back of the throat. When the epiglottis becomes swollen and inflamed, it is called epiglottitis.

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Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a neurological condition involving the brain that makes people more susceptible to having recurrent unprovoked seizures. The two broad categories of epileptic seizures are generalized and partial seizures.

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Epilepsy and Seizures in Children

Epilepsy is a brain condition that causes a child to have seizures. It is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system.

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Epilepsy During Pregnancy

Epilepsy is a disorder of the nervous system. It is also called a seizure disorder. Normally the body's nerves send information by electrical and chemical signals. People with epilepsy have abnormal electrical signals in the brain. This can cause a seizure. Seizures can cause severe shaking of muscles. Or they may be very mild with hardly any symptoms at all.

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EPT Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. If left untreated, Chlamydia can damage the reproductive organs and may lead to sterility.

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EPT Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STI). It is caused by a parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis.

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Equipment That Is Used in the NICU

NICUs are equipped with complex machines and devices to monitor nearly every system of a baby's body - temperature, heart rate, breathing, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, and blood pressure.

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Evaluating a Child for Birth Defects

Detailed information on evaluating a child for birth defects

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Evaluation Procedures for Children

Detailed information on evaluation procedures used to diagnosis orthopedic disorders in children.

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Evoked Auditory Potentials

Learn more about evoked auditory potentials.

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Ewing Sarcoma in Children

Ewing sarcoma is a rare type of cancer. It’s most common in children and teens between the ages 10 and 19. It usually grows in bone, but it can also grow in soft tissue that’s connected to the bone. This may include tendons, ligaments, cartilage, or muscles.

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Ewing's Sarcoma

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Ewing's Sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is a form of cancer that usually starts in the bone. The tumors, sometimes referred to as the Ewing Family of Tumors, include Ewing sarcoma, atypical Ewing sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal (PNET) tumor of the bone.

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Examples of Teratogens

Detailed information on examples of teratogens

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Exercise and Children

Exercise is an important part of keeping children healthy. Encouraging healthy lifestyles in children and teens is important for when they grow older.

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Exercise and Teenagers

Teens need at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity on most days for good health and fitness and for healthy weight during growth.

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Exercise Electrocardiogram (ECG) Testing for Children

Electrocardiography (ECG) is a simple, fast test to check the electrical activity of your child's heart as blood moves through it. Abnormal ECG results may mean there is a problem with your child's heart.

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Exercised Induced Asthma (EIA)

Exercise-induced asthma, also known as EIA, is defined as breathing difficulty that is triggered by increased activity. Symptoms of exercise-induced asthma include chest tightness, coughing, shortness of breath and wheezing.

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Expressing Milk for Your High-Risk Baby

You will have to remove milk from your breasts on a regular basis if you are to provide enough of your milk for your high-risk baby.

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Expressing Your Milk - Helpful Equipment

Hospital-grade, electric breast pumps are the only pumps built for frequent and prolonged use. These pumps automatically cycle suction with release of suction—similar to a baby's sucking action.

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Exstrophy of the Bladder and Epispadias in Children

Exstrophy of the bladder is when a baby's bladder has grown inside out and is sticking through the belly wall. It often occurs together with epispadias. This is when the opening of the tube that carries urine out of the body (the urethra) is in the wrong place.

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Extreme Prematurity

A birth that occurs any time prior to 37 weeks of pregnancy is considered premature. Sometimes that baby is referred to as preterm, near-term or a preemie. The most extreme issues occur in babies born at less than 28 weeks.

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Eye Disorders in Children

Detailed information on eye disorders in children

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Eye Injury Corneal Abrasion

The cornea is the clear part of the eye that covers the iris and pupil. A corneal abrasion is an injury caused by something scratching or rubbing the surface of the eye.

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Eye Medicine and Vitamin K Injection for Newborns

Newborn babies routinely receive eye medicine and vitamin K injections soon after birth. Both prevent serious conditions.

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Eye Safety and First Aid

Detailed information on eye safety and tips to avoid eye injury

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Eye Trauma

Detailed information on eye trauma in children

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Eyeglasses and Contact Lenses

A child who needs vision correction may wear eyeglasses or contact lenses. Either choice comes in a range of choices.

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Eyelid Lacerations in Children

Eyelid lacerations are cuts to the eyelid. They are caused by injury.

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Facial Paralysis

Facial paralysis is weakness or complete lack of motion of part or all of the face. It can involve one or both sides of the face. This decreased or lack of motion causes asymmetry and can lead to both functional and social interaction issues.

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Facial Re-animation

Some children are born without a facial nerve. Other times, a child's facial nerve is damaged. Facial re-animation is the term used for microsurgical techniques aimed at repairing the facial nerve.

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Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, also known as Landouzy-Dejerine, causes severe weakness in muscles of the face, shoulders and back. As shoulder and back muscles weaken, they shrink and the shoulder blade sticks out excessively.

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Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD)

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Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy in Children

FSHD is a rare genetic muscle disease that affects the muscles of your child’s face, shoulders, upper arms, and lower legs.

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Factor V Leiden

Factor V (factor five) is a protein involved in the blood clotting process. Children born with Factor V Leiden produce a mutated form of Factor V that does not respond well to activated Protein C.

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Factor V Leiden

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss Factor V Leiden, which is an inherited blood disorder. Doctors can find out if your child has Factor V Leiden by genetic testing.

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Factors Contributing to Congenital Heart Disease

In most cases of congenital heart defect, the cause is thought to be a combination of genetics and environment.

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Facts About Animal Bites and Scratches

Whether the bite is from a family pet or an animal in the wild, scratches and bites can become infected and cause scarring. Animals can also carry diseases that can be transmitted through a bite.

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Facts About Poisons

Medicines are the leading cause of poisoning in children. Poisoning by makeup and personal care products is the next most common cause.

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Failure to Thrive

Failure to thrive (FTT) is a term that is traditionally used for children who have failed to develop and grow normally. FTT occurs when a child is either not receiving enough calories or is unable to properly use the calories that are given, resulting in failure to grow or gain weight.

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Failure to Thrive (FTT) in Children

Failure to thrive (FTT) is slow physical development in a baby or child. It's caused by a baby or child not having enough nutrition.

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Failure to Thrive In Infants

Failure to Thrive (FTT) describes an infant or child who does not gain weight at the expected rate. The two kinds of FTT are organic and non-organic. Medical problems such as diarrhea or vomiting may be the cause of organic FTT.

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Falls

Detailed information on falls and preventing injuries and death in children

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Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited colorectal cancer syndrome characterized by the development of polyps. FAP can be passed from one generation to the next.

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Family Support for Autism Spectrum Disorder

Having a child with autism spectrum disorder can be hard on the entire family. That's why it's so important to have a good support system in place. Read on to learn more.

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Fanconi Anemia

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Fanconi Anemia

Fanconi anemia is a blood disorder in which the bone marrow doesn’t make enough blood cells or makes abnormal types of blood cells.

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Febrile Seizures

In some children, fever of 100.4˚ F or higher can bring on a seizure or a convulsion called febrile seizures. febrile seizures usually do not last long and do not cause brain damage, learning disabilities or epilepsy.

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Fecal Incontinence

Fecal incontinence is a very common problem in children. Soiling can be caused by medical conditions like chronic constipation or congenital conditions that may disrupt bowel control.

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Feeding Disorders

Feeding disorders are characterized by extreme food selectivity by type, texture, brand, shape or color.

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Feeding Guide for the First Year

It's important to feed your baby a variety of healthy foods at the proper time. Solid foods should not be started before 4 months of age.

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Feeding Your Child with Cystic Fibrosis

Children with cystic fibrosis often have poor weight gain. This can happen even when they get enough calories. Read on for details on how to make sure your child gets enough nutrients--and what to do if your child isn't gaining weight.

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Female Growth and Development

Detailed information on female physical development

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Female Physical Development

Detailed information on female physical development

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Femoral Anteversion in Children

Femoral anteversion is an inward twisting of the thighbone (femur). This health problem causes a child's knees and feet to turn inward. The child may have a pigeon-toed appearance.

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Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)

A baby born to a mother who drinks alcohol during pregnancy can have many problems. This is called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).

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Fetal Blood Sampling

Fetal blood sampling is a procedure to take a small amount of blood from an unborn baby (fetus) during pregnancy. Fetal blood sampling is usually done by a perinatologist with special training. This is a doctor who specializes in the care of babies in high-risk pregnancies.

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Fetal Circulation

Through the blood vessels in the umbilical cord, the fetus receives all the necessary nutrition, oxygen, and life support from the mother through the placenta.

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Fetal Echocardiography

Fetal echocardiography (echo) uses sound waves to check the heart of your developing baby.

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Fetal Growth Restriction

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a condition in which an unborn baby (fetus) is smaller than expected for the number of weeks of pregnancy (gestational age). It is often described as an estimated weight less than the 10th percentile. This means that the baby weighs less than 9 out of 10 babies of the same gestational age. Newborn babies with FGR may be called small for gestational age.

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Fetal Monitoring

In pregnancy and during labor, your healthcare provider will want to check the health of your unborn baby (fetus). This is done by checking the baby’s heart rate and other functions. Monitoring can be done on the outside of your belly (external monitoring). Or it may be done directly on the baby while inside your uterus (internal monitoring). Fetal monitoring is a very common procedure.

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Fetal Movement Counting

Fetal movement counting is a way to check the health of a woman’s unborn baby (fetus). It’s often called kick counting. It’s done by counting the number of kicks you feel from your baby in the womb in a certain time period.

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Fever

In this Helping Hand™, we discuss fever, which is an increase in the body’s temperature above the normal range. Most doctors agree that a temperature over 101° F is a fever. Fevers lower than 101° F don't need to be treated unless your child is uncomfortable or has a history of febrile seizures.

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Fever in A Newborn

The system that controls body temperature is not well developed in a newborn. Here's what you need to know about fever and your baby.

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Fever in Children

When your child has a fever, the body resets its thermostat at a higher temperature. This helps the body fight off invading microorganisms.

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Fibromyalgia in Children

Fibromyalgia is a condition that causes pain in muscles and soft tissues all over the body. It is an ongoing (chronic) condition. It can affect the neck, shoulders, back, chest, hips, buttocks, arms, and legs.

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Fifth Disease (Erythema Infectiosum)

Fifth disease is a mild illness caused by a virus. Symptoms include a blotchy rash that begins on the cheeks and spreads to the arms, legs and torso.

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Fifth Disease in Children

Fifth disease is a viral illness that causes a rash. It occurs most often in the winter and spring.

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Fillings

Teeth that have tooth decay must be repaired. Advances in dental materials and techniques provide new, effective ways to restore teeth.

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Fire Safety and Burns

Detailed information on fire safety and burns and preventing injuries and death in children

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Fire Safety and Burns Overview

Know the types of burns you can get and how to keep you and your family safe.

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Fire Safety and Burns—Identifying High-Risk Situations

Children are at increased risk for serious fire and burn injuries and death because they have thinner skin than adults. This results in burns at lower temperatures.

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Firearms

Detailed information on firearm safety and preventing injuries and death in children

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First Aid for Poisonings in a Child

Sometimes accidental poisonings can be treated in the home under the direction of a poison control center or your child's healthcare provider. At other times, emergency medical care is necessary.

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First Aid for the Eyes

A helpful guide to treating different types of eye injuries.

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First Degree Burns

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First Trimester Screening

First trimester screening combines fetal ultrasound and blood tests for the mother. It’s done during the first trimester of pregnancy, during weeks 1 to 12 or 13. It can help find out the risk of the fetus having certain birth defects.

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First-Degree Burn in Children

A burn is damage to tissues of the body caused by contact with things such as heat, radiation, or chemicals. A first-degree burn affects only the outer layer of skin (epidermis).

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Flat Head Syndrome (Deformational Plagiocephaly)

Flat head syndrome (deformational plagiocephaly) is when a baby’s head develops a lasting flat spot. The flat spot may be either on one side of the head or on the back of the head. This happens when a baby sleeps in the same position most of the time or because of problems with the neck muscles.

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Flat or Inverted Nipples

Detailed information on breastfeeding and flat or inverted nipples

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Flea, Mite, or Chigger Bites in Children

Fleas, mites, and chiggers are different kinds of small insects. They are also parasites. This means they feed off the blood, skin, or both of animals and humans. These insects are more common in the warm weather. They bite skin and cause symptoms such as bumps, redness, pain, or itching.

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Flossing and Children

Flossing should be started when your child is about 2 to 3 years old, under the direction of your child's dentist. Read on for helpful tips, including step-by-step flossing directions.

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Flu

Influenza, also known as “the flu,” is a highly contagious illness caused by a virus. A child who has the flu may have some or all of these symptoms: fever, headache, runny or stuffy nose, muscle aches and tiredness.

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Fluoride and Children

Fluoride helps prevent tooth decay, strengthens tooth enamel, and reduces the harmful effects of plaque.

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Folliculitis

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Folliculitis

Folliculitis is a common inflammation of the hair follicles, which are the openings in the skin where the hair grows. The rash appears as small red bumps or pus bumps that can itch or be mildly painful.

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Folliculitis, Furuncles, and Carbuncles in Children

Bacteria on the skin can cause an infection of one or more hair follicles. A hair follicle is the base or root of a hair.

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Food Allergies in Children

A food allergy is when your child’s body has a bad immune reaction to a certain food. This is different than a food intolerance which does not affect the immune system. This is true even though some of the same signs may be present.

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Food Allergy

A food allergy is when the immune system mistakenly responds to a food protein, resulting in inflammation or damage to the intestinal tract. Allergies can present with an immediate or a delayed reaction.

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Food Poisoning

When people eat tainted food, they can develop anything from a mild illness to a serious disease. Germs that cause food poisoning include Campylobacter, E-Coli, Salmonella and Shigella.

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Foot Sprain or Strain

A foot sprain is a stretching or tearing of the ligaments that connect the bones of the foot. A foot strain is a stretching or tearing of the tendons and muscles in the foot.

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For Parents: Bicycle, In-Line Skating, Skateboard and Scooter Safety

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For Parents: Important Decisions to Be Made in the Dying Process

Detailed information on important decisions to be made when a child is dying, including the right to refuse treatment, to die at home versus the hospital, advanced directives, do not resuscitate, autopsy, organ donation, palliative hospice care, and funeral arrangements.

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Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose, and Airway

Children usually place things in their ears because they are bored, curious, or copying other children. Some objects may cause no symptoms, but other objects, such as food and insects, may cause pain in the ear, redness, or drainage.

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Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose, and Throat

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Foreign Bodies in the Eye in Children

A foreign body in your child’s eye is any object that isn’t supposed to be there. The foreign object may be in the conjunctiva. This is a thin membrane that covers the white of the eye. Or it may be in the cornea. This is the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the colored part of the eye and the pupil.

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Fractures in Children

A fracture is a partial or complete break in the bone. When a fracture happens, it is classified as either open or closed.

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Fractures of the Orbit in Children

An orbital fracture happens when one or more bones around one of your child's eyes is broken. The orbit is the bony structure around the eye.

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Frostbite

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Frostbite

Frostbite is damage to the skin and underlying tissues caused by the cold. It occurs most often on small, exposed areas of the body such as the hands and fingers, feet and toes, and the ears, nose and cheeks.

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Frostbite and Frostnip in Children

Frostbite is damage to parts of the body from freezing. It occurs when ice crystals form in the skin or in deeper tissue. Frostnip is a mild form of frostbite. It does not cause permanent tissue damage.

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Fungal Infections

Detailed information on fungal skin infections, including Candidiasis, Tinea Infections, and Tinea Versicolor

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Fungal Infections

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Ganglion Cysts

A ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled lump under the skin, often over a joint or in a tendon in the hand or wrist. If the cyst appears on top of the wrist, it is called a dorsal wrist ganglion cyst. A cyst on the palm side of the wrist is a volar wrist ganglion cyst. These cysts are usually harmless.

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Gastroesophageal Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux, also known as chalasia or spitting up, is so common that it should be considered normal for babies. In infants, the sphincter that keeps food in the stomach is not as strong, so some formula or food can come back up. Reflux can cause heartburn which may make the baby fussy.

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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Infants

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, also known as GERD, in infants. This document provides tips on feeding your child, medications, positioning and safe sleep to help you manage your infant's reflux. Call your child's doctor if they fail to gain weight.

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Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children

Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a digestive disorder. Gastroesophageal refers to the stomach and esophagus. The esophagus is the tube that connects the throat to the stomach. Reflux means to flow back or return.

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Gastrointestinal Problems

If your baby seems fussy and you've fed and changed him, he may have an upset stomach or colic. But don't worry, there are lots of things you can do to make your little one more comfortable and keep both of you calm.

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Gastroparesis

Gastroschisis is a defect in the abdominal (belly) wall that forms before the baby is born. Part of the intestine is outside of the baby's body, rather than inside the abdomen. If the defect is small, surgery may be done right away. Larger defects may require a sterile "silo" bag until surgery.

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Gastroschisis

Gastroschisis is a defect in the abdominal wall. Part of the intestine is outside of the baby's body, rather than inside the abdomen.

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder is a mental health problem. A child with GAD has a lot of worry and fear that seems to have no real cause.

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in Children and Teens

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental health problem. A child with GAD has a lot of worry and fear that seems to have no real cause.

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Genetic Disorders Associated with Congenital Heart Disease

Detailed information on congenital heart disease, including patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular canal, tricuspid atresia, pulmonary atresia, transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, double outlet right ventricle, truncus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, aortic stenosis, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome

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Genital Herpes

It's important not to get genital herpes during pregnancy. A first episode during pregnancy raises the risk of passing the disease on to your baby.

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Genital Warts (HPV Infection)

Genital warts are skin-colored, cauliflower-like, painless growths. They are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Genital warts are usually spread by sexual contact. During pregnancy or delivery, the HPV virus can be passed on to the baby from an infected mother.

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Genital Warts in Babies and Children

Genital warts are common skin-colored growths that are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). In males, they can occur on the penis or around the rectum. In females, they can occur around the vagina or rectum. Treatment includes freezing with liquid nitrogen or applying topical medicine.

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Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders

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GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease) in Children

GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, is a long-term (chronic) digestive disorder. It happens when stomach contents flow back up (reflux) into the food pipe (esophagus).

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Germ Cell Tumor

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Germ Cell Tumors in Children

Germ cells form as a baby grows in the womb. The cells usually form the eggs (ova) in females and the sperm in males. Germ cell tumors are made up of these underdeveloped cells. The tumors may be cancer (malignant) or not cancer (benign).

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Gestational Age Assessment

It's not always easy to tell a newborn's age by their size. Premature babies are usually small, but full-term and past-term babies can be small, too. That's when healthcare providers will do a gestational assessment to determine if a newborn needs special treatment.

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Gestational Hypertension

Gestational hypertension is high blood pressure in pregnancy. It occurs in about 3 in 50 pregnancies.

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GI Bleeding (Upper and Lower)

Upper GI bleeding occurs when irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum result in bleeding. Lower GI bleeding occurs most frequently from the large intestine (colon) and rectum. Pediatricians and pediatric gastroenterologists see this problem quite regularly.

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Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis is a kidney disease that involves inflammation of tiny filter units in the kidneys called glomeruli. Due to inflammation, these filters can leak blood and protein into the urine. Symptoms may include dark brown-colored urine (from blood and protein) and diminished urine output.

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Glomerulonephritis in Children

Glomerulonephritis is a type of kidney disease that makes it hard for the kidneys to filter blood from urine.

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Gonadotropin-Independent Precocious Puberty

Puberty that happens early is called precocious puberty. Gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty is caused by early secretion of high levels of sex hormones. These include the male androgens and female estrogens.

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Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae. If it is not treated, gonorrhea can cause serious damage in both males and females. It can cause damage to joints, the heart muscle or the brain. In females, it may lead to an infection called PID.

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Granuloma Annulare

Granuloma annulare is a raised, bumpy ring-like rash. This starts as a smooth bump on the skin and becomes a circular ring. Granuloma annulare is common, but no one knows what causes it. It is not infectious or contagious. Granuloma annulare is often mistaken for ringworm or bug bites.

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Graves' Disease

Graves’ disease is the most common kind of hyperthyroidism. It happens when a person’s immune system acts against his or her thyroid gland by mistake. It makes too much of the hormone thyroxine. Graves’ disease can happen at any age in both males and females. It is more common in women.

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Graves Disease in a Newborn (Neonatal Graves Disease)

Graves disease is an autoimmune disease. The immune system normally protects the body from germs with chemicals called antibodies. But with an autoimmune disease, it makes antibodies that attack the body’s own tissues. With Graves disease, antibodies cause the thyroid gland to make too much thyroid hormone. This is known as hyperthyroidism. Extra thyroid hormone in the bloodstream leads to the body's metabolism being too active.

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Graves Disease in Children

Graves disease is an autoimmune disease. With this disease, antibodies cause the thyroid gland to make too much thyroid hormone. This is known as hyperthyroidism. Excess thyroid hormone in the bloodstream leads to the body's metabolism being too active. It can cause problems such as weight loss, nervousness, fast heartbeat, tiredness, and other issues. It’s an ongoing (chronic) condition that needs lifelong treatment.

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Graves Disease in Pregnancy

Graves disease is a condition where the thyroid gland makes too much thyroid hormone. This is called hyperthyroidism or overactive thyroid. Graves disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy.

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Grief and Bereavement

The process of grieving is often long and painful for parents, siblings, relatives, friends, peers, teachers, neighbors, and anyone that understands the loss of a child.

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Group B Streptococcus Infection in Babies

Group B streptococcus (strep) is a type of bacteria. It can be found in the digestive tract, urinary tract, and genital area of adults. About 1 in 4 pregnant women carry GBS in their rectum or vagina. During pregnancy, the mother can pass the infection to the baby. The fetus can get GBS during pregnancy. Newborns can get it from the mother's genital tract during delivery.

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Growth and Development in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

Children with congenital heart disease often grow and develop more slowly than other children.

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Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is when the pituitary gland doesn't make enough growth hormone. GH is needed to stimulate growth of bone and other tissues. This condition can occur at any age. GH deficiency does not affect a child's intelligence.

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Growth in Children

Detailed information on growth in children, including normal growth, newborn screening tests, growth problems, growth hormone deficiency, and achondroplasia

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Growth Problems in Children

A growth problem means that a child falls either below or above the average range of growth for a child's age, sex, family history, or racial background.

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Growth-Related Disorders

Detailed information on the most common growth-related disorders in children

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Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Children

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a short-term but often life-threatening disorder that affects the nerves in the body. GBS can cause muscle weakness, pain, and short-term (temporary) paralysis of the facial, chest, and leg muscles.

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Gynecological and Menstrual Conditions

Detailed information on the most common gynecological and menstrual conditions that affect adolescents

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Gynecological Health

Detailed information on gynecological health of a child

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Gynecological Infections

Detailed information on gynecological problems in a child

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H. Pylori

H. pylori, also known as Helicobacter pylori, is a bacteria that infects the stomach. Although common, this infection rarely shows any signs or symptoms. Some adults and a small number of children with the infection will develop inflammation and even ulcers of the stomach or small intestine.

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H1N1 (Influenza Virus)

The H1N1 virus is a more severe strain of influenza. Flu-like symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, headache, chills and feeling very tired. Children younger than 6 months may have fever, decreased activity and poor appetite.

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Haemophilus Influenzae Infections in Children

Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) is a group of bacteria that can cause different types of infections in babies and children. H. influenzae most often cause ear, eye, or sinus infections. They also cause pneumonia.

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Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib)

Haemophilus influenzae type b is a serious bacterial disease that usually strikes children younger than 5. It is spread from person-to-person by coughing and sneezing.

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Hamstring Strain

A hamstring strain is a stretching or tearing of the hamstring muscles located in the back of the thigh. Hamstring strains are usually caused by an over-stretching of the muscle. Symptoms of a hamstring strain include immediate pain in the muscle, pain with movement and swelling or bruising.

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Hand Eczema

Hand eczema is a type of eczema (an itchy, red, dry skin condition) that appears on the hands. Hand eczema can be chronic and hard to treat. A form of hand eczema in which small, itchy blisters appear on the hands is called dyshidrotic eczema. Anti-inflammatory creams can reduce redness and itching.

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Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Children

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is an illness caused by a virus. It causes a rash on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. It can also occur in the diaper area, and on the legs and arms.

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Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease

Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a common illness caused by a virus. Early symptoms of HFMD are much like a common cold. After a day or two, you might see small painful sores (ulcers) on the throat and tonsils and a rash of very small blisters or red spots on the hands, feet and diaper area.

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Head Injury - Concussion

If your child has been diagnosed with a concussion because of a head injury, they may not need to be admitted to the hospital. It is important to watch your child closely for the next 24 to 48 hours. Depending on the degree of head injury, the symptoms may last minutes to weeks.

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Head Injury in Children

The more common causes of head injury in children are falls, motor vehicle accidents—in which the child is either a passenger or a pedestrian—or a result of child abuse.

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Head Lice

Head lice are tiny, six-legged insects that spend their entire life on human heads. Nits are the eggs of the lice. Nits look like bits of dandruff in the hair but do not flake off when touched. Lice are usually spread from child to child when sharing clothing, combs or brushes.

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Head Lice in Children

Head lice are tiny parasitic bugs that can infest the skin. They live on people’s heads and feed on their blood. Head lice can cause intense itching.

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Headaches

Most headaches in children are not serious. Children’s headaches are very rarely from serious diseases or physical problems. Because of their young age, children may not know how to describe pain. Symptoms of headaches include acting quieter or moodier than normal and a drop in their activity.

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Headaches in Children

Many headaches in children may be caused by tight muscles and dilated blood vessels in the head. Other headaches may be caused by an actual problem, such as a tumor or malformation of the brain, although this is much less common.

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Headaches in Children

A headache is one of the most common complaints of children and teenagers. Fussiness, crankiness and not being able to sleep may be the only signs of head pain in children who are too young to tell you where they hurt. There are many different types of headaches. Each may be treated differently.

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Headaches: Migraine

Migraine headaches occur when there are changes in some of the nerves and blood vessels and are common in children.

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Health Maintenance

Detailed information on proper health maintenance for a child

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Health Promotion and Common Problems

Detailed information on health promotion and common health problems in children

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Healthy Diets Overview

Eating healthy is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and is something that should be taught to children at a young age.

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Healthy Eating During Adolescence

Encourage your teen to eat three balanced meals a day, with fruits or vegetables as snacks.

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Healthy Lifestyles

Detailed information on healthy lifestyle choices for teenagers

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Healthy Sleep Habits

The normal amount of sleep varies depending on the age of your child. A 2-year-old needs 10 to 12 hours a night, plus naps during the day. By age 6, a child usually has dropped naps, but still needs 10 hours at night.

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Hearing Aids for Children

Hearing aids can help improve hearing and speech, especially in children with hearing loss in the inner ear caused by damaged hair cells or a damaged hearing nerve. Read on to learn about the types of hearing aids available, and what to think about before buying one.

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Hearing Loss in Babies

Hearing loss in babies is rare in this country. But when it does happen, it's important to diagnose it early. Undetected hearing loss can delay speech and language development.

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Hearing Loss in Children

A look at the 3 different types of hearing loss, and what causes them.

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Hearing Screening Tests for Newborns

Today nearly all newborns are screened for hearing loss. Here's a look at why, and the types of screening tests that are done.

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Hearing Testing

Learn more about hearing tests for children.

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Hearing, Speech, and Language

Detailed information on hearing, speech, and language in children

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Heart Defects Causing Obstructions to Blood Flow

Detailed information on heart defects that cause obstructions in blood flow

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Heart Defects Causing Too Little Blood Flow Through the Lungs

Detailed information on heart defects that cause too little blood flow through the lungs

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Heart Defects Causing Too Much Blood Flow Through the Lungs

Detailed information on heart defects that cause extra blood flow through the lungs

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Heart Disorders

Detailed information on heart disorders in high-risk newborns

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Heart Failure

Heart failure means the heart’s ability to squeeze is weaker than normal. As a result, the heart works less efficiently and cannot pump enough oxygen and nutrients to meet the body’s needs. Before a transplant is considered, children and adults with heart failure may be managed with medication.

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Heart Failure in Children

Heart failure is when the heart can't pump enough blood to the body. In children, it is often caused by a congenital heart defect.

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Heart Murmurs

Murmurs are extra or unusual sounds made by blood circulating through the heart's chambers or valves, or through blood vessels near the heart. Types of murmurs include systolic murmurs, diastolic murmurs and continuous murmurs. Heart murmurs are analyzed for pitch, loudness, and duration.

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Heart Murmurs in Children

Heart murmurs are extra or unusual sounds made by blood moving through the heart. Many children have heart murmurs. Some cause no problems or go away over time. Others require treatment.

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Heart Transplant for Children

A heart transplant is a surgery to replace a diseased heart with a healthy one from an organ donor. Organ donors are adults or children who have become critically ill, often because because of injury. They will not live because of their illness or injury.

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Heart-Healthy Eating

Detailed information on heart-healthy eating

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Heat or Thermal Burns

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Heat-Related Illnesses (Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke)

Children and teens are at greater risk for heat-related illnesses for several reasons. They adjust more slowly to changes in air temperature. They also produce more heat with activity and sweat less.

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Helicobacter Pylori in Children

H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) is a spiral-shaped germ (bacteria) that infects the stomach. It can damage the tissue in your child’s stomach and the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). This can cause redness and swelling (inflammation). It may also cause painful sores called peptic ulcers in the upper digestive tract.

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HELLP Syndrome

HELLP syndrome is a rare but life-threatening condition in pregnancy. It causes red cells in the blood to break down. It also causes problems with the liver, bleeding, and blood pressure. It is often linked with preeclampsia and eclampsia. It often develops before delivery. But it may also occur after delivery.

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Hemangioma

A hemangioma is a common vascular birthmark, made of extra blood vessels in the skin. It is a benign (non-cancerous) growth. Hemangiomas may occur anywhere on the body. There are three main types of hemangioma: superficial (on the surface of the skin), deep (under the skin) and mixed.

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Hemangioma and Vascular Malformations

The treatment of a hemangioma is usually observation. Some hemangiomas can cause problems if they bleed or press on important nearby structures, such as the eye or the upper airway. Venous malformations, lymphatic malformations and arteriovenous malformations require a multidisciplinary approach.

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Hemifacial Microsomia (HFM) in Children

Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital disorder. This means that your child is born with it. In this condition, one side of your baby’s face is underdeveloped (hemi means half). HFM usually only affects one side of the face. Sometimes both sides may be affected.

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Hemoglobin C Disease

Most people carry hemoglobin A in their red blood cells. Those who carry hemoglobin C, considered an abnormal variation, may develop hemoglobin C disease. This blood disorder develops because the red blood cells break down earlier than they should, leaving too few in the blood and leading to mild anemia.

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Hemoglobin E Trait

Hemoglobin E trait is an inherited blood disorder. That means it is passed down through your parent’s genes. It occurs most often in people of Southeast Asian descent. Many people with hemoglobin E trait have no symptoms.

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Hemoglobinopathy

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Hemolytic Anemia

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Hemolytic Anemia in Children

The hemolytic anemias are a group of disorders in which the red blood cells are destroyed faster than the bone marrow can make them. The term for destruction of red blood cells is hemolysis.

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Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN)

Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is a blood problem in newborns. It occurs when your baby's red blood cells break down at a fast rate.  It’s also called erythroblastosis fetalis.

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Hemolytic Disorders

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Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Children

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare condition that can lead to kidney failure. The syndrome harms the small structures and vessels inside the kidneys. HUS causes red blood cells to clog the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys. It may cause damage to the kidney tissues.

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Hemophilia

Hemophilia is an inherited blood disorder. In hemophilia, a blood clotting factor is missing. In Hemophilia A, Factor VIII (8) is missing. In Hemophilia B, Factor IX (9) is missing. Without these factors, blood will not clot well. People with hemophilia are born with the disorder. It is not contagious.

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Hemophilia Carrier

A hemophilia carrier is a female who has the gene that causes hemophilia A or hemophilia B deficiency.

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Hemophilia in Children

Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder. Children with hemophilia can’t stop bleeding because they don’t have enough clotting factor in their blood. Clotting factors are needed for blood to clot. Blood clots to prevent excessive bleeding.

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Hemorrhagic Stroke

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Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

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Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP)

HSP results from inflammation of small blood vessels in the skin and other organs in the body.

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Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) in Children

Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a condition that involves swelling (inflammation) of small blood vessels. The swollen blood vessels leak into the skin, joints, intestines, and kidneys. 

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Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is an infection of the liver. Hepatitis A is caused by a virus found in feces, contaminated water and food that has been handled by infected persons. People are infected by passing the virus from contaminated hands to their mouths or by eating foods that contain the virus.

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Hepatitis A, B and C

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Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is caused by a virus found in blood, semen, vaginal secretions and saliva. It is mainly spread through unprotected sexual activity or exposure to blood.

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Hepatitis B (HBV) in Children

An infant or young child who contracts hepatitis B is at greater risk of staying infected with the virus and of having life-long liver problems, such as scarring of the liver and liver cancer.

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Hepatitis in Children

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. It can damage and destroy liver cells.

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Hepatoblastoma

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Hepatoblastoma in Children

Hepatoblastoma is a very rare cancer. It’s a tumor that starts in the liver. The cancer cells are similar to fetal liver cells. It usually affects children less than 3 to 4 years of age.

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Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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Hereditary Non-polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC)

Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, often called HNPCC or Lynch Syndrome, is an inherited cancer syndrome that affects the digestive tract, reproductive tract and other major organs.

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Hereditary Retinoblastoma

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Herpangina in Children

Herpangina is a very common illness in children. It causes small blister-like bumps or sores (ulcers) in the mouth.

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Herpes Simplex Virus

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a very contagious virus that causes infections. There are two types of HSV. One type (HSV-1) usually causes sores around the lips or inside the mouth that are sometimes called fever blisters or cold sores. The other type (HSV-2) usually causes sores on the genitals.

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Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores) in Children

Cold sores are small blisters around the mouth caused by the herpes simplex virus. Once a child is infected with the virus, the virus becomes inactive (dormant) for long periods of time. It can then become active at any time and cause cold sores.

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Hidradenitis Supperativa (HS)

Hidradenitis suppurativa (hy drah duh NY tiss supp yoo ruh TY vuh) or HS is a long-term (chronic) skin condition. Plugged pores and red, tender bumps or boils begin deep in the skin around hair follicles that contain specific sweat glands called apocrine glands.

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High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure means that there is higher than normal pressure inside the arteries either during systole or during diastole.

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High Blood Pressure in Children and Teens

Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls. High blood pressure (hypertension) means that the pressure inside the arteries is too high. This higher pressure may harm the arteries and cause the heart to work harder.

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High Cholesterol

There are two important types of cholesterol. One is LDL (low density lipoprotein) or "bad" cholesterol. The other is HDL (high density lipoprotein) or the "good" cholesterol.

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High-Risk Newborn Blood Disorders

Detailed information on blood disorders that place a newborn at higher risk and require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional

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Hip Dysplasia

Hip Dysplasia can be presented as early as infancy. Early screenings and detection are critical in treating hip dysplasia long-term. 

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Hirschsprung Disease

Hirschsprung disease, also known as megacolon, is a congenital condition that causes blockage of the intestine. The blockage is caused by a lack of nerves in the bottom segment of the colon. Children with Hirschsprung disease will need surgery to remove the non-functional segment of the intestine.

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Hirschsprung Disease (HD)

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss Hirschprung disease. The symptoms of Hirschprung disease depend on the person’s age. Several tests may be done to see if a child has this condition. Resources are available to help better understand diagnostic tests and management programs.

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Hirschsprung Disease in Children

Hirschsprung disease is a rare birth defect. It affects the nerve cells in the large intestine. These nerve cells control the muscles that move food and waste, or stool, through the large intestine. The large intestine is the last part of the digestive tract.

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HIV Home Care

Detailed information on HIV home care for your child

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HIV Infection/AIDS

HIV is a virus that causes a number of different health problems including AIDS. The HIV virus is passed from person to person in certain ways

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HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

A mother with HIV can pass the virus to her baby during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and breastfeeding.

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Hives

Hives, also called urticaria (yer ti CARE ee uh), are red, itchy, raised bumps or welts on the skin. They may be small, like mosquito bites, or many inches wide. Hives can appear alone, in a group or can connect with each other to cover bigger areas. When pressed, the center of the hive turns pale.

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Hoarse Voice (Dysphonia)

Dysphonia, also known as hoarseness, refers to having an abnormal voice. For those affected by dysphonia, the voice can be described as hoarse, rough, raspy, strained, weak, breathy or gravely. There may also be voice breaks and pitch changes. Causes may include inflammation, growths and scarring.

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Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children

Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections. The lymphatic system also helps with balancing fluids in different parts of the body.

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Hodgkins Lymphoma

Hodgkins Lymphoma (also known as Hodgkin’s Disease) is a form of cancer of the lymphatic (lim FA tik) system. The cause of Hodgkin Lymphoma is not known. The lymphatic system is a part of the circulatory system. It plays a main role in fighting infection.

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Holter Monitoring for Children

Holter monitoring is a way to continuously check the electrical activity of the heart. Your child will wear a small device called a Holter monitor for at least 24 to 48 hours. The device constantly checks your child's heart during this time.

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Home Care for Children with Sickle Cell Disease

Although a child who has sickle cell disease should be under a healthcare provider's care, parents can do many things at home to reduce symptoms and maintain the child's health.

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Home Page - Adolescent Medicine

Detailed information on adolescent medicine, including growth and development, cognitive development, relationship development, health and injury problems, and safety

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Home Page - Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

Detailed information on allergy, asthma, and immunology

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Home Page - Burns

Detailed information on burns, including anatomy, classification, treatment, and prevention

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Home Page - Cardiovascular Disorders

Detailed information on cardiovascular diseases in children

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Home Page - Care of the Terminally Ill Child

Detailed information on care of the terminally ill child

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Home Page - Child and Adolescent Mental Health

Detailed information on child and adolescent mental health disorders

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Home Page - Common Childhood Injuries and Poisonings

Detailed information on the common poisonings and injuries of children

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Home Page - Craniofacial Anomalies

Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies, including Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate, Craniosynostosis, Deformational Plagiocephaly, Hemifacial Microsomia, Vascular Malformations, and Hemangiomas

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Home Page - Dental and Oral Health

Detailed information on dental and oral health in children

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Home Page - Dermatology and Children

Detailed information on dermatology and children

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Home Page - Diabetes and Other Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

Detailed information on diabetes and other endocrine and metabolic disorders that affect children

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Home Page - Digestive and Liver Disorders

Detailed information on digestive disorders in children

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Home Page - Ear, Nose, and Throat

Detailed information on ear, nose, and throat disorders in children

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Home Page - Eye Care and Children

Detailed information on eye disorders in children

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Home Page - Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders

Detailed information on genitourinary and kidney disorders in children

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Home Page - Growth and Development

Detailed information on proper health maintenance for a child

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Home Page - Hematology and Blood Disorders in Children

Detailed information on blood disorders, including Anemia, Aplastic Anemia, Hemolytic Anemia, Iron Deficiency Anemia, Megaloblastic Anemia, Sickle Cell Anemia, Thalassemia, Alpha Thalassemia, Beta Thalassemia (Cooley's Anemia)

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Home Page - High-Risk Newborn

Detailed information on high-risk newborns

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Home Page - High-Risk Pregnancy

Detailed information on high-risk pregnancy

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Home Page - Infectious Diseases in Children

Detailed information on infectious diseases in children

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Home Page - Medical Genetics

Detailed information on medical genetics, including chromosome abnormalities, single gene defects, multifactorial inheritance, teratogens, and non-traditional inheritance

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Home Page - Neurological Disorders

Detailed information on neurological disorders in children

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Home Page - Normal Newborn

Detailed information on newborn care

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Home Page - Oncology

Detailed information on cancer in children

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Home Page - Orthopedics

Detailed information on orthopedic disorders in children

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Home Page - Pediatric Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases

Detailed information on pediatric arthritis and other rheumatic diseases

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Home Page - Respiratory Disorders in Children

Detailed information on respiratory disorders in children

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Home Page - Safety and Injury Prevention

Detailed information on safety and injury prevention of children

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Home Page - The Child Having Surgery

Detailed information on surgery in children

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Home Page - Transplantation

Detailed information on transplantation in children

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Home Wound Care

Your child may come home with unhealed areas that still require dressing changes. You will be instructed on how to change dressings before you leave the hospital.

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Horseshoe Kidney

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Horseshoe Kidney (Renal Fusion) in Children

Horseshoe kidney is when the 2 kidneys join (fuse) together at the bottom. They form a U shape like a horseshoe.

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Hospice

The goal of hospice care is to provide the terminally ill child peace, comfort, and dignity.

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Hospital Visit/Preoperative Clinic

Touring the hospital before surgery can help your child see the sights, sounds, and events he or she will experience the day of surgery. It is a nonthreatening, often reassuring, way to learn about the hospital.

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How Breastmilk Is Made

Detailed information on how breastmilk is made for breastfeeding

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How the Liver Works

Detailed information on how the liver works, including a full-color, labeled illustration of the digestive system

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How to Manage Hearing Loss in Children

A look at the healthcare team members involved in diagnosing a child's hearing loss, and different ways of managing hearing loss.

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Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) in Children

Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of viruses that cause different types of respiratory infections. They are more common in children and babies. But they can occur in people of any age, especially those with a weak immune system.

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Hydramnios

In this condition, there is too much amniotic fluid around your baby during pregnancy. It happens in about 1 in 100 pregnancies.

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Hydrocele

Hydrocele (pronounced hydro-seal) is a collection of clear or yellow fluid around the testicle within the scrotum. Many male newborns have small hydroceles present at birth, most of which will go away on their own within the first year and do not require surgery. Babies, toddlers or older children may develop hydroceles later on.

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Hydrocele in Children

A hydrocele is fluid buildup in the thin pouch that holds the testes in the scrotum. Up to 1 in 10 baby boys have a hydrocele at birth. In most cases, it goes away without treatment in the first year.

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Hydrocephalus

A baby with hydrocephalus has extra fluid around the brain. This fluid is called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Too much CSF can increase the pressure in your baby’s head. This causes the bones in your baby’s skull to expand and separate. The baby's head may look larger than normal.

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Hydrocephalus

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Hydronephrosis

Hydronephrosis (pronounced high-dro-nef-row-sis) is a radiology term for swelling or fluid in the kidney.

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Hydrops Fetalis

Hydrops fetalis is severe swelling (edema) in an unborn baby or a newborn baby. It is a life-threatening problem.

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Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn

Hyperbilirubinemia happens when there is too much bilirubin in your baby’s blood. Bilirubin is made by the breakdown of red blood cells. It’s hard for babies to get rid of bilirubin. It can build up in their blood, tissues, and fluids.

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Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Many pregnant women have some nausea and sometimes vomiting in the first trimester. A few pregnant women have a severe kind of nausea and vomiting called hyperemesis gravidarum. These women often lose weight, and get dehydrated. They may also have changes in the body's chemical processes.

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Hyperhidrosis

Sweating (or perspiration) is a normal body function that helps to maintain the body temperature and prevent overheating. An increased, unusual amount of sweating is called hyperhidrosis (hie purr hie DROH sis). This is common, but can be embarrassing and frustrating.

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Hypermobile Joints

Hypermobile joints, also known as loose joints, describes the ability of a joint to move beyond its normal range of motion. People with hypermobile joints are sometimes referred to as being double jointed. Benign hypermobility syndrome can lead to weak, loose ligaments and joint instability.

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Hyperparathyroidism in Children

Hyperparathyroidism is when the parathyroid glands make too much parathyroid hormone. The condition is rare in children.

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Hypertelorbitism

Hypertelorbitism, also known as orbital hypertelorism, is an abnormally increased distance between the orbits, which are the bony sockets holding the eyes. In addition, patients may have a flat nasal bridge. The surgical treatment of hypertelorbitism depends on the underlying cause.

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Hyperthyroidism

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Hypocalcemia in the Newborn

Hypocalcemia is when a person doesn't have enough calcium in the blood. In babies, it’s called neonatal hypocalcemia. Your baby can get it at different times and from different causes.

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Hypoglycemia in a Newborn Baby

Hypoglycemia is when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too low. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain and the body. In a newborn baby, low blood sugar can happen for many reasons. It can cause problems such as shakiness, blue tint to the skin, and breathing and feeding problems.

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Hypoglycemia in Children

Hypoglycemia is when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too low. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain and the body. The normal range of blood glucose is about 70 to 140 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). The amount blood differs based on the most recent meal. Babies and small children with type 1 diabetes will have different goal ranges of blood glucose levels. 

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Hypoparathyroidism in Children

Hypoparathyroidism is when the parathyroid glands don’t make enough parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid glands are 4 tiny glands on the thyroid. The hormone they make helps manage levels of calcium in the bloodstream. Low levels of the hormone leads to low levels of calcium. This can lead to muscle spasms and cramping, called tetany.

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Hypopituitarism in Children

Hypopituitarism means that the pituitary gland is not working normally. The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain. It’s the master endocrine gland in the body. The pituitary gland normally releases as many as 8 different hormones. These hormones control growth, metabolism, blood pressure, and other body processes. The effects of hypopituitarism may be slow over time. Or they may be sudden.

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Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital heart defect where most of the structures on the left side of the heart are small and underdeveloped. The Hybrid approach, developed by surgeons at Nationwide Children's Hospital, is an alternative to Norwood open heart surgery for HLHS.

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Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) in Children

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a group of defects of the heart and large blood vessels. A child is born with this condition (congenital heart defect). It occurs when part of the heart doesn't develop as it should during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

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Hypospadias

Mild hypospadias is when the urethral opening is just below the tip of the penis. Very severe hypospadias is when the opening is at the level of or below the scrotum.

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Hypospadias in Children

Hypospadias is a problem where the opening of the urethra is not at the tip of the penis. With hypospadias, the end of the tube is lower down on the underside of the penis. Or it may be in the scrotum.

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Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism happens when the body does not make enough thyroid hormone. As a result, many body functions slow down.

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Ibuprofen Chewable Tablets

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Identification, Treatment, and Prevention of Birth Defects

Detailed information on the identification, treatment, and prevention of birth defects

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If Your Child Has Trouble Adjusting After a Burn Injury

Agitated behavior such as crying, sleep disturbances and nightmares, and repeated episodes of sadness are signs that your child may be having difficulty coping with stress.

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Iliotibial Band Syndrome

The Iliotibial Band (IT Band) is an extension of muscle located on the outside of the thigh. IT Band syndrome is a painful condition caused by overuse.

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Immune Deficiencies

Detailed information on immune deficiency disorders in children, including Severe Combined Immunodeficiency, Common Variable Immunodeficiency, DiGeorge Syndrome, and X-linked Agammaglobulinemia

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Immune Disorders

Detailed information on the immune system and immune disorders

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Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP)

A child with immune thrombocytopenia, or ITP, may have a platelet count of less than 1,000. ITP happens when the body attacks and destroys its own platelets.

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Immune Thrombocytopenia Purpura (ITP)

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Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Children

ITP is a blood disorder that causes a decrease in the number of platelets in the blood. Platelets help stop bleeding. So, a decrease in platelets can result in easy bruising, bleeding gums, and bleeding inside the body. The lower the platelet count, the greater the risk of bleeding.

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Imperforate Anus in Children

Imperforate anus is a problem that your child is born with. It happens when your child has a blocked or missing anus.

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Impetigo

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Impetigo

Impetigo is a common skin infection caused by bacteria.

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Impetigo in Children

Impetigo is an infection of the skin. When it affects just the surface, it’s called superficial impetigo. Impetigo can also affect deeper parts of the skin. This is called ecthyma. It may occur on healthy skin. Or it may occur where the skin was injured by a cut, scrape, or insect bite.

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Increased Intracranial Pressure

Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) means greater than normal pressure on the brain. It results from a greater volume of fluid or swelling of the brain. Call 911 if your child loses consciousness or has convulsions (seizures) lasting longer than 5 minutes.

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Infant

Detailed information on infant health

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Infant Feeding Guide

How much, what, and when to feed your baby can seem daunting. But this cheat sheet will give you the information you need to start your baby on the right nutritional path.

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Infant Nutrition

Choosing how to feed your baby is an important decision that has life-long effects for your baby and for you.

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Infant of a Mother with Diabetes

An infant of a mother with diabetes is a baby who is born to a mother with diabetes. Because the mother has diabetes, the baby is at risk for problems.

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Infant Play

Hang brightly colored objects near your newborn. Sing and talk to your baby. Rock your baby, and take him or her for walks.

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Infant Problems of the Teeth and Mouth

Detailed information on infant problems of the teeth and mouth

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Infant Sleep

If you know anything about your baby's sleeping pattern, it's probably that it doesn't coincide with yours. But learning more about your baby's nighttime and daytime sleep needs can help you recognize what's normal, and what's not.

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Infection in Babies

Newborns are particularly susceptible to infections. One of the best ways to keep your baby infection-free is to wash your hands before and after handling him or her. Other preventive measures may also be necessary.

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Infectious Diseases

Detailed information on infectious diseases in children.

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Infectious Mononucleosis (Mono) in Teens and Young Adults

Infectious mononucleosis is a contagious illness. It’s common in teens and young adults.

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Inflammatory and Infectious Digestive Disorders

Detailed information on digestive inflammatory and infectious disorders in children

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Inflammatory and Infectious Musculoskeletal Disorders

Detailed information on the most common types of inflammatory and infectious disorders in children

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Inflammatory and Infectious Neurological Disorders

Detailed information on the most common inflammatory and infectious disorders in children

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Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) refers to a chronic inflammation of the intestines not due to infections or other identifiable causes. There are two main types of IBD: ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

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Influenza

Influenza (in flu EN za), also known as “the flu,” is an illness caused by a virus. A child who has the flu may have some or all of these symptoms: High fever Headache Dry cough Sore throat Runny or stuffy nose Muscle aches Tiredness Stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea In some people, the

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Influenza (Flu) in Children

Influenza (flu) is a very contagious viral infection that affects the air passages of the lungs. It causes a high fever, body aches, a cough, and other symptoms.

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Informed Consent

You will be asked to sign an informed consent form. It states in detail that you understand the risks and benefits of your child's surgery.

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Inguinal and Umbilical Hernias in Children

A hernia is when a part of the intestine pushes through a weak spot in the belly (abdominal) muscles. The hernia creates a soft lump or bulge under the skin.

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Inguinal and Umbilical Hernias in Children

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Inguinal Hernia in Children

A hernia occurs when a part of the intestine pushes through a weakness in the belly (abdominal) muscles. A hernia in the groin area is called an inguinal hernia.

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Injuries to the Teeth

The injury may be to a primary tooth or a permanent tooth. A tooth can be cracked, chipped, or totally detached from its socket.

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Insect Bites and Children

Detailed information on insect bites, including fleas, mites, chiggers, and ticks

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Insect Stings and Allergic Reactions

For most children, the reaction to a sting is brief, with redness and swelling followed by pain and itching. Others may have an allergic reaction that is life-threatening.

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Insect Stings in Children

Insect stings can occur anywhere on the body and can be painful and frightening for a child. Most insect stings cause only minor discomfort. Most stings are from honeybees or yellow jackets, also called ground hornets.

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Insects in a Child's Ear

Don't try to remove the insect by poking it with a cotton swab. This may push the insect farther into the ear or damage to the middle ear and eardrum.

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Installing and Using Child Safety Seats and Booster Seats

As part of your preparation for your new baby, you probably got an infant safety seat for the car. But do you know how to make sure it’s installed properly? And when do you switch to a child safety seat? Learn the ins and outs of safe car travel for your little one.

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Intensive Care

Intensive care is needed for children who have had certain types of major surgery: heart operations, organ transplants, or neurosurgery.

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Interacting with a Child Who Has Autism Spectrum Disorder

If you are a parent or grandparent of a child with ASD, it can be heartbreaking if you feel like you just can't connect with him or her. Here are some things to know that can help you and your relationship.

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Intestinal Malrotation and Volvulus in Children

Intestinal malrotation is a birth defect. It happens when your baby’s intestinal tract doesn’t form as it should during pregnancy. Malrotation happens when your baby’s intestine doesn’t turn like it should.

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Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri)

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, sometimes called pseudotumor cerebri, is a condition in which the cerebro-spinal fluid (the fluid inside the skull) is not able to drain normally.

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Intraoperative Care for Children

Detailed information on intraoperative management

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Intravenous (IV) Line and Tubes

Because most babies in the NICU are too small or sick to take milk feedings, medicines and fluids are often given through their veins or arteries.

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Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Babies

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is bleeding inside or around the ventricles in the brain. The ventricles are the spaces in the brain that contain the cerebral spinal fluid.

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Intussusception (Inpatient)

Intussusception is a blockage of the intestines. It happens when one part of the intestine folds into another part. In most cases the cause is not known.

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Intussusception (Outpatient)

Intussusception (In-TUSS-uh-SEP-shun) is a blockage of the intestines. It happens when one part of the intestine folds into another part. In most cases the cause is not known. It may occur any time between 3 months and 5 years of age, but is more common in children younger than 18 months.

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Intussusception in Children

Intussusception is a serious problem in the intestine. It occurs when one part of the intestine slides inside another part. The intestine then folds into itself like a telescope. This creates a blockage or obstruction. It stops food that is being digested from passing through the intestine.

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Iron Deficiency Anemia

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Iron Deficiency Anemia

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Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Children

Anemia is a common health problem in children. The most common cause of anemia is not getting enough iron. A child who is anemic does not have enough red blood cells or enough hemoglobin.

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder that affects the large intestine (colon). Symptoms are caused by changes in how the GI tract works. IBS is a group of symptoms that occur together, not a disease.

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in Children

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a long-term (chronic) disorder that affects the large intestine or colon. IBS causes painful belly (abdominal) and bowel symptoms.

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Is Your Teen Abusing Drugs or Alcohol?

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Jaundice (Hyperbilirubinemia)

Jaundice, also called hyperbilirubinemia, means that there is a high level of bilirubin in the blood. This is a pigment that settles in body tissues and can make your baby’s skin look yellow. Jaundice often occurs in newborns. If high bilirubin levels are untreated they can cause serious problems.

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Jaw Abnormalities

Jaw abnormalities affect the bite and appearance of patients. These may be due to a cleft lip and palate, or other causes. When planning surgery, most patients will need orthodontics. Treatment may include LeFort1, bilateral sagittal splint osteotomy (BSSO) and genioplasty.

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Jeune's Syndrome

Jeune's Syndrome is a form of congenital dwarfism causing children to have a deformity of their chest wall.

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Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis (JAS) in Children

Juvenile ankylosing spondylitis is a type of arthritis. It affects the spine and the places where the muscles, tendons, and ligaments are attached to bone. Ankylosing means stiff or rigid. Spondyl means spine. Itis refers to inflammation.

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Juvenile Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases

Arthritis is an inflammation of the joints that causes pain and swelling. Juvenile arthritis is the term used for arthritis in children. Arthritis is one category of rheumatic diseases. Rheumatic diseases can cause pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints, and bones. They can also affect other areas of the body, including organs.

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Juvenile Dermatomyositis

Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare disease that causes muscle inflammation and a skin rash.

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Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a form of arthritis in children. Arthritis causes joint swelling (inflammation) and joint stiffness. JIA is arthritis that affects 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks in a child age 16 or younger.

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Juvenile Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a condition where the bones are thinner than normal. It’s a condition that gets worse over time. This means that bones get thinner over time, or don’t grow as they should. The bones are then weaker and at higher risk of breaking. The condition is much more common in older adults. But it can also occur during childhood. In children, it’s called juvenile osteoporosis.

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Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome (JPS)

Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an inherited condition that is characterized by the development of hamartomatous polyps throughout the digestive tract.

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Kawasaki Disease

Kawasaki Disease is the most common cause of acquired heart disease in the United States and Japan. The disease can cause blood vessels to become inflamed or swollen throughout the body. It is more common in boys and in Asians and Asian-Americans.

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Kawasaki Disease in Children

Kawasaki disease causes inflamed blood vessels. It can weaken the walls of blood vessels, including the arteries of the heart. Kawasaki mostly affects infants and young children. It is uncommon in the U.S.

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Keeping Your Baby Warm

Premature and low birthweight babies may be too immature to regulate their own temperature, even in a warm environment. Even full-term and healthy newborns may not be able to maintain their body temperature if the environment is too cold.

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Keratitis in Children

Keratitis is an inflammation or infection of the cornea of the eye. The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the front of the eye.

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Keratosis Pilaris

Keratosis pilaris is a dry skin type. It looks like dry, rough, small bumps that are flesh-colored or pink and can feel like sandpaper or chicken skin. It is not contagious and is usually not itchy. The most common areas for these bumps are on the back of the arms, front of the thighs and the face.

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Ketogenic Diet for Seizures in Children

A ketogenic diet is a special type of diet that causes the body to make ketones. The diet is very high in fat, and very low in carbohydrates. It includes enough protein to help your child grow.

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Kidney Stones

Stones in the urinary tract form in the kidneys when small particles, which are usually dissolved in the urine, become oversaturated and begin to form small crystals

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Kidney Transplantation in Children

Detailed information on kidney transplants, including why a kidney transplant is recommended, what is involved in kidney transplant surgery, and the long-term outlook for a child after a kidney transplant.

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Knee Sprain

Knee sprains can be significant injuries that occur from a stretch or tear of the ligaments in and around the knee.

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Knock Knees (Genu Valgum)

Genu valgum, also known as knock knees, is a common lower leg abnormality that is usually seen in the toddler, preschool and early school-age children. In genu valgum, the lower extremities turn inward, causing the appearance of the knees to be touching while the ankles remain apart.

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Knowing When to Seek Treatment for Your Child

Common symptoms of a potential emotional, behavioral, or developmental problem include poor grades in school, withdrawal from friends and family, and insomnia.

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Knowing When to Seek Treatment for Your Child

Parents are often the first to suspect that their child or teen is challenged by feelings, behaviors, or environmental conditions that cause him or her to act disruptive, rebellious, or sad.

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Kyphosis

Kyphosis is the natural curve of the upper back (thoracic) area of the spine. In the extreme curves, the spine looks like a “hunchback.” Some excessive curves can be passed on by parents. Some can be brought on from bad posture. 

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Kyphosis in Children

Kyphosis is a deformity of the backbone (spine). It's when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) in the upper back curve outward more than they should.

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Labial Adhesions

Labial adhesions, or labial agglutination, occur when the labia minor (inner lips of the vulva) are stuck together, covering the vaginal opening. The vast majority of girls with labial adhesions have no symptoms and do not require treatment as the adhesions will resolve on their own.

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Labial Hypertrophy

Larger-appearing labia minora, known as labial hypertrophy, may be completely normal. Labia vary in appearance with a wide range of normal regarding the size, shape and color. The majority of patients who have concerns about labial hypertrophy have normal labia.

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Lacerations (Cuts) Without Stitches

A laceration is a tear or opening in the skin caused by an injury. Some lacerations are small and need only minor treatment at home.

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Lacerations With Stitches

Stitches, also called sutures, are special types of thread that hold the edges of a wound together while it heals.

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Lactose Intolerance

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Lactose Intolerance in Children

Lactose intolerance is when the body can’t easily break down or digest lactose. Lactose is a sugar found in milk and milk products.

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Langerhan Cell Histiocytosis (LCH)

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is among a rare and diverse group of disorders affecting primarily children. Although it was first described more than a century ago, much remains to be discovered about the causes of LCH.

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Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in Children

Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare disorder that causes damage to tissues all over the body.

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Language Disorders in Children

A language disorder in a child means he or she has trouble understanding words that he or she hears and reads. Or the child has trouble speaking with others and expressing thoughts and feelings.

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Large Cell Lymphoma

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Large for Gestational Age

Large for gestational age is used to describe newborn babies who weigh more than the usual amount for the number of weeks of pregnancy. Babies are called large for gestational age if they weigh more than 9 in 10 babies of the same gestational age.

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Laryngomalacia

Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of noisy breathing in infants. More than half of infants have noisy breathing during the first week of life, and most develop this by 2-4 weeks of age. Rarely, laryngomalacia occurs in older children, or adults, particularly those with other medical problems.

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Laryngomalacia (Laryngeal Stridor)

Laryngomalacia, also called laryngeal stridor, results from a weakness of parts of the voice box (larynx). The main symptom of laryngomalacia is noisy breathing when your child breathes in.

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Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI)

Tuberculosis (too ber cu LOW sis), or TB, is the common name for a germ called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Persons with latent TB infection (LTBI) do not feel sick. They do not have any symptoms but can potentially develop active TB disease. Also, persons with LTBI are not contagious.

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Lead Poisoning in Children

Lead poisoning is a totally preventable disease. Children ages 1 to 3 who live in low-income housing built before 1978 are especially at risk.

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Learning Disorders

A learning disorder is when a child has trouble learning in certain school subjects.

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Learning Disorders in Children

A learning disorder is when a child has trouble learning in certain school subjects. Your child may have problems with reading, math, or writing. Here's what you need to know, and how to help.

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Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease

Learn more about Legg-Calve-Perthes disease.

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Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease

This disease is a temporary condition that causes the hip joint to become painful and stiff.

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Leukemia

Although childhood cancer is rare, leukemia is the most common form. The cause of leukemia is not known, but we do know it is not contagious (“catching”). It is not thought to be hereditary (inherited from your parents).

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Leukemia (ALL and AML)

Learn more about the most common form of pediatric cancer, leukemia. 

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Leukemia in Children

Leukemia is cancer of the blood. It’s the most common form of cancer in childhood. The cancer cells grow in bone marrow and go into the blood.

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Lichen Planus

Lichen planus (LIE kun PLAY nuss) is a rash that appears on the skin as shiny, flat bumps.The bumps may be clustered together in patches or dispersed (scattered far apart). They can be red or purple in color. The rash may be itchy.

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Lichen Striatus

Lichen striatus is a rash that appears as pink or lightly-colored, scaly, flat bumps. Over time, these bumps come together to form a line or band on the skin.

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Limb Length Discrepancy (LLD)

A limb length discrepancy (LLD) is when one arm or leg is longer than the other arm or leg.

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Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy

Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophy affects males and females. Most commonly it causes progressive (worsening) hip and shoulder muscle weakness that spreads to the arms, legs, and back. Symptoms usually begin between 8 and 15 years of age, and progress slowly.

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Listeriosis

You've probably been warned not to eat brie cheese or order your steak cooked to anything less than medium. Why do you have to take these precautions? Listeriosis. Learn more about this food-borne illness and how to avoid it.

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Little League Elbow

Little League Elbow (also known as Medial Epicondylitis) is a painful inflammation of the bony bump on the inside of the elbow.

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Liver Disease

Liver disease occurs in children for a variety of reasons. Babies may have problems with inherited disease, despite having healthy parents. Congenital problems where the bile ducts don’t develop normally may also cause problems in babies.

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Liver Disorders

Detailed information on the most common liver disorders in children

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Liver Transplant for Children

A liver transplant is surgery to replace a diseased liver with a healthy liver from another person.

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Living with Aplastic Anemia

Aplastic anemia happens when bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside bones, doesn't make enough red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

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Living With Congenital Heart Disease

Detailed information for children living with a congenital heart disease

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Lordosis

Lordosis is the natural curve of the lower back (lumbar) area of the spine. There are five primary types of lordosis: postural lordosis, congenital/traumatic lordosis, post-surgical laminectomy hyperlordosis, neuromuscular lordosis and lordosis secondary to hip flexion contracture.

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Lordosis in Children

Lordosis is a deformity of the backbone (spine). It's when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) in the lower back curve inward more than normal.

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Low Back Strain

A low back strain is a stretch or tear of a muscle in the lower back that hold the vertebrae in its proper place.

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Low Birth Weight

Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams). An average newborn usually weighs about 8 pounds. A low-birth-weight baby may be healthy even though he or she is small. But a low-birth-weight baby can also have many serious health problems.

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Low Milk Production

Detailed information on breastfeeding and low breastmilk production.

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Lower Respiratory Disorders

Detailed information on lower respiratory disorders in children

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Lumbar Puncture

A spinal tap (lumbar puncture) is a test that checks the health of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

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Lung Transplantation in Children

A detailed look at lung transplantation in children, including why it is advised, information about the surgery, and the long-term outlook for a child after a lung transplant.

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Lupus and Pregnancy

Many women with lupus give birth to healthy children. The key to a successful pregnancy is know how lupus affects your body.

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Lying and Stealing

Lying and stealing are common, but inappropriate, behaviors in school-aged children. Most of the time these behaviors will be outgrown.

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Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is caused by ticks and is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. The ticks that carry Lyme disease are very small and hard to see - only as big as a sesame seed. Boys ages 5 to 19 are most at risk for Lyme disease but anyone can get it.

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Lyme Disease in Children

Lyme disease is an infection caused by bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi. The bacteria are usually spread by tick bites. Lyme disease is a year-round problem, but it peaks during the spring and summer months.

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Lymphadenopathy in Children

Lymphadenopathy means swelling of the lymph nodes or glands. Lymphadenopathy can occur in just one area of the body, such as the neck. Or it may affect lymph nodes throughout the body. The cervical lymph nodes, found in the neck, are the most common site of lymphadenopathy.

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Lymphatic Malformation

A lymphatic malformation is the result of abnormal formation and development during fetal development of the otherwise normal lymphatic vessels in the body. This is usually in one area of the body: neck, chest, abdomen and extremities.

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Lymphatic Malformations in Children

A lymphatic malformation  is a lymphatic vessel that isn’t formed right. The malformations are lymphatic tissue filled with fluid (cyst). Your child may have one or more of these cysts.

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Lymphatic Masses

Detailed information on lymphatic masses in children

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Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

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Lymphoma

Lymphoma is cancer which arises in the lymph system, the body’s circulatory network for filtering out impurities. There are two broad varieties, Hodgkin’s disease, and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Children

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a procedure that uses a large magnet, radio waves, and a computer to create detailed images of organs and tissues in the body. It’s used to diagnose problems in many areas of the body.

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Major Depression in Teens

Major depression goes beyond the day's normal ups and downs. It involves a teen's body, mood, and thoughts. It can affect and disrupt eating, sleeping, or thinking patterns.

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Major Depression in Teens

Major depression is a type of mood disorder. It’s also known as clinical depression or unipolar depression.

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Male Conditions

Detailed information on the most common male genitourinary conditions

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Male Growth and Development

Detailed information on male growth and development

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Male Physical Development

Detailed information on male growth and development

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Malignant Teratoma

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Mallet Finger

Mallet finger is an injury to the end of the finger. It is sometimes also called “baseball finger.” It occurs when an object (most often a ball) hits the tip of the finger. This forcibly bends the fingertip further than it should go. This causes damage to the extensor tendon.

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Malocclusion in Children

Malocclusion is when a child’s teeth become crooked or crowded. The child may also have a problem with their bite. That means the teeth of the upper jaw don’t meet normally with the teeth of the lower jaw when the jaw is closed.

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Managing Poor Weight Gain in Your Breastfed Baby

Sometimes a breastfed baby will gain weight more slowly than they should. Read on to learn some helpful tips on how to deal with this.

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Marfan Syndrome

Marfan Syndrome is an inherited disorder of connective tissue, and is caused by genetic mutations that result in the dysregulation of the proteins of the extracellular matrix (fibrillin).

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Marfan Syndrome in Children

Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue. Connective tissue holds the body's cells, organs, and other tissue together. Connective tissue is also important in growth and development.

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Mastoiditis

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Mastoiditis in Children

Mastoiditis is a complication of a middle ear infeciton. Read on to learn more about symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

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Maternal and Fetal Infections

In pregnancy, infections are a common complication—but women may not have obvious symptoms, or they may show different symptoms of an infection.

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Maternal and Fetal Infections Overview

Treating maternal and fetal infections can be tricky during pregnancy. Learn more about these infections.

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Maternal and Fetal Testing

Women with high-risk pregnancies often need a close watch for potential problems or complications. Many tests and procedures are available to monitor the health of both mother and baby.

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Maternal and Fetal Testing Overview

Many tests and procedures are available to monitor the health of both you and your baby. Many of these pose little or no risk.

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Maternal Nutrition and Breastfeeding

Women who are breastfeeding should eat a well-balanced, varied diet and drink enough liquids. Read on for more details.

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Maternity Leave

The length of time given for a paid maternity leave of absence varies among companies. Some women extend their maternity leaves by taking additional weeks of unpaid leave.

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Measles

Measles, also known as rubeola, is an infection caused by a virus. It is very contagious. It can be very serious in young children, adults over 20, pregnant women and people with a weakened immune system.

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Measles (Rubeola) in Children

Measles (rubeola) is a respiratory illness caused by a virus. It causes a red, blotchy rash. It’s a very contagious illness.

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Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR)

The MMR vaccine is given in two doses - at 12 to 15 months and at 4 to 6 years, or at least one month after the first dose.

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Measuring a Baby's Temperature

Most healthcare providers recommend taking a baby's temperature rectally, by placing a thermometer in the baby's anus. This method is accurate and gives a quick reading of the baby's internal temperature.

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Meckel Diverticulum

Meckel diverticulum is a small pouch in the wall of the intestine. It’s near where the small and large intestines meet. This condition is the most common birth defect of the digestive system. It happens to about 1 in 50 babies.

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Meconium Aspiration

Meconium aspiration happens when a newborn breathes in a mixture of meconium and amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is the liquid that surrounds the baby in the womb. Meconium is the baby's first stool, or poop, which is sticky, thick, and dark green. It is typically passed in the womb during early pregnancy and again in the first few days after birth.

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Medical Genetics: Chromosome Studies

When a chromosome is abnormal, it can cause health problems in the body. Tests called studies can look at chromosomes to see what type of problem a person has.

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Medical Genetics: DNA Studies for Single Gene Defects

To look for single gene defects, healthcare providers look at the DNA to see if it has any errors in it. Errors are known as mutations.

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Medical Genetics: Getting Genetic Services for Your Child

Genetic services are programs that help support families and children with genetic disorders.

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Medical Genetics: How Chromosome Abnormalities Happen

Chromosome problems usually happen as a result of an error when cells divide.

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Medical Genetics: How Genetic Testing Is Used

Genetic testing can help find diseases that run in a family or don't yet have symptoms.

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Medical Genetics: Mosaicism

Mosaicism is when a person has 2 or more genetically different sets of cells in his or her body.

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Medical Genetics: Multifactorial Inheritance

Multifactorial inheritance is when more than one factor causes a trait or health problem, such as a birth defect or chronic illness. The main factor is genes. But the cause includes other factors that aren't genes.

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Medical Genetics: Teratogens

A teratogen is something that can cause or raise the risk for a birth defect in a baby. They are things that a mother may be exposed to during her pregnancy.

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Medical Genetics: Treatment with Gene and Enzyme Replacement Therapy

Gene therapy is a way to change the genes a person has. Enzyme therapy treats a genetic condition by replacing a certain enzyme.

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Medical Genetics: Types of Genetic Changes

Genetic changes come in 2 main types: chromosome abnormalities and single-gene defects.

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Medical History and Genetic Testing

Detailed information on medical history and genetic testing

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Medicine Rashes in Children

Medicine rashes are the body’s reaction to a certain medicine. The type of rash that occurs depends on the type of medicine that is causing it. Rashes can range from mild to severe.

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Megaloblastic Anemia

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Megaloblastic Anemia in Children

Anemia is a problem in which there are not enough red blood cells or hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the part of red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. In megaloblastic anemia, the bone marrow, where the cells are formed, makes fewer cells. And the cells that are formed don’t live as long as normal.

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Megaureter in Children

Megaureter is a ureter that is much wider than normal. A megaureter may not drain urine normally. This can lead to infections and kidney damage.

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Melanoma

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Ménière's Disease

Ménière's disease is a balance disorder caused by an abnormality found in a section of the inner ear called the labyrinth.

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Meningitis

Meningitis is an infection of the meninges. These are the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.

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Meningitis in Children

Meningitis is most often caused by a bacterial or viral infection that moves into the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF).

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Meningocele

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Meningococcal Infections in Children

Meningococcal infections are not common, but they can be fatal. They occur most often in late winter and early spring. Children are more often affected, but the illnesses also occur in teens and adults.

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Meningococcal Infections in Children

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Meniscus Injuries

The meniscus are two pieces of cartilage located in the knee joint that are responsible for cushioning and adding stability to the knee.

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Menstrual Cramps (Dysmenorrhea) in Teens

Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea) are severe, painful cramps that occur with menstruation.

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Menstrual Disorders

Detailed information on the most common menstrual conditions, including premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia

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Menstruation

Menstruation is a very normal and natural part of growing up and becoming a woman. Your body is going through many physical and emotional changes right now, and menstruation is just one part of these changes.

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Metatarsus Adductus

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Metatarsus Adductus in Children

Metatarsus adductus is a common foot deformity noted at birth. It causes the front half of the child's foot (forefoot) to turn inward.

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Microcephaly

Microcephaly is a condition where a baby's head is much smaller than normal. It is most often present at birth (congenital). Most children with microcephaly also have a small brain and an intellectual disability. Some children with small heads have normal intelligence.

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Micropenis

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Micropenis in Children

A micropenis is a penis that is smaller than normal. A penis length of less than 0.75 inches is considered micropenis.

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Migraine Headaches During Pregnancy

Many women have migraine headaches while pregnant. The good news is that you don't have to give in to the pain when it strikes. Know what pain-relief options are safest for you.

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Migraines

To be diagnosed with migraines, a child needs to have at least five headaches that meet certain criteria: pain that is moderate to severe, pain that is one-sided (unilateral) or on both sides of the head (bilateral), sensitivity to light and sound, and nausea that may or may not lead to vomiting.

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Milk Allergy Diet for Children

Helpful information on helping your child follow a milk-free diet, including tips for reading food labels.

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Milk Production and Your High-Risk Baby

A delay in the time when milk "comes in" sometimes occurs after the birth of a high-risk baby. Also, it is not unusual to experience a drop in the amount being pumped after several weeks.

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Minor Cuts, Scrapes, and Skin Wounds

Detailed information on minor cuts, scrapes, and skin wounds in children

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Minor Injuries Overview

Children's days are filled with running, jumping, bicycling, sports, and other fun activities that keep them active and on-the-go" from morning until night. Along with the fun comes an occasional cut

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Miscarriage

Miscarriage is a pregnancy loss in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. About 1 in 10 women will miscarry in the first trimester (first 13 weeks of pregnancy). There are different types of miscarriage.

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Mitochondrial Inheritance: Leber's Optic Atrophy

Detailed information on mitochondrial inheritance and Leber's optic atrophy

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Mold

Detailed information on mold allergy, including possible sources of mold inside and outside the home

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Mold

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Moles

Moles are areas of the skin where there are more cells called melanocytes. Melanocytes are the cells in the body that produce pigment, or color.

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Molluscum

Molluscum are smooth, pearly, skin-colored, benign bumps on the skin. They begin as small bumps and they may grow as large as a pencil eraser.

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Molluscum Contagiosum

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Molluscum Contagiosum in Children

Molluscum contagiosum is a viral skin disease that causes small pink or skin-colored bumps on your child’s skin. It is not harmful and usually does not have any other symptoms. The virus is inside the bumps and is mildly contagious. These bumps usually clear over time.

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Mononucleosis (Infectious)

Infectious mononucleosis, also known as “mono” or "the kissing disease," is an illness usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Some cases are caused by a virus called cytomegalovirus (CMV). The virus is contagious and spreads when someone comes in contact with an infected person’s saliva.

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Mood Disorders

Learn more about common mood disorders among children.

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Mood Disorders in Children and Adolescents

Detailed information on the most common types of mood disorders, including major depression, manic depression (bipolar disorder), dysthymia, seasonal affective disorder, and suicide

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Mood Disorders in Teens

Mood disorders are a group of mental health problems. Examples are depression and bipolar disorder. Mood disorders may be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. This can happen on its own or along with environmental factors, such as unexpected life events or long-lasting stress.

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Mosaic Down Syndrome

Detailed information on mosaic Down syndrome, including the chances for it to happen again in a family

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Mosquito-Borne Diseases

Mosquito-borne diseases are spread to people and animals by the bite of an infected mosquito.

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Motor Vehicle Safety Overview

Detailed information on motor vehicle safety, including installing and using child safety seats and booster seats

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Mouth Sores (Viral) Herpes Gingivostomatitis

Mouth sores (or Gingivostomatitis) can be caused by viruses and other illnesses. Some mouth sores are caused by the herpes virus. It is not caused by sexual activity nor related to it. Mouth sores can last from 7 to 10 days. They should heal without leaving a scar.

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Mouthguards

Mouthguards are important to help protect your child's mouth and teeth from serious injury.

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MRSA Infection in Children

MRSA is an infection that can be life-threatening if it spreads from the skin to the lungs, the bloodstream, or other organs. MRSA infection can be hard to treat.

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MRSA Infection in the Community (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus)

Staphylococcus aureus often simply called "staph," are common bacteria. In the United States, staph germs are some of the most common causes of skin infections.

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Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney

Multicystic dysplastic kidney is a common condition that occurs when one kidney does not develop correctly as it is forming in the womb. It is possible to end up with a non-functioning kidney full of cysts and scar tissue. The remaining kidney is usually able to take over all kidney function.

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Mumps

Mumps is an illness caused by a virus. The virus is spread through saliva, so you can catch mumps from being around someone who already has it.

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Mumps in Children

Mumps is a very contagious viral illness that infects the pair of salivary glands in front of the ears. Cases of mumps in the U.S. happen much less often since the mumps vaccine has been used.

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Muscle and Joint Injuries

Detailed information on muscle and joint injuries, including prevention

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Muscular Dystrophy

The muscular dystrophies, or MD, are a group of more than 30 genetic (passed down by parents) neuromuscular disorders, in which defects of muscle (not nerves) cause muscle weakness and difficulties in body movement and control.

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Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy causes the muscles in the body to become very weak. The muscles break down and are replaced with fatty deposits over time.

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Mushroom Poisoning in Children

Mushroom poisoning happens when a child eats a mushroom that has poisons (toxins). Here's what you need to know, from symptoms to diagnosis and treatment.

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Myasthenia Gravis

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Myasthenia Gravis (MG) in Children

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a disorder that causes weakness in muscles around the body. This happens because antibodies destroy some of the places where nerves and muscles meet. It mostly affects the eyes, mouth, throat, arms, and legs.

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Myasthenia Gravis and Pregnancy

Myasthenia gravis is a complex autoimmune disorder. It causes antibodies to destroy the connections between your muscles and nerves. This causes muscle weakness and tiredness.

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Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)

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Myelomeningocele

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Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

Myotonic muscular dystrophy, also known as MMD or Steinert’s disease, is the most common form of MD in adults.

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Nasal Congestion

Nasal congestion, nasal obstruction, and mouth breathing are all descriptions of a similar condition where the nasal passages are blocked, resulting in the sensation of difficulty breathing through the nose.

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Nasal Fracture in Children

A nasal fracture is a break in one or more of the bones of the nose, caused by trauma. It's also called a broken nose.

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Nasal Turbinate Hypertrophy

Turbinate hypertrophy, inferior turbinate hypertrophy, and nasal turbinate hypertrophy are all descriptions of a similar condition where the tissue on the lateral (outside) walls of the nose are too large, causing nasal obstruction.

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Natal Teeth

Natal teeth are teeth that are present when a baby is born. The teeth are often not fully developed and may have a weak root.

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Neck Masses

Detailed information on the different types of neck masses in children

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Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease of the bowel (intestine) of newborn infants.

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Necrotizing Enterocolitis in the Newborn

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious illness in newborns. It happens when tissue in the large intestine (colon) gets inflamed. This inflammation damages and sometimes kills the tissue in your baby’s colon.

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Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Neonatal abstinence syndrome is what happens when babies are exposed to drugs in the womb before birth. Babies can then go through drug withdrawal after birth.

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Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a condition that starts at birth when an infant’s mother has used drugs (legal or illegal) or alcohol during her pregnancy.

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Neonatal Diabetes

Neonatal diabetes mellitus is a rare form of diabetes that occurs within the first 6 months of life.

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Neonatal Hypothyroidism

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Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome happens when protein passes from the kidneys into the urine through tiny filters in the kidneys. When this happens, there is too little protein in the blood.

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Nephrotic Syndrome in Children

Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by symptoms that result from changes that occur to the small, functional filters in the kidneys.

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Nephrotic Syndrome in Children

Nephrotic syndrome is a problem where too much protein called albumin is released from the body into the urine. It means that one or both kidneys are damaged.

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Neuroblastoma

Found only in children, neuroblastoma arises in the adrenal glands, located in the abdominal area near the kidneys, and along the sympathetic nerve chain in the chest and abdomen.

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Neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma is a cancerous tumor. It grows in nerve tissue of babies and young children. The cancer cells grow in young nerve cells of a baby growing in the womb. These cells are called neuroblasts. It’s is the most common cancer in babies under age 1. It’s rare in children older than age 10.

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Neurocutaneous Syndromes

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Neurocutaneous Syndromes in Children

Neurocutaneous syndromes are disorders that affect the brain, spinal cord, organs, skin, and bones. The diseases are lifelong conditions that can cause tumors to grow in these areas. They can also cause other problems such as hearing loss, seizures, and developmental problems.

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Neurogenic Bladder

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Neurogenic Bladder in Children

Neurogenic bladder means the bladder doesn't work normally because of nerve damage. It causes a child to have problems with holding or releasing urine.

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Neurological Conditions and Pregnancy

Detailed information on neurologic conditions in pregnancy

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Neurological Disorders

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Neurological Disorders in the Newborn

Detailed information on the most common neurological disorders in the newborn

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Neurological Exam for Children

Is it time for your baby to have a full physical exam? Your pediatrician might want to conduct a “neuro exam.” Don’t worry, this series of tests designed to evaluate your child’s nervous system is painless. Here’s what it entails.

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Neuromuscular Disorders

Patients benefit from coordinated care from specialists, all with expertise in pediatric neuromuscular disorders.

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Neuromuscular Disorders

Detailed information on the most common neuromuscular disorders in children

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Neutropenias

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Nevus Sebaceous

A nevus sebaceous is a type of birthmark that usually appears on the scalp. It may also appear on the face but this is less common. It is made of extra oil glands in the skin. It starts as a flat pink or orange plaque (slightly raised area). A nevus sebaceous does not go away on its own.

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Newborn Appearance

Newborns have many variations in normal appearance, from their skin color to the shape of their head. Here's a look at some of the normal variations you can expect.

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Newborn Babies: Getting Ready at Home

Newborns need just some basic items at first. These include a warm and safe place to sleep, food, clothing, and diapers. Here's a helpful guide to the essentials.

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Newborn Care

Detailed information on newborn care

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Newborn Clavicle Fractures

Clavicle (collar bone) fractures are the most common injury sustained by newborns during birth. Factors that may increase the risk for a clavicle fracture include the newborn being large in size, the newborn’s shoulder getting stuck during delivery, or the use of tools to assist with the delivery.

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Newborn Complications

Detailed information on the most common types of newborn complications

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Newborn Crying

Crying is the way babies communicate. They cry because of hunger, discomfort, frustration, tiredness, and even loneliness.

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Newborn Health Assessment

Detailed information on newborn health assessments

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Newborn Measurements

Your newborn will be weighed in the hospital and at all check-ups. In most cases, metric units are used to record babies' weight. This chart will help you convert the metric unit grams (g) to pounds (lb) and ounces (oz).

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Newborn Metabolic Screening

Because some potential problems aren’t readily seen at birth, all newborns are tested for certain conditions, including metabolic disorders.

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Newborn Multiples

Because many multiples are small and born early, they may be initially cared for in a special care nursery called the neonatal intensive care unit.

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Newborn Reflexes

Ever wonder why your baby flings his arms out sideways when startled? This reaction - called the Moro reflex - is one of many natural reflexes your newborn should exhibit. Read on to learn about common newborn reflexes and what they mean.

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Newborn Screening Tests

A national program exists to screen all newborns for certain disorders within the first few days of life.

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Newborn Screening Tests

The U.S. has a national program of newborn screening tests to check for several different disorders that can be treated if they are found very early in life.

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Newborn Senses

Babies are born with all 5 senses - sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. Some of the senses are not fully developed.

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Newborn Sleep Patterns

New parents are often unsure how long and how often a newborn should sleep. Read on to learn about general newborn sleep patterns, the quiet alert phases, and how to help your baby fall asleep.

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Newborn Warning Signs

Most newborns adjust well to the outside world. But it's helpful to know about these warning signs that could indicate a possible problem.

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Nightmares and Night Terrors

A night terror is a partial waking from sleep with behaviors such as screaming, kicking, panic, sleep walking, thrashing, or mumbling.

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Noisy Breathing (Stertor, Stridor or Wheezing)

Noisy breathing is common, especially in children. and can be a sign of many different conditions. Noisy breathing is typically caused by a partial blockage or narrowing at some point in the airways. Types of noisy breathing include stertor (low-pitched), stridor and wheezing (high-pitched).

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Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children

Detailed information on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, including causes, staging, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

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Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a malignant (cancerous) tumor that starts in the lymphatic tissue in the body. There are 2 major forms of NHL: lymphoblastic and non-lymphoblastic lymphoma.

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Noninfectious Skin Conditions

Detailed information on non-infectious skin conditions, including dermatitis, acne, drug rashes, poison ivy/poison oak, and toxic epidermal necrolysis

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Nonstress Testing

A nonstress test is a type of test done during pregnancy. It measures the heart rate of the unborn baby (fetus) in response to its movements. In most cases, the heart rate of a healthy baby increases when the baby moves.

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Nontraditional Inheritance

Detailed information on nontraditional inheritance, including uniparental disomy and Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome, trinucleotide repeats and Fragile-X Syndrome, and mitochondrial inheritance and Leber's Optic Atrophy

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Normal Breast Development

Breast development occurs in distinct stages, first before birth, and again at puberty and during the childbearing years. Changes also occur to the breasts during menstruation and when a woman reaches menopause.

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Normal Growth