Conditions We Treat

Browse Conditions A-Z

22q Deletion Syndrome

22q11.2 deletion syndrome, also known as DiGeorge Syndrome, is a condition where there is a small amount of genetic material missing (a microdeletion) on the long arm (the q arm) of chromosome 22. 22q has the potential to impact every system in the body and can lead to a range of health issues.

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Abdominal Pain

Functional abdominal pain is a common problem that interferes with a child’s daily life. Some red flags to look for include weight loss, vomiting, lack of energy and bloody diarrhea. A physician can perform tests to determine the cause of abdominal pain. Treatment plans vary depending on the cause.

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Abdominal Pain: Outpatient

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss what steps to take if the cause of your child's abdominal pain cannot be determined. It is important that you watch your child closely for the next 24 hours and go back to your child’s doctor or the emergency department if they show more serious symptoms.

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Acanthosis Nigricans

Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a dark patch that appears on a child's neck, armpit, under the breast or a skin crease. It is usually a sign that the body is making extra insulin that it cannot use well. Eating a healthy diet and increasing physical activity are steps to help cure acanthosis nigricans.

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Achondroplasia

Achondroplasia is the most common form of short-limb dwarfism. Individuals who have achondroplasia have short limbs but normal trunk height and head size with a prominent forehead. Children with achondroplasia can lead normal lives provided they receive appropriate care by knowledgeable providers.

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Acne

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss the causes and treatment of acne. Acne is one of the most common skin problems that young people have. Almost everyone will develop acne to some degree and some people have more pimples than others. Treatment often requires time, patience and medicine.

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Active Tuberculosis Disease

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss Tuberculosis (TB). Active TB disease (the common name for Mycobacterium tuberculosis) is contagious. It is most often spread through the air. The standard of care for treatment of active TB is daily administration of medicines from health department nurses.

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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

Leukemia is cancer of the blood. It’s the most common form of cancer in childhood.

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Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)

Leukemia is cancer of the blood. It’s the most common form of cancer in childhood.

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Acute Renal Failure

Acute kidney disease starts suddenly. In some cases, it may be reversed and the kidneys can work normally again.

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Addiction

Addiction refers to a wide range of compulsive behaviors. Traditionally, addiction refers to the excessive use of substances, including alcohol, drugs, cigarettes and food. Addiction has a wider meaning for children and teens, including attachment to things like the Internet and video games.

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Adjustment Disorders

An adjustment disorder is an unhealthy emotional or behavioral reaction to a stressful event or change in a person’s life.

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Adolescent Mental Health

Learn about the different mental health problems affecting adolescents that require the clinical care of a physician or other healthcare professional.

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Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is a common condition caused by an abnormal reaction of the body’s immune system to various allergens. In this condition, the nasal lining can become very inflamed and swollen from the over-response of the body. Common allergens include dust, grass, pollen, mold, trees and dander.

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Allergic Rhinitis

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss allergic rhinitis. There are two main types of allergic rhinitis: seasonal (occurs certain times of the year) and perennial (happens all year). When symptoms occur in late summer or early fall, some people call it hayfever. Small changes at home can help.

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Allergies to Foods

A food allergy occurs when the body’s immune system overreacts to certain foods. The body then makes antibodies to that food and an allergic reaction occurs. Anaphylaxis is a severe and possibly life-threatening reaction. If a severe reaction occurs, use the EpiPen and call 9-1-1 immediately.

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Allergy to Dust Mites

Dust mites are tiny insects that live indoors. They thrive in pillows, mattresses, box springs, blankets, rugs and carpets, stuffed animals and upholstered furniture such as couches.

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Allergy to Latex

Latex is a common allergy. Learn about what causes it, signs, symptoms and more.

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Allergy to Mold

Mold is a fungus that can be found almost anywhere, both indoors and outside. There are many different types of mold. Only a few cause an allergic reaction.

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Allergy to Stinging Insects

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss local and systemic reactions to stinging insects. The most common stinging insects found in the Ohio area are honeybees, wasps, yellow jackets and hornets. Doctors often prescribe an automatic injector device such as an EpiPen® to treat severe reactions.

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Alopecia Areata

Alopecia areata is a form of hair loss that occurs in children and adults. It is considered an autoimmune condition that results in inflammation and loss of hair. Alopecia areata is non-scarring, which means that the hair follicle is not destroyed and that it has the ability to regrow hair.

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Alveolar Cleft

An alveolar cleft is a cleft of the upper gum line. It most often accompanies and cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Bone graft repair allows permanent teeth to descent into the cleft while providing stability to the upper jaw and support to the nose.

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Amenorrhea

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Anaphylaxis

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Anemia

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Anemia B12 Deficiency

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Anemia of Chronic Disease

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Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

An aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a highly destructive, blood-filled benign (non-cancerous) bone tumor. ABCs can cause pain, swelling and fractures. Doctors at Nationwide Children's have developed a minimally invasive approach to treating aneurysmal bone cysts utilizing sclerotherapy techniques.

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Ankle Sprain

An ankle sprain is a stretching or tearing of the ligaments. Signs of an ankle injury include pain, swelling or trouble walking. This often happens after an injury that involves twisting or rolling of the ankle. Sprains can often be treated at home, but a doctor may need to be seen if symptoms remain.

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Anorectal Malformation (ARM) or Imperforate Anus: Female

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss the symptoms and treatment of anorectal malformations (imperforate anus) in females. Different types of ARMs include perineal fistula, vestibular fistula, cloaca and no fistula. Young girls may be at risk for urology problems and gynecology problems.

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Anorectal Malformation (ARM) or Imperforate Anus: Male

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss the symptoms and treatment of anorectal malformations (imperforate anus) in males. Different types of ARMs include perineal fistula, rectourethral fistula, cloaca and no fistula. Young boys may be at risk for urology, spine and sacrum problems.

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Anorectal Malformations or Imperforate Anus

Imperforate anus (or anorectal malformation) is a congenital defect that happens early in pregnancy, while a baby is still developing. In this defect, the baby’s anal opening, the rectum and nerves do not develop properly, preventing the child from being able to have normal bowel movements.

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Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa, also known as just anorexia, is an eating disorder. This disorder makes you obsess about your weight and food.

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Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is a type of eating disorder in which a person severely limits the amount of food he or she eats to prevent weight gain or lose weight.

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Answers to Questions About Your Child's Mental Health

The following answers to questions parents often ask can help you protect your child's mental health.

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The ACL is one of four main ligaments in the knee. Surgery to rebuild the ACL is called arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. It usually takes 6 to 9 months of recovery before returning to normal activities.

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Anxiety

Anxiety disorders are the most common type of mental health disorder in children. There are many types of anxiety disorders (each with its own distinct symptoms) including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and others.

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Aortic Stenosis

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Apert Syndrome

Apert syndrome affects the skull, face, hands and feet. It is a genetic syndrome, which is due to a mutation on the FGFR2 gene.

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APGAR Scoring

The Apgar score helps find breathing problems and other health issues.

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Aplastic Anemia

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Apnea

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss apnea, which is a pause in breathing that lasts 20 seconds or longer for full-term infants. There are many reasons why a baby may have periods of apnea including brain immaturity, neurological issues, heart disease, gastrointestinal issues and others.

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Arrhythmias

An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart.

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Arteriovenous Malformations

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Arthrogryposis

Arthrogryposis, also called arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC), involves a variety of non-progressive conditions that are characterized by multiple joint contractures (stiffness) and involves muscle weakness found throughout the body at birth. AMC is not a progressive disorder.

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Asperger's Syndrome

Asperger’s Syndrome, a form of Autism Spectrum Disorder, is a developmental disorder. Young people with Asperger’s Syndrome have a difficult time relating to others socially and their behavior and thinking patterns can be rigid and repetitive.

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Asthma

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Asthma and Reactive Airway Disease (RAD) (Wheezing)

Asthma is a disease of the lungs in which the airways are sensitive to things in the air. During a flare-up the airways swell and fill with mucus. The muscles around the airways also tighten and squeeze. This can cause noisy breathing or wheezing. Asthma action plans involve taking rescue medicine.

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Atrial Septal Defect

Atrial septal defects (ASD) are congenital heart defects in which a persistent opening between the atrial and ventricular septa exists.

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder. It affects about ten percent of school-age children.

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) begins before a child is 7 years old. One out of 12 children have ADHD. It occurs more often in boys than in girls. Children with ADHD may be bright and creative but may have difficulty with learning or behavior.

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Audiology

As part of a hearing evaluation, your child's healthcare provider will do a complete medical history and physical exam. In addition, there are many different types of hearing tests.

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Auditory Processing Disorder

Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) is a disorder of the auditory (hearing) system that causes a disruption in the way that an individual’s brain understands what they are hearing.

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Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that impacts a child’s ability to communicate and interact socially. It also impacts the way the child thinks and behaves.

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Autosomal Dominant Opitz G/BBB Syndrome

22q.11.2 deletion syndrome includes the autosomal dominant form of Opitz G/BBB Syndrome.

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AVMs (Arteriovenous Malformations)

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Bacterial Skin Infections

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Bacterial Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis or BV is an infection of the vagina. BV is not a sexually transmitted disease. It is an overgrowth of specific anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that do not need oxygen to grow) in the vagina. Women with BV report a fishy-smelling discharge (fluid) that is white to gray in color.

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Batten Disease

Batten disease is the most common form of a group of disorders called neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (or NCLs).

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Becker Muscular Dystrophy

Becker muscular dystrophy is the same basic disease as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, except it is less common and the symptoms are milder and slower to progress.

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Behavior Disorders

Learn more about conditions associated with behavior disorders.

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Bicuspid Aortic Valve

Bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV) is an irregularity in the heart where there are only two leaflets on a valve, instead of the normal three.

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Bifid Uvula

A bifid uvula, also known as a cleft uvula, is a uvula that is split in two. A bifid uvula may be an isolated finding or it may be related to submucous cleft palate. In cases of isolated bifid uvula, and in cases of submucous cleft palate without hypernasality, no surgical intervention is needed.

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Biliary Atresia

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Binge Drinking Dangers for Young People

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Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic-depression, is a chronic mental illness that causes extreme mood swings from high to low and vice versa.

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Birthmarks

More than 80 percent of babies have some type of birthmark. Most birthmarks are harmless and require no treatment. Vascular birthmarks include macular stains, hemangiomas and port wine stains. Pigmented birthmarks include congenital melanocytic nevi (moles), dermal melanosis and café-au-lait spots.

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Bladder Exstrophy and Epispadias

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Blood Clots

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Bone Marrow Aspirates and Biopsies

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Bone Marrow Aspiration

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Brachial Plexus

The brachial plexus is a bundle of nerves that exits the spinal cord at the level of the neck. The brachial plexus can be injured during childbirth.

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Brain Tumors

Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Approximately 4,000 children and adolescents in the US are diagnosed with primary brain tumors each year. Primary brain tumors start in the brain and generally do not spread outside the brain tissue. Most central nervous system cancers are brain tumors. Brain tumors, either malignant or benign, are tumors that originate in the cells of the brain. A tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue.

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Branchial Cleft Cyst/Sinus/Fistula

During early prenatal development, gill-like structures (branchial) usually resorb but in rare circumstances, they may remain. These are referred to as branchial anomalies. They include branchial sinus, branchial fistula and branchial cyst. Branchial anomalies can be removed surgically.

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Broken Bone

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Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis is an infection of the small airways (bronchioles) caused by a virus. The most common viruses that cause it are RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), para influenza virus, rhinovirus (common cold), human metapneumovirus and adenovirus. Bronchiolitis is also often called "RSV infection."

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Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

BPD is a chronic lung disease. It happens in babies who are born prematurely and who have had breathing problems. Learn more about this condition.

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Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a term used to describe long-term breathing problems for premature babies.

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Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy is the examination of the main airways of the lungs using a flexible tube. It helps assess and diagnose lung problems, assess blockages, take samples of tissue or fluid, or help remove a foreign body.

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Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder. It’s also called bulimia. A child with bulimia overeats or binges uncontrollably.

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Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is a type of eating disorder in which a person regularly eats excessive amounts of food and then attempts to eliminate the consequences of overeating by vomiting, taking laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or exercising excessively.

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Burkitt's Lymphoma

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Burkitt's Lymphoma/Burkitt's Like Lymphoma

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Burns

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Bursitis

A bursa can become swollen or irritated when muscles or tendons become tight and increase the pressure over the bursa.

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Cancer

Cancer is an abnormal growth of cells. Cancer cells quickly reproduce event without enough space and nutrients. They also grow despite signals sent from the body to stop reproduction. Cancer cells are often shaped differently from healthy cells. They do not work well and can spread to many parts of the body.

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Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy is disease of the heart muscle that reduces the heart's ability to pump blood effectively. Different kinds of cardiomyopathy cause the heart muscle to enlarge, thicken, or become stiff.

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Cauliflower Ear

Cauliflower ear is the result of a direct blow to the outer ear.

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Cayler Cardiofacial Syndrome

Cayler Cardiofacial Syndrome is also known as 22q.11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Celiac Disease

Celiac disease is a chronic condition that occurs in about 1 in 100 people and results in damage to the lining of the small intestines.

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Cerebral Palsy (CP)

Cerebral Palsy is an injury or abnormality of the developing brain that affects movement. This means that something happened to the brain or the brain did not develop normally. 

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Chemical Burns

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Chemotherapy

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Chest Wall Tumors

A variety of soft tissue tumors can present in the chest wall, including benign conditions, such as neurofibromas, and malignant tumors, such as soft tissue sarcomas.

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Chiari Malformations

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Chickenpox

Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease caused by a virus. The usual symptoms are an itchy skin rash that looks like little blisters filled with fluid, less energy than usual, poor appetite and mild fever. Chickenpox is spread through the air or by coming in contact with an infected person.

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Chlamydia

Anyone who has sex has a chance of getting chlamydia. Those who have had more than one partner are at greater risk. Most people who have Chlamydia have no symptoms and do not realize they have the infection.

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Chronic Constipation

Many kids will experience occasional bouts of constipation during their childhood. Chronic constipation is a slightly different, yet much more challenging condition to treat. Because chronic constipation can lead to long-term discomfort and loss of bowel control, it can be very stressful for both parents and kids.

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Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is a rare disorder of gastrointestinal motility where coordinated contractions (peristalsis) in the intestinal tract become altered and inefficient. Motility is the term used to describe the contraction of muscles in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

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Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

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Chronic Renal Failure

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Chronic Sinusitis

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Cleft Lip and Palate

Cleft lip and/or cleft palate is the most common birth defect in the United States. A cleft lip is a separation of the upper lip, often involving the upper gum line. A cleft palate is an opening or split in the roof of the mouth and may involve the soft palate alone or both the soft and hard palate.

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Cloaca

A cloaca is a malformation in females where the rectum, vagina, and urinary tract are fused together, creating a single common channel.

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Clubfoot

A clubfoot is a foot disorder in which the foot turns inward and downward at birth and remains tight in this position. This Helping Hand will explain how this can be treated.

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Clubfoot (Talipes Equinovarus)

Clubfoot, also known as talipes equinovarus (TEV), is a common foot abnormality, in which the foot points downward and inward. It occurs twice as often in males than in females. Signs of clubfoot include a short and/or tight Achilles tendon (heel cord) and a heel that is turned in.

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Coagulation Disorders

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Coarctation of the Aorta

Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital heart defect where the aorta is narrowed and results in decreased blood flow to the lower body.

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Colic

Colic is when a healthy baby cries more than 3 hours a day for 3 or more days in a week. If this happens 3 weeks in a row, your baby may have colic.

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Common Variable Immune Deficiency

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Communication Disorders

A child with a communication disorder has trouble communicating with others. He or she may not understand or make the sounds of speech and may struggle with word choice, word order or sentence structure.

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Complete Blood Count (CBC)

A CBC count is a measurement of size, number, and maturity of the different blood cells in a specific volume of blood.

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Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation for Children

A comprehensive psychiatric evaluation may help diagnose any number of emotional, behavioral, or developmental disorders.

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Concussion

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Conduct Disorders

Conduct disorder refers to a group of behavioral and emotional problems characterized by a disregard for others. Children with conduct disorder have a difficult time following rules and behaving in a socially acceptable way. 

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Congenital Hypothyroidism

When a baby is born without enough thyroid hormone, it is called congenital hypothyroidism.

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Congenital Neurological Disorders

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Congenital Protein C or S Deficiency

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Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Vessels

Congenitally corrected transposition of the great vessels (CCTGA; l-TGA) is an uncommon congenital heart abnormality, where the receiving chambers (atria) are connected to their opposite pumping chambers (ventricles) because the ventricles are switched from their normal anatomic positions.

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Congestive Heart Failure

Congestive heart failure happens when the heart does not pump enough blood to the body for normal function and activity. Learn more about signs and symptoms and treatment for this condition.

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Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

Conjunctivitis may be caused by germs (viruses or bacteria), an allergy, or by something that gets into the eye. Conjunctivitis caused by germs is very contagious.

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Conotruncal Anomaly Face Syndrome

Conotruncal Anomaly Face Syndrome is also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Constipation

Many children have constipation at one time or another.

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Constipation and Fecal Soiling

Fecal soiling is the leakage of stool that a child cannot control. Learn more about this condition.

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Constipation: Child Over One Year of Age

Constipation in children can cause concern for parents. Sometimes children have poor stooling habits because they are not encouraged to go to the bathroom on a regular schedule. Sometimes, they are just "too busy" playing or doing something else to spend enough time on the toilet to stool.

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Constipation: Infant

Constipation in infants less than one year of age is common, but it can be a concern for parents. Signs of constipation include infrequent stools that are difficult to pass and straining more than normal to have a bowel movement. Even if a baby is not constipated, bowel movements may be irregular.

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Contusions Bruises

Contusions, or bruises, are one of the most common types of injuries occurring in active children.

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Cradle Cap

Read more about what causes cradle cap and what you can do to treat it. 

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Craniofacial Anomalies

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Craniopharyngioma

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Craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis occurs when one or more of the bones in the skull closes early.  

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Croup

Croup is an illness that is usually caused by a virus. The tissues of the windpipe (trachea) and voice box (larynx) become swollen, which makes it harder for air to get into the lungs. Croup can cause a barky cough or hoarse voice. You may also hear a high-pitched squeaking sound called stridor.

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Crouzon Syndrome

Crouzon syndrome is a genetic condition that affects the skull, face and heart. It is caused by a mutation on the FGFR2 or FGFR3 gene. The treatment of Crouzon syndrome includes several operations. The Center for Complex Craniofacial Disorders expertly cares for children with Crouzon syndrome.

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Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease. It is not contagious. CF affects the digestive system and the glands in the lungs that produce mucus. It also affects the glands that produce sweat and saliva. 

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Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes

Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD) is a type of diabetes that affects children and adults with cystic fibrosis.

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Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that has formed in a large blood vessel. It may completely or partially block the blood flow in that vein.

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Dehydration

Prevent your child from getting dehydrated with this Helping Hand.

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Delirium

Delirium is a serious disturbance in mental abilities. It involves changes in behavior, confused thinking, and reduced awareness of a person's surroundings. It is a serious complication of medical illness.

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Depression

Learn more about the signs of depression and what you can do to help your child.

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Dermoid Cyst

Dermoid cysts, also called epidermoid cysts or dermal/epidermal inclusion cysts, are masses in children and adults, most commonly found in the head, face, neck and upper chest. Dermoid cyst ablation is a minimally-invasive procedure that is an alternative to surgically removing the dermoid cyst.

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Desmopressin tablets

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Developmental Disorders

Learn more about developmental disorders that could be affecting your child.

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Developmental Hip Dysplasia

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Diabetes Type II

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that occurs when your body makes insulin but does not know how to use it well.

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Diabetes: Ketoacidosis (DKA)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (KEY toe as i DOE sis), also known as DKA, is a serious complication of diabetes.

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Diabetes: MODY

MODY is the name given to a collection of different types of inherited forms of diabetes that usually develop in adolescence or early adulthood.

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Diabetes: Type 1

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition that occurs when your body makes little to no insulin.

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Diabetes: Type 2

Type 2 diabetics may produce some insulin but not enough, or else the body does not recognize the insulin. If your child has Type 2 diabetes, his body either does not make enough insulin or his body cannot properly use the insulin it makes.

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Diamond Blackfan Anemia

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Diaper Dermatitis (Diaper Rash)

Diaper rash happens when urine and bowel movements irritate your baby’s skin. This Helping Hand will teach you how to prevent and treat diaper rash.

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Diarrhea

Diarrhea is a common problem of young children. Diarrhea may be caused by a serious illness, but usually it is only the result of a minor infection.

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DiGeorge Syndrome

DiGeorge Syndrome is also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Dislocations

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Disruptive Behavior Disorders

Children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) show ongoing patterns of uncooperative and defiant behavior. The most common types of these disorders include disruptive behavior disorder not otherwise specified (DBD NOS), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD).

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Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

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Distal Radius Buckle (Torus) Fracture

This fracture is a common injury in children. It is often caused from falling on the hand. 

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Double Outlet Right Ventricle

In Double Outlet Right Ventricle, or DORV, the two Great Arteries (the Aorta and the Pulmonary Artery) are both attached to the right ventricle.

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Drugs, Herbs and Supplements

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D-Transposition of the Great Vessels

D-Transposition of the great vessels (d-TGA) is a congenital heart defect where the aorta and pulmonary artery are switched from their normal positions.

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Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder that affects all races and ethnicities. Affecting only males, it occurs in 1/3,600 live-born infant boys.

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Dyskeratosis Congenital

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Dysmenorrhea

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Dysthymia

Persistent depressive disorder is a type of depression. Depression involves a child’s body, mood, and thoughts.

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Ear Infections (Otitis Media)

Otitis media (oh TIE tis ME dee uh) means the middle ear is infected or inflamed. It is the most common reason for young children to visit their primary care provider. Ear infections are usually seen in children younger than three years of age, but anyone of any age can get an ear infection.

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Ear Tube Insertion for Children

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Early Puberty in Boys

Puberty is the time when boys’ bodies and minds mature and they grow into young men. This usually starts when a boy is about 12 years old. Sometimes, a younger boy starts to show the signs of puberty. This is called precocious or early puberty. These early signs of puberty can be hard for a child.

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Early Puberty in Girls

Puberty is the time when girls’ bodies and minds mature and they grow into young women. This usually starts when a girl is about 10 years old. Sometimes, a younger girl starts to show signs of puberty. This is called precocious or early puberty. These early signs of puberty can be hard for a child.

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Echocardiography

Echocardiography is an imaging test. It uses sound waves to make detailed pictures of the heart.

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Eczema

Care for your child that has eczema with this Helping Hand.

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Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis)

Eczema is a chronic skin problem characterized by dry, itchy, rough skin rashes.

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Ehlers Danlos Syndrome with Associated Bleeding Disorders

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects mainly the skin and joints. A person is born with EDS.

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Electrical Burns

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Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

Electrocardiography (ECG) is a simple, fast test to check the electrical activity of your child's heart as blood moves through it. Abnormal ECG results may mean there is a problem with your child's heart.

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Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is a rare form of MD that affects only males. Symptoms may begin in childhood or adolescence. The condition causes slowly progressive (worsening) weakness in the muscles of the shoulders, upper arms, and lower legs and joint stiffness (contractures).

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Encephalitis in Children

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Encopresis

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Enlarged Adenoid

Adenoids sometimes become enlarged during childhood and the increased size may cause problems.

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Enlarged Lymph Nodes

There are thousands of collections of immune cells throughout the body called lymph nodes. When an infection is present, lymph nodes can become enlarged as an immune response is mounted.

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Enlarged Tonsils

The function of the tonsils is to help identify and fight infections caused by viruses or bacteria. They can cause problems if they are enlarged or become infected.

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Enterovirus D68 Infographic

View an easy to read infographic that teaches you everything you need to know about Enterovirus D68.

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Enuresis (Bedwetting)

Enuresis is the medical term for wetting the bed. It means a child urinates without meaning to.

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Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EOE)

A condition caused by inflammation of the esophagus, or swallowing tube, from your mouth to stomach.

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Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a neurological condition involving the brain that makes people more susceptible to having recurrent unprovoked seizures.

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EPT Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. Learn more about this condition.

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EPT Trichomoniasis

Learn more about one of the most common sexually transmitted infections, Trichomoniasis.

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Evoked Auditory Potentials

Learn more about evoked auditory potentials.

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Ewing's Sarcoma

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Ewing's Sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is a form of cancer that usually starts in the bone. It is the second most common tumor of the bone.

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Exercise and Children

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Exercised Induced Asthma (EIA)

Difficulty breathing triggered by increased activity. There are many factors that contribute to EIA.

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Extreme Prematurity

A birth that occurs any time prior to 37 weeks of pregnancy is considered premature. The most extreme issues occur in babies born at less than 28 weeks. These are cases of extreme prematurity.

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Eye Injury Corneal Abrasion

An abrasion is an injury caused by something scratching or rubbing the surface of the eye. Trauma is the most common cause of corneal abrasion.

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Facial Re-animation

Sometimes children are born without a facial nerve. More commonly, a child's facial nerve is damaged from an injury or during a surgical procedure such as tumor removal.

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Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

Affecting both males and females, the severity of symptoms vary greatly, from very mild to completely disabling.

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Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD)

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Factor V Leiden

Factor V Leiden is a genetic disorder. An abnormality in the affected individual's DNA results in the production of an abnormal form of Factor V.

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Factor V Leiden

Factor V Leiden is an inherited blood disorder.

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Failure to Thrive

Failure to thrive (FTT) is a term that is traditionally used for children who have failed to develop and grow normally.

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Failure to Thrive In Infants

Failure to Thrive (FTT) describes an infant or child who does not gain weight at the expected rate.

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Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)

Familial adenomatous polyposis, is an inherited colorectal cancer syndrome that can be passed from one generation to the next by a specific error or mutation in the genetic code of the APC gene.

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Fanconi Anemia

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Febrile Seizures

Febrile seizures are brief and brought on by a fever. They do not cause brain damage, but they can be very upsetting to parents.

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Fecal Incontinence

Fecal soiling can cause children intense embarrassment and social problems, and can be frustrating for both parents and children.

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Feeding Disorders

Feeding disorders are characterized by extreme food selectivity by type, texture, brand, shape or color.

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Fever

In this Helping Hand™, we discuss fever, which is an increase in the body’s temperature above the normal range. Most doctors agree that a temperature over 101° F is a fever. Fevers lower than 101° F don't need to be treated unless your child is uncomfortable or has a history of febrile seizures.

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Fifth Disease (Erythema Infectiosum)

Fifth disease is a mild illness caused by a virus. Symptoms include a blotchy rash that begins on the cheeks and spreads to the arms, legs and torso.

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First Degree Burns

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Flu

Learn more about the flu in this Helping Hand.

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Folliculitis

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Folliculitis

This rash appears as small red bumps or pus bumps that can itch or be mildly painful.

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Food Allergy

About 5% of all children under the age of three years are allergic to one or more foods.

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Food Poisoning

When people eat tainted food, they can develop anything from a mild illness to a serious disease.  Learn what to look for in food poisoning. 

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Foot Sprain or Strain

A foot sprain is a stretching or tearing of the ligaments that connect the bones of the foot. A foot strain is a stretching or tearing of the tendons and muscles in the foot.

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For Parents: Bicycle, In-Line Skating, Skateboard and Scooter Safety

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Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose, and Throat

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Fractures in Children

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Frostbite

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Frostbite

Frostbite is damage to the skin and underlying tissues caused by the cold. Rain, snow, water and wind can cause the skin to cool faster and may lead to frostbite.

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Fungal Infections

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Ganglion Cysts

A ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled lump under the skin, often over a joint or in a tendon in the hand or wrist. If the cyst appears on top of the wrist, it is called a dorsal wrist ganglion cyst. A cyst on the palm side of the wrist is a volar wrist ganglion cyst. These cysts are usually harmless.

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Gastroesophageal Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux is so common that it should be considered normal for babies. Even if your child has a problem with reflux that requires treatment, he or she is still likely to outgrow their reflux.

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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Infants

Care for your child with GERDS with these helpful hints. 

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Gastroparesis

Gastroparesis is a condition where the stomach contracts less often and less powerfully, causing food and liquids to stay in the stomach for a long time

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Gastroschisis

Gastroschisis is a defect in the abdominal wall. Part of the intestine is outside of the baby's body, rather than inside the abdomen.

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder is a mental health problem. A child with GAD has a lot of worry and fear that seems to have no real cause.

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Genital Warts (HPV Infection)

Genital warts are skin-colored, cauliflower-like, painless growths. They are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus.

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Genital Warts in Babies and Children

Genital warts are common skin-colored growths that are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). In males, they can occur on the penis or around the rectum. In females, they can occur around the vagina or rectum. Treatment includes freezing with liquid nitrogen or applying topical medicine.

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Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders

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Germ Cell Tumor

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GI Bleeding (Upper and Lower)

Upper GI bleeding occurs when irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum result in bleeding. Lower GI bleeding occurs most frequently from the large intestine and rectum.

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Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis is a type of kidney disease that involves inflammation of tiny filter units in the kidneys called glomeruli.

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Gonorrhea

This Helping Hand will teach you about gonnorhea and how to treat it. 

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Granuloma Annulare

Granuloma annulare is common, but no one knows what causes it. It is not infectious or contagious.

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Graves' Disease

Graves’ disease is the most common kind of hyperthyroidism. It happens when a person’s immune system acts against his or her thyroid gland by mistake.

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H. Pylori

Helicobacter pylori or H. pylori is a bacteria that infects the stomach.

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H1N1 (Influenza Virus)

Children under 5 years of age and young adults are at greater risk of illness from this virus. This is different from seasonal flu which usually is most severe in children younger than 2 years and the elderly.

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Hamstring Strain

A hamstring strain is a stretching or tearing of the hamstring muscles located in the back of the thigh.

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Hand Eczema

Hand eczema can be chronic and hard to treat. It is more common in people who have a history of eczema on other parts of their bodies.

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Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease

Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a common illness caused by a virus. Early symptoms of HFMD are much like a common cold. After a day or two, you might see small painful sores (ulcers) on the throat and tonsils and a rash of very small blisters or red spots on the hands, feet and diaper area.

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Head Injury-Concussion

In this Helping Hand, learn more about head-injury concussions.

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Head Injury-Inpatient

In this Helping Hand, learn more about inpatient head injuries.

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Head Injury-Mild

In this Helping Hand, learn more about mild head injuries.

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Head Lice

Lice are usually spread from child to child when sharing clothing, hats, scarves, combs, brushes, hair trims or helmets that have strands of hair with nits.

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Headaches

Most headaches in children are benign. Children’s headaches are very rarely from serious diseases or physical problems.

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Headaches in Children

A headache is one of the most common complaints of children and teenagers. Fussiness, crankiness and not being able to sleep may be the only signs of head pain in children who are too young to tell you where they hurt. There are many different types of headaches.

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Hearing Testing

Learn more about hearing tests for children.

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Heart Failure

Heart failure means that the heart’s ability to squeeze is weaker than normal. As a result, the heart works less efficiently and can not pump enough oxygen and nutrients to meet the body’s needs.

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Heart Murmurs

Murmurs are extra or unusual sounds made by blood circulating through the heart's chambers or valves, or through blood vessels near the heart.

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Heat or Thermal Burns

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Hemangioma

A hemangioma is a common vascular birthmark, made of extra blood vessels in the skin. It is a benign growth.

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Hemangioma and Vascular Malformations

The treatment of a hemangioma is usually observation. Some hemangiomas can cause problems if they bleed or press on important nearby structures, such as the eye or the upper airway. Venous malformations, lymphatic malformations and arteriovenous malformations require a multidisciplinary approach.

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Hemoglobinopathy

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Hemolytic Anemia

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Hemolytic Disorders

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Hemophilia

Hemophilia is an inherited blood disorder. In hemophilia, a blood clotting factor is missing.

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Hemophilia Carrier

A hemophilia carrier is a female who has the gene that causes hemophilia A or hemophilia B deficiency.

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Hemorrhagic Stroke

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Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

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Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP)

HSP results from inflammation of small blood vessels in the skin and other organs in the body.

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Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is caused by a virus found in feces, contaminated water and food that has been handled by infected persons

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Hepatitis A, B and C

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Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is caused by a virus found in blood, semen, vaginal secretions and saliva. It is mainly spread through unprotected sexual activity or exposure to blood.

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Hepatoblastoma

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Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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Hereditary Non-polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC)

Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, often called HNPCC or Lynch Syndrome, is an inherited cancer syndrome that affects the digestive tract, reproductive tract and other major organs.

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Hereditary Retinoblastoma

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Hernias Inguinal and Umbilical

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Herpes Simplex Virus

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a very contagious virus that causes infections. There are two types of HSV. One type (HSV-1) usually causes sores around the lips or inside the mouth that are sometimes called fever blisters or cold sores. The other type (HSV-2) usually causes sores on the genitals.

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HiB Vaccine

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Hidradenitis Supperativa (HS)

Hidradenitis suppurativa (hy drah duh NY tiss supp yoo ruh TY vuh) or HS is a long-term (chronic) skin condition. Plugged pores and red, tender bumps or boils begin deep in the skin around hair follicles that contain specific sweat glands called apocrine glands.

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High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure means that there is higher than normal pressure inside the arteries either during systole or during diastole.

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High Cholesterol

There are two important types of cholesterol. One is LDL (low density lipoprotein) or "bad" cholesterol. The other is HDL (high density lipoprotein) or the "good" cholesterol.

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Hip Dysplasia

Hip Dysplasia can be presented as early as infancy. Early screenings and detection are critical in treating hip dysplasia long-term. 

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Hirschsprung Disease

Hirschsprung disease, also known as megacolon, is a congenital condition that causes blockage of the intestine. The blockage is caused by a lack of nerves in the bottom segment of the colon. Children with Hirschsprung disease will need surgery to remove the non-functional segment of the intestine.

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Hirschsprung Disease (HD)

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss Hirschprung disease. The symptoms of Hirschprung disease depend on the person’s age. Several tests may be done to see if a child has this condition. Resources are available to help better understand diagnostic tests and management programs.

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HIV Infection/AIDS

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that causes a number of different health problems including AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). The HIV virus is passed from person to person in certain ways: Sexual contact (heterosexual and homosexual) Contact with blood from an infected

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Hives

Hives, also called urticaria (yer ti CARE ee uh), are red, itchy, raised bumps or welts on the skin. They may be small, like mosquito bites, or many inches wide. Hives can appear alone, in a group or can connect with each other to cover bigger areas. When pressed, the center of the hive turns pale.

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Hoarse Voice (Dysphonia)

Dysphonia, also known as hoarseness, refers to having an abnormal voice. For those affected by dysphonia, the voice can be described as hoarse, rough, raspy, strained, weak, breathy or gravely. There may also be voice breaks and pitch changes. Causes may include inflammation, growths and scarring.

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Hodgkins Lymphoma

Hodgkins Lymphoma (also known as Hodgkin’s Disease) is a form of cancer of the lymphatic (lim FA tik) system. The cause of Hodgkin Lymphoma is not known. The lymphatic system is a part of the circulatory system. It plays a main role in fighting infection.

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Horseshoe Kidney

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Hydrocele

Hydrocele (pronounced hydro-seal) is a collection of clear or yellow fluid around the testicle within the scrotum. Many male newborns have small hydroceles present at birth, most of which will go away on their own within the first year and do not require surgery. Babies, toddlers or older children may develop hydroceles later on.

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Hydrocephalus

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Hydronephrosis

Hydronephrosis (pronounced high-dro-nef-row-sis) is a radiology term for swelling or fluid in the kidney.

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Hyperhidrosis

Sweating (or perspiration) is a normal body function that helps to maintain the body temperature and prevent overheating. An increased, unusual amount of sweating is called hyperhidrosis (hie purr hie DROH sis). This is common, but can be embarrassing and frustrating.

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Hypermobile Joints

Hypermobile joints, also known as loose joints, describes the ability of a joint to move beyond its normal range of motion. People with hypermobile joints are sometimes referred to as being double jointed. Benign hypermobility syndrome can lead to weak, loose ligaments and joint instability.

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Hypertelorbitism

Hypertelorbitism, also known as orbital hypertelorism, is an abnormally increased distance between the orbits, which are the bony sockets holding the eyes. In addition, patients may have a flat nasal bridge. The surgical treatment of hypertelorbitism depends on the underlying cause.

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Hyperthyroidism

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Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital heart defect where most of the structures on the left side of the heart are small and underdeveloped. The Hybrid approach, developed by surgeons at Nationwide Children's Hospital, is an alternative to Norwood open heart surgery for HLHS.

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Hypospadias

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Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism (hi po THI roid izm) happens when the body does not make enough thyroid hormone. As a result, many body functions slow down. Under active thyroid is the most common thyroid problem. Sometimes hypothyroidism is caused by our own immune system.

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Ibuprofen Chewable Tablets

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Iliotibial Band Syndrome

The Iliotibial Band (IT Band) is an extension of muscle located on the outside of the thigh. IT Band syndrome is a painful condition caused by overuse.

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Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP)

Platelets are a kind of blood cell. These cells help the blood to clot after a person gets cut or bruised. The normal platelet count is between 150,000 and 450,000. A child with immune (ih MUNE)thrombocytopenia (THROM bow site oh PEE nia), or ITP, may have a platelet count of less than 1,000.

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Immune Thrombocytopenia Purpura (ITP)

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Impetigo

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Impetigo

Impetigo is a common skin infection caused by bacteria.

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Increased Intracranial Pressure

Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) means greater than normal pressure on the brain. It results from a greater volume of fluid or swelling of the brain. Call 911 if your child loses consciousness or has convulsions (seizures) lasting longer than 5 minutes.

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Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) refers to a chronic inflammation of the intestines not due to infections or other identifiable causes. There are two main types of IBD: ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

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Influenza

nfluenza (in flu EN za), also known as “the flu,” is an illness caused by a virus. A child who has the flu may have some or all of these symptoms: High fever Headache Dry cough Sore throat Runny or stuffy nose Muscle aches Tiredness Stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea In some people, the

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Influenza (Flu) in Children

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Inguinal and Umbilical Hernias in Children

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Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri)

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, sometimes called pseudotumor cerebri, is a condition in which the cerebro-spinal fluid (the fluid inside the skull) is not able to drain normally.

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Intussusception (Inpatient)

Intussusception (In-TUSS-uh-SEP-shun) is a blockage of the intestines. It happens when one part of the intestine folds into another part. In most cases the cause is not known. It may occur any time between 3 months and 5 years of age, but is more common in children younger than 18 months.

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Intussusception (Outpatient)

Intussusception (In-TUSS-uh-SEP-shun) is a blockage of the intestines. It happens when one part of the intestine folds into another part. In most cases the cause is not known. It may occur any time between 3 months and 5 years of age, but is more common in children younger than 18 months.

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Iron Deficiency Anemia

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Iron Deficiency Anemia

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder that affects the large intestine (colon). Symptoms are caused by changes in how the GI tract works. IBS is a group of symptoms that occur together, not a disease.

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Is Your Teen Abusing Drugs or Alcohol?

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Jaundice (Hyperbilirubinemia)

Jaundice, also called hyperbilirubinemia, means that there is a high level of bilirubin in the blood. This is a pigment that settles in body tissues and can make your baby’s skin look yellow. Jaundice often occurs in newborns. If high bilirubin levels are untreated they can cause serious problems.

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Jaw Abnormalities

Jaw abnormalities affect the bite and appearance of patients. These may be due to a cleft lip and palate, or other causes. When planning surgery, most patients will need orthodontics. Treatment may include LeFort1, bilateral sagittal splint osteotomy (BSSO) and genioplasty.

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Jeune's Syndrome

Jeune's Syndrome is a form of congenital dwarfism causing children to have a deformity of their chest wall.

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Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome (JPS)

Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an inherited condition that is characterized by the development of hamartomatous polyps throughout the digestive tract.

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Kawasaki Disease

Kawasaki  Disease, although rare, is the most common cause of acquired heart disease in the United States and Japan. More than 80% of the children who get it are younger than 5 years of age. It is more common in boys and in Asians and Asian-Americans.

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Keratosis Pilaris

Keratosis pilaris is a dry skin type. It looks like dry, rough, small bumps that are flesh-colored or pink and can feel like sandpaper or chicken skin. It is not contagious and is usually not itchy. The most common areas for these bumps are on the back of the arms, front of the thighs and the face.

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Kidney Stones

Stones in the urinary tract form in the kidneys when small particles, which are usually dissolved in the urine, become oversaturated and begin to form small crystals

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Knee Sprain

Knee sprains can be significant injuries that occur from a stretch or tear of the ligaments in and around the knee.

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Knock Knees (Genu Valgum)

Genu valgum, also known as knock knees, is a common lower leg abnormality that is usually seen in the toddler, preschool and early school-age children. In genu valgum, the lower extremities turn inward, causing the appearance of the knees to be touching while the ankles remain apart.

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Knowing When to Seek Treatment for Your Child

Parents are often the first to suspect that their child or teen is challenged by feelings, behaviors, or environmental conditions that cause him or her to act disruptive, rebellious, or sad.

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Kyphosis

Kyphosis is the natural curve of the upper back (thoracic) area of the spine. In the extreme curves, the spine looks like a “hunchback.” Some excessive curves can be passed on by parents. Some can be brought on from bad posture. 

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Lactose Intolerance

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Langerhan Cell Histiocytosis (LCH)

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is among a rare and diverse group of disorders affecting primarily children. Although it was first described more than a century ago, much remains to be discovered about the causes of LCH.

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Large Cell Lymphoma

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Laryngomalacia

Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of noisy breathing in infants. More than half of infants have noisy breathing during the first week of life, and most develop this by 2-4 weeks of age. Rarely, laryngomalacia occurs in older children, or adults, particularly those with other medical problems.

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Laryngomalacia (Laryngeal Stridor)

Laryngomalacia (LAYR inn go mah LAY shah) is also called laryngeal stridor. It results from a weakness of parts of the voice box (larynx) that is present at birth. This condition can cause a high-pitched sound called stridor (STRI der). You may hear this sound when your child breathes in.

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Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI)

Tuberculosis (too ber cu LOW sis), or TB, is the common name for a germ called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Persons with latent TB infection (LTBI) do not feel sick. They do not have any symptoms but can potentially develop active TB disease. Also, persons with LTBI are not contagious.

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Learning Disorders

A learning disorder is when a child has trouble learning in certain school subjects.

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Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease

Learn more about Legg-Calve-Perthes disease.

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Leukemia

Although childhood cancer is rare, leukemia is the most common form. The cause of leukemia is not known, but we do know it is not contagious (“catching”). It is not thought to be hereditary (inherited from your parents).

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Leukemia (ALL and AML)

Learn more about the most common form of pediatric cancer, leukemia. 

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Lichen Planus

Lichen planus (LIE kun PLAY nuss) is a rash that appears on the skin as shiny, flat bumps.The bumps may be clustered together in patches or dispersed (scattered far apart). They can be red or purple in color. The rash may be itchy.

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Lichen Striatus

Lichen striatus (LY kuhn stry AY tuhs) is a rash that appears as pink or lightly-colored, scaly, flat bumps. Over the following weeks, these bumps come together to form a line or band on the skin. Sometimes the rash can appear inflamed or redder, with a thicker scale.

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Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy

Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophy affects males and females. Most commonly it causes progressive (worsening) hip and shoulder muscle weakness that spreads to the arms, legs, and back. Symptoms usually begin between 8 and 15 years of age, and progress slowly.

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Little League Elbow

Little League Elbow (also known as Medial Epicondylitis) is a painful inflammation of the bony bump on the inside of the elbow.

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Liver Disease

Liver disease occurs in children for a variety of reasons. Babies may have problems with inherited disease, despite having healthy parents. Congenital problems where the bile ducts don’t develop normally may also cause problems in babies.

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Lordosis

Lordosis is the natural curve of the lower back (lumbar) area of the spine. There are five primary types of lordosis: postural lordosis, congenital/traumatic lordosis, post-surgical laminectomy hyperlordosis, neuromuscular lordosis and lordosis secondary to hip flexion contracture.

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Low Back Strain

A low back strain is a stretch or tear of a muscle in the lower back that hold the vertebrae in its proper place.

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Lumbar Puncture

A spinal tap (lumbar puncture) is a test that checks the health of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

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Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is caused by ticks and is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. The ticks that carry Lyme disease are very small and hard to see - only as big as a sesame seed. Boys ages 5 to 19 are most at risk for Lyme disease but anyone can get it.

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Lymphatic Malformation

A lymphatic malformation is the result of abnormal formation and development during fetal development of the otherwise normal lymphatic vessels in the body. This is usually in one area of the body: neck, chest, abdomen and extremities.

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Lymphatic Malformations

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Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

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Lymphoma

Lymphoma is cancer which arises in the lymph system, the body’s circulatory network for filtering out impurities. There are two broad varieties, Hodgkin’s disease, and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

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Major Depression in Teens

Major depression is a type of mood disorder. It’s also known as clinical depression or unipolar depression.

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Malignant Teratoma

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Mallet Finger

Mallet finger is an injury to the end of the finger. It is sometimes also called “baseball finger.” It occurs when an object (most often a ball) hits the tip of the finger. This forcibly bends the fingertip further than it should go. This causes damage to the extensor tendon.

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Marfan Syndrome

Marfan Syndrome is an inherited disorder of connective tissue, and is caused by genetic mutations that result in the dysregulation of the proteins of the extracellular matrix (fibrillin).

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Mastoiditis

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Measles

Measles, also known as rubeola, is an infection caused by a virus. It is very contagious. It can be very serious in young children, adults over 20, pregnant women and people with a weakened immune system.

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Megaloblastic Anemia

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Melanoma

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Ménière's Disease

Ménière's disease is a balance disorder caused by an abnormality found in a section of the inner ear called the labyrinth.

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Meningitis

Meningitis is an infection of the meninges. These are the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.

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Meningocele

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Meningococcal Infections in Children

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Meniscus Injuries

The meniscus are two pieces of cartilage located in the knee joint that are responsible for cushioning and adding stability to the knee.

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Menstruation

Menstruation is a very normal and natural part of growing up and becoming a woman. Your body is going through many physical and emotional changes right now, and menstruation is just one part of these changes.

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Metatarsus Adductus

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Microcephaly in Children

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Micropenis

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Migraine Headaches

Migraine headaches occur when there are changes in some of the nerves and blood vessels and are common in children.

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Mold

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Moles

Moles are areas of the skin where there are more cells called melanocytes. Melanocytes are the cells in the body that produce pigment, or color.

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Molluscum

Molluscum are smooth, pearly, skin-colored, benign bumps on the skin. They begin as small bumps and they may grow as large as a pencil eraser.

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Molluscum Contagiosum

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Mononucleosis (Infectious)

Infectious mononucleosis, also known as “mono” or "the kissing disease," is an illness usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Some cases are caused by a virus called cytomegalovirus (CMV). The virus is contagious and spreads when someone comes in contact with an infected person’s saliva.

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Mood Disorders

Learn more about common mood disorders among children.

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Mosquito-Borne Diseases

Mosquito-borne diseases are spread to people and animals by the bite of an infected mosquito.

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Mouth Sores (Viral) Herpes Gingivostomatitis

Mouth sores (or Gingivostomatitis) can be caused by viruses and other illnesses. Some mouth sores are caused by the herpes virus. It is not caused by sexual activity nor related to it. Mouth sores can last from 7 to 10 days. They should heal without leaving a scar.

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MRSA Infection in the Community (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus)

Staphylococcus aureus often simply called "staph," are common bacteria. In the United States, staph germs are some of the most common causes of skin infections.

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Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney

Multicystic dysplastic kidney is a common condition that occurs when one kidney does not develop correctly as it is forming in the womb. It is possible to end up with a non-functioning kidney full of cysts and scar tissue. The remaining kidney is usually able to take over all kidney function.

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Mumps

Mumps is an illness caused by a virus. The virus is spread through saliva, so you can catch mumps from being around someone who already has it.

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Muscular Dystrophy

The muscular dystrophies, or MD, are a group of more than 30 genetic (passed down by parents) neuromuscular disorders, in which defects of muscle (not nerves) cause muscle weakness and difficulties in body movement and control.

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Myasthenia Gravis

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Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)

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Myelomeningocele

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Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

Myotonic muscular dystrophy, also known as MMD or Steinert’s disease, is the most common form of MD in adults.

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Nasal Congestion

Nasal congestion, nasal obstruction, and mouth breathing are all descriptions of a similar condition where the nasal passages are blocked, resulting in the sensation of difficulty breathing through the nose.

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Nasal Turbinate Hypertrophy

Turbinate hypertrophy, inferior turbinate hypertrophy, and nasal turbinate hypertrophy are all descriptions of a similar condition where the tissue on the lateral (outside) walls of the nose are too large, causing nasal obstruction.

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Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease of the bowel (intestine) of newborn infants.

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Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a condition that starts at birth when an infant’s mother has used drugs (legal or illegal) or alcohol during her pregnancy.

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Neonatal Diabetes

Neonatal diabetes mellitus is a rare form of diabetes that occurs within the first 6 months of life.

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Neonatal Hypothyroidism

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Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome happens when protein passes from the kidneys into the urine through tiny filters in the kidneys. When this happens, there is too little protein in the blood.

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Nephrotic Syndrome in Children

Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by symptoms that result from changes that occur to the small, functional filters in the kidneys.

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Neuroblastoma

Found only in children, neuroblastoma arises in the adrenal glands, located in the abdominal area near the kidneys, and along the sympathetic nerve chain in the chest and abdomen.

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Neurocutaneous Syndromes

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Neurogenic Bladder

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Neurological Disorders

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Neuromuscular Disorders

Patients benefit from coordinated care from specialists, all with expertise in pediatric neuromuscular disorders.

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Neutropenias

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Nevus Sebaceous

A nevus sebaceous is a type of birthmark that usually appears on the scalp. It may also appear on the face but this is less common. It is made of extra oil glands in the skin. It starts as a flat pink or orange plaque (slightly raised area). A nevus sebaceous does not go away on its own.

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Newborn Clavicle Fractures

Clavicle (collar bone) fractures are the most common injury sustained by newborns during birth. Factors that may increase the risk for a clavicle fracture include the newborn being large in size, the newborn’s shoulder getting stuck during delivery, or the use of tools to assist with the delivery.

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Newborn Screening Tests

The U.S. has a national program of newborn screening tests to check for several different disorders that can be treated if they are found very early in life.

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Noisy Breathing (Stertor, Stridor or Wheezing)

Noisy breathing is common, especially in children. and can be a sign of many different conditions. Noisy breathing is typically caused by a partial blockage or narrowing at some point in the airways. Types of noisy breathing include stertor (low-pitched), stridor and wheezing (high-pitched).

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Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a malignant (cancerous) tumor that starts in the lymphatic tissue in the body. There are 2 major forms of NHL: lymphoblastic and non-lymphoblastic lymphoma.

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Nosebleeds

In this Helping Hand™, we discuss nosebleeds. Also known as epistaxis, nosebleeds occur when small and delicate blood vessels (capillaries) in the lining of the nose break and bleed. There are many things you can do to stop a nosebleed. If your child’s nosebleed does not stop, call your doctor.

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Nosebleeds (Epistaxis)

Nosebleeds, also called epistaxis, commonly occur in children for a number of reasons.

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Nursemaid's Elbow

Nursemaid’s elbow is a partial dislocation at the elbow joint. Nursemaid’s elbow is also known as a radial head subluxation.

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a type of anxiety disorder. A child with OCD has obsessive thoughts that are not wanted.

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Obstructed Mullerian Duct Anomalies

Obstructed mullerian duct anomalies are defects in the development of the reproductive system that are present in a female baby before birth.

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Omphalocele

In normal development before birth, the intestines are formed in a sac around the umbilical cord, and then move into the baby's body. If the intestines stay in the sac (and do not move into the baby’s body) it is called an omphalocele.

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Omphalocele Repair

Treatment of an omphalocele will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.

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Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Children with ODD are uncooperative, defiant, and hostile toward peers, parents, teachers, and other authority figures.

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Optic Neuritis

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Orthodontics

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Osgood-Schlatter Disease

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Osgood-Schlatter's Disease

Osgood-Schlatter's Disease is one of the most common causes of knee pain in active children.

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Osteochondritis Dissecans

Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD) is a condition in which a piece of cartilage and the underlying bone separate.

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Osteosarcoma

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Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcoma is a cancer of the bone. It starts in immature bone cells that normally form new bone tissue.

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Otorrhea

Otorrhea is the medical term for ear drainage. In order for there to be drainage from the middle ear into the ear canal, there must be a connection present.

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Ovarian Cyst and Torsion

An ovarian cyst s a fluid filled sac in or on the surface of an ovary. It often forms during or after ovulation.

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Over-The-Counter Medicines for Infants and Children

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Overuse Injuries

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Painful Menstruation

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Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is an inflammation, or swelling, of the pancreas.

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Paradoxical Vocal Cord Dysfunction (PVCD)

With Paradoxical Vocal Cord Dysfunction (PVCD), the vocal cords close together, or constrict, when a person inhales, leaving only a small opening for air to flow into the windpipe.

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Patellar Subluxation

A patellar subluxation means that the kneecap has briefly slid out of its normal place in the groove at the center of the bottom end of the thigh bone.

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Patellar Tendinitis

Patellar Tendinitis is inflammation of the patellar tendon located directly below the knee cap.

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Patellofemoral Pain

Patellofemoral pain is when there is pain in the soft tissue of the knee and around the patella (kneecap).

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Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that is formed during fetal growth to provide blood flow between two of the major arteries in the baby’s body while in the womb.

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Patent Ductus Arteriosus PDA

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Pavlik Harness

Does your child wear a pavlik harness? This Helping Hand can aid you in day to day activities with your child in a pavlik harness.

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Pectus Carinatum

Pectus carinatum - also known as pigeon breast - is characterized by a prominent sternum and is usually asymptomatic.

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Pectus Excavatum

Pectus excavatum - also known as sunken chest syndrome - is the most common chest wall disorder treated at Nationwide Children’s.

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Pediatric Obesity

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends using body mass index (BMI) to screen for overweight children beginning at age 2 and through age 19.

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Pediatric Trigger Thumb

Pediatric trigger thumb (PTT) is also called a flexion contracture of the IP joint. It is a condition that affects the movement of the thumb in children. In PTT, a tendon cannot slide back and forth through the ligament and the thumb gets stuck in a bent (flexed) position.

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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection in the uterus, the fallopian tubes or the ovaries.

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Perioral Dermatitis

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss perioral dermatitis, which is a common dry or bumpy rash that can occur around the mouth, the nose and the eyes. To treat the rash, it is important to stop using any topical steroids. Instead, your child’s doctor may prescribe topical or oral antibiotics.

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Pernicious Anemia

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Persistent Diarrhea & Malabsorption

Diarrhea lasting more than seven days is considered persistent, while less than seven days is acute. Diarrhea that lasts more than 30 days is chronic. Toddler's diarrhea is caused by a diet low in fat and high in sugar and fluids. Malabsorption is the inability to use the food the body takes in.

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Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN)

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. PPHN is a life-threatening condition. Another term for high blood pressure is hypertension. In PPHN, blood is forced away from the lungs due to high blood pressure in the arteries that go to the lungs.

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Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss pertussis, also known as whooping cough. Pertussis is an infection of the respiratory tract caused by bacteria. The bacteria are easily spread by breathing in droplets from an infected person who coughs or sneezes. Call 911 if your child stops breathing.

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Peutz Jeghers Syndrome (PJS)

Two findings make up Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: intestinal hamartomatous polyps and blue/black freckling or macules that can be seen on the lips, mouth, nostrils, hands, feet and genitalia.

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Phalangeal Neck (Finger) Fracture

The hand is the most often injured body part in children. Finger fractures, especially phalangeal neck fractures, often happen because of a direct hit to a finger.

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Phimosis

Phimosis is a condition of the male foreskin where the skin is tight and unable to retract back behind the head of the penis. This condition is completely normal and physiologic in most baby boys whose penis is otherwise without abnormalities.

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Phobias

A phobia is an excessive fear of an object or situation. It’s a fear that lasts for at least 6 months.

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Physical Abuse/Trauma

Physical abuse is any act that results in physical injury to a child or adolescent, even if the injury was unintentional.

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Pilomatrixoma

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Pilonidal Disease

Pilonidal disease is a condition that affects mainly teenagers and young adults. A pilonidal sinus is a small hole under the skin between the buttocks cheeks. Symptoms of an infected pilonidal sinus include pain, red skin, fever, drainage of blood or pus and a tender lump under the skin.

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Pinworms: Treatment and Prevention

Pinworms are small white worms that live in the large intestine. They are about 1/2 inch long and as thin as a thread. They can sometimes be seen in and around the child's bowel movements. The adult female pinworm lays her eggs on the skin around the anus. This causes itching and scratching.

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Pityriasis Rosea

Pityriasis rosea is a common skin problem in children and young adults. It often begins with a large scaly lesion called the “herald patch.”

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Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis occurs when a broad band of tissue located on the bottom of the foot becomes painful and irritated.

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Plasmaphoresis

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Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a lung infection that is usually caused by a virus or bacteria. This makes the air sacs in the lungs fill with fluid (phlegm or mucus). Walking pneumonia is a non-medical word that describes a mild case of bacterial pneumonia. Pneumonia caused by bacteria is treated with an antibiotic.

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Poison Ivy Poison Oak and Poison Sumac

Poison Ivy, Poison Oak and Poison Sumac are plants that can cause a rash after contact with the sap of the plant.

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Polycystic Kidney Disease

Learn about the two different types of Polycystic Kidney Disease.

 

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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common problem in women that begins in the teenage years. It is an imbalance of hormones (chemical messengers) in the brain and ovaries.

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Polydactyly

Polydactyly refers to extra fingers or toes (digits) that are present at birth.

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Polyps

On occasion the renewal process of the lining of the digestive tract creates an outgrowth of tissue referred to as a polyp that can extend out into the empty space within the stomach, small intestine, or colon.

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Positional Plagiocephaly (Flattened Head)

Positional plagiocephaly is a flat area on the back or on one side of your baby’s head that does not go away on its own.

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Post Concussion Syndrome

After a concussion, we expect that most children will return to typical functioning within 3-4 weeks. However, a small portion of children can experience symptoms that continue for a longer duration. This is called post-concussion syndrome (PCS).

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Posterior Urethral Valves

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Post-Thrombotic Syndrome (PTS)

Post-Thrombotic Syndrome or PTS can occur when there are changes in a blood vessel after a blood clot is formed.

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A child with PTSD has persistent, scary thoughts and memories of a past event. He or she finds the event terrifying, either physically or emotionally.

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Prader Willi Syndrome

Prader-Willi Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder.

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Precocious (Early) Puberty in Girls

Puberty is the time when girls’ bodies and minds mature and they grow into young women. This usually starts when a girl is about 10 years old. Sometimes, though, a much younger girl starts to show the signs of puberty.

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Pregnancy

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Pregnancy: Issues and Answers

Access basic information about what you may be feeling, your choices, and what you can expect from prenatal care.

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Primary Immune Deficiencies

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Prune Belly Syndrome

Prune belly syndrome, also known as triad syndrome or Eagle-Barrett syndrome, includes three main problems: missing or severe weakness of muscles in the belly (abdomen); one or both testicles not in the scrotal sac (undescended testicles); and abnormal, large bladder and problems with the kidneys.

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Psoriasis

Psoriasis (sore-EYE-uh-sis) is a common skin problem that looks like pink or red areas of skin topped with white or silvery scaly patches.

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Psychiatric Treatment Team

Mental health disorders are complex and require clinical care by a multidisciplinary treatment team.

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Psychogenic Non Epileptic Events

Psychogenic non-epileptic events are behavioral episodes that look like real epileptic seizures.

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Psychological Complications of Chronic Illness

Being a teen is stressful even for physically healthy teens. Chronic illness during adolescence can complicate development.

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Psychosis

Psychosis is an extreme mental state. Children with the disorder show impaired thinking and emotions that cause them to lose contact with reality.

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Puberty: Adolescent Female

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Puberty: Adolescent Male

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Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)

Pulmonary hypertension is a rare lung disease in which the blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries are high.

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Pulmonary Atresia

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Pulmonary Embolism

A pulmonary embolism is a blood clot that travels to the blood vessels in the lungs. You may hear a pulmonary embolism referred to as a “PE.”

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Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary Hypertension is a term to describe a rare disease in which the blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary artery system) is higher than normal.

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Pyelonephritis

Pyelonephritis is the medical term for a kidney infection. The most common cause of acute kidney infections in children is a bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) that has spread from the bladder to the kidneys. Repeat acute kidney infections can lead to the need for a kidney transplant.

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Pyloric Stenosis

Pyloric stenosis is a problem that affects babies between birth and 6 months of age. In pyloric stenosis, the muscles in the lower part of the stomach enlarge, narrowing the opening of the pylorus and eventually preventing food from moving from the stomach to the intestine.

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Pyloric Stenosis

Pyloric stenosis is common in infants. It affects babies from birth to a few months of age. It is caused by the thickening of the muscle between the stomach and the small intestine.

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Pyogenic Granuloma

A pyogenic granuloma (pie uh JENN ik gran yuh LOH muh) or PG is a vascular (blood vessel) growth. It usually appears after an area of skin that has been injured.

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RBC Count

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Recovery Room/Post-Anesthesia Care Unit

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Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP)

RRP is caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), which is a highly prevalent virus.

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Red Cell Disorders

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Renal Failure in Children

Renal failure refers to temporary or permanent damage to the kidneys that results in loss of normal kidney function. There are two different types of renal failure—acute and chronic.

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Respiratory Distress

Respiratory distress describes symptoms related to breathing problems. There can be many causes of respiratory distress in children. Usually, it is caused by infections, chronic illness or a blocked airway. Call 911 or take your child to the nearest emergency room if you think they are in danger.

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Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Newborn

Respiratory distress syndrome, also known as RDS, is caused by not having enough surfactant in the lungs. It is the most common lung disease in premature infants and it occurs because the baby’s lungs are not fully developed. Babies with RDS need extra oxygen and surfactant as well as medicine.

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Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is most common from fall to spring. Symptoms of RSV include sneezing, stuffy or runny nose, sore throat and fever. For healthy babies, it is like getting a cold and can be treated at home. In some infants, RSV can be very serious and may require a hospital stay.

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Retinoblastoma

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Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the retina. This type of cancer is usually found in children younger than 3 years of age.

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Retinopathy of Prematurity

Retinopathy of Prematurity (re tin OP uh thee of pree mah TURE i tee), also known as ROP, is an eye problem for which premature babies are at high risk.

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Reye Syndrome in Children

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Rhabdomyosarcoma

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Rhabdomyosarcoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma (rab-doe-my-oh-sar-KOE-mah), or RMS, is a soft-tissue cancer. It can start in muscle cells (rhabdomyoblasts) from many different areas of the body.

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Ringworm

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Ringworm (Tinea Corporis)

Ringworm, also known as tinea corporis) is a contagious infection of the skin caused by a fungus. The infection starts as a rash with tiny red pimples. The pimples slowly spread and form a round or oval ring. A single patch of ringworm can be treated with an over-the-counter antifungal cream.

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Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by the Rickettsia bacteria. This bacteria is most commonly carried by dog ticks.

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Roseola

Roseola (ROSE–ee-OH-lah) is a common childhood illness caused by a virus. It usually affects children age 6 months to 3 years but can occur in children somewhat younger or older.

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Rotator Cuff Tendinitis

Rotator Cuff Tendinitis is inflammation of the rotator cuff muscles tendons surrounding the shoulder joint.

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Rotavirus

Rotavirus is a contagious illness caused by a virus. It can affect the digestive system and cause diarrhea (large amount of watery stools). It is very important to keep your child from getting dehydrated. Do not give only water, your child should also drink Pedialyte or other electrolyte solutions.

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Rubella

Rubella, also known as German measles, is an illness caused by a virus.

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Rumination Syndrome

Rumination Syndrome (RS) is a condition where people constantly regurgitate and either vomit or re-swallow their food or drink soon after eating. Although the syndrome was first described many years ago as occurring in young children with developmental disabilities, it is now recognized that the syndrome occurs in children and adolescents with intact cognitive abilities.

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Salivary Gland Ablation (Ranula)

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Sarcoma

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Sarcomas of Bone

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Scabies

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Scabies

Scabies is a skin condition caused by a mite.

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Scaphoid Fractures

The wrist is made up of eight bones. The wrist bone below the base of the thumb is known as the scaphoid bone. A fracture (break) of this bone can happen when a person falls onto the outstretched hand.

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Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness. It is a long-lasting and disabling problem of the brain. A child with this disorder has unusual behavior and strange feelings.

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Scoliosis

Scoliosis (skoe-lee-OH-sis) is a deformity of the spine which results in a rotation and curve of the spine.

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Second Degree Burns

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Seizure Care

Activity in the brain is controlled by electrical impulses. If these electrical signals are not sent in the right order or at the proper rate, seizures can occur.

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Seizures and Epilepsy in Children

A seizure occurs when part(s) of the brain receives a burst of abnormal electrical signals that temporarily interrupts normal electrical brain function.

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Seizures Generalized

Seizures occur when nerve cells in the brain send out sudden, excessive, uncontrolled electrical signals. Generalized seizures occur when nerve cells in both sides of the brain are involved at the same time

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Seizures: Focal (Partial)

Seizures occur when nerve cells in the brain send out sudden, excessive, uncontrolled electrical signals. The way the child acts during a focal seizure depends on the area of the brain that is affected. There are two types of partial seizures: simple partial seizures and complex partial seizures.

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Separation Anxiety

Separation anxiety is usually at its peak between 10 and 18 months. It typically ends by the time a child is 3 years old.

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Severe Combined Immune Deficiency

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Sever's Disease

Sever’s disease is a painful condition of the heel that occurs in growing children. It happens when the tendon that attaches to the back of the heel (the Achilles tendon) pulls on the growth plate (the apophysis) of the bone of the heel (the calcaneus).

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Sexual Abuse/Trauma

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Sexually Transmitted Infections

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Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

Sexually transmitted infections can be spread when a person is exposed to blood, skin, semen, vaginal fluids, or other bodily fluids that have a virus, bacteria, or parasite during sexual contact. 

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Seymour Fractures

Seymour (SEE moor) fractures are usually the result of a crush injury. This often happens during sports, such as when a ball hits the end of the finger. The joint nearest the end of the finger is hurt as well as the nail.

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Shaken Baby Syndrome

Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is a form of child abuse. SBS happens when an infant is violently shaken, usually by the arms, shoulders, or legs.

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Shin Splints

Shin splints are a painful condition that affects the front and/or sides of the lower leg.

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Shingles

Shingles is an infection caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox.

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Short Bowel Syndrome

Short bowel syndrome is exactly what the name sounds like - a condition in which the bowel is too short generally due to surgical resection.

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Shoulder Injuries

The shoulder is made up of three bones: the scapula (shoulder blade), the humerus (upper arm bone), and the clavicle (collarbone). The head (or top) of the humerus rests in a socket of the scapula called the glenoid. A soft rim of tissue called the labrum lines this socket.

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Shoulder Sprain

A shoulder sprain is a stretching or tearing of the Acromioclavicular (AC) ligament. This is located where your collar bone and shoulder meet, often called the AC joint.

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Shprintzen Sydrome

Shprintzen Sydrome is also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Sickle Cell Disease

Have you been tested for Sickle Cell Disease? If not, you can ask your doctor for blood tests called “Hemoglobin Electrophoresis and CBC”.

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Sickle Cell Disease and Acute Chest Syndrome

Acute chest syndrome is a group of symptoms that occur when sickled cells become clumped together in the lungs.

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Sickle Cell Disease and Spleen Crisis (Splenic Sequestration)

Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder. Children are born with the condition. It affects a part of the red blood cell called hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen to different parts of the body.

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Sickle Cell Trait

A person with sickle cell trait inherits one gene to make normal hemoglobin and another gene to make some sickle cell hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen to different parts of the body. Sickle cell trait is not a disease and will never turn into a disease.

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SIDS Reduction

Reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome with these tips. 

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Sinusitis

Sinusitis is a general term that indicates inflammation in the sinuses.

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Skin Cancer

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Sleep Apnea

A sprain is an injury to a ligament, or band of tough, elastic-like tissue that connects bone to bone and holds a joint in place. 

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Sleep Terrors and Sleepwalking

Sleep terrors and sleepwalking are related disorders of sleep that usually go away by adolescence. Sleep terrors are different from nightmares. With sleepwalking, the behavior seems purposeful. The child could be sitting up or getting out of bed. Sleepwalking and sleep terrors often run in families.

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Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) is defined as the femoral neck and femoral shaft (top portions of the femur) moving either posteriorly (back), anteriorly (forward) or laterally (to the side) away from the femoral epiphysis and acetabulum (the ball portion of the femur). A SCFE can be either unilateral (one side) or bilateral (both sides).

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Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE)

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) is a hip disorder that involves the epiphysis (eh PIFF I siss). This is the growing portion or ball on the top part of the femur (thigh bone).

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Sore Throat (Viral)

There are two different germs that cause sore throats: viruses and bacteria. Most sore throats are caused by viruses. It is less common for infants and young toddlers to get strep throat (a sore throat caused by “strep” bacteria).

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Spasticity

Spasticity is a muscle control disorder that involves tight or stiff muscles and an inability to control those muscles. Spasticity affects about 80 percent of people with cerebral palsy and can make normal movement, speech and walking difficult. It can also affect people with traumatic brain injury.

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Spina Bifida

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Spina Bifida and Myelomeningocele

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Spinal Injury

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Spinal Muscular Atrophy

Spinal muscular atrophies (SMA) are a group of genetic (passed down by parents) diseases that affect motor neurons (nerve cells) in the spinal cord, causing the weakening of voluntary muscles (muscles that you control).

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Spondylolysthesis/Spondylolysis

Spondylolysthesis and Spondylolysis are common causes of low back pain in adolescents.

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Sprains

There are three types of sprains, which range from mild (Grade I) to severe (Grade III).

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Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome

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Staphylococcus Scalded Skin Syndrome

Staphylococcus-Scalded Skin Syndrome (STAFF lo cok us SKAWL did skin SIN drome), also known as Scalded Skin Syndrome, SSSS, or Ritter’s Disease, is a skin infection caused by a bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus. This infection produces a toxin that can affect skin all over the body.

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Stem Cell Harvest

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Strains

A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon, the tough fibrous tissues that connects muscle to bone.

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Strep Throat (Bacterial)

Most sore throats are caused by viruses. Strep throat is a contagious sore throat that comes on suddenly and is caused by bacteria (germs) called streptococci, or strep for short. Antibiotic medicine must be given as soon as possible to prevent the strep germs from spreading in the body.

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Stress Fractures

A stress fracture is an overuse injury resulting from repetitive forces that are directed to weight bearing bones.

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Strokes in Children

A stroke is a brain injury caused by lack of blood flow in a brain artery. A stroke can result from abnormal blood clots, heart problems, changes in blood vessels or injury to blood vessels. Sometimes strokes lead to bleeding in the brain. Strokes can happen to people of any age.

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Stuttering

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Subglottic Stenosis

Subglottic stenosis is a narrowing of the airway in the part of the voice box below the vocal cords (glottis).

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Submucous Cleft Palate

A submucous cleft palate (SMCP) results from a lack of normal fusion of the muscles within the soft palate as the baby is developing in utero. Frequent middle ear infections, nasal speech and early feeding difficulties may be the first indicators that a child has a submucous cleft palate.

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Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) not only affects young athletes, but can affect healthy children and adolescents who do not participate in organized athletic activity.

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Suicidal Behaviors

Suicide in children and adolescents is a major public health issue. Nationally, suicide is the second leading cause of death for 10- to 19-year-olds.

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Sunburn

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Supracondylar Humerus Fracture

When your child’s humerus bone is fractured near the elbow area, just above the joint it is called a supracondylar humerus fracture.

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Swallowing Disorders

A swallowing disorder can result in aspiration or food “going down the wrong pipe.” Aspiration can place a child at a higher risk for respiratory/pulmonary issues.

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Syncope

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Syncope in Children

Syncope (SIN ko pee) is the medical word that means fainting.

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Syphilis

Syphilis (SIF-i-lis) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) 

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Tennis Elbow

Lateral epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow) is a painful inflammation of the bony bump on the outside of your elbow.

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Testicular Cancer

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Testicular Torsion

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Testicular Torsion in Children

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Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that is made up of 4 problems and results in not enough blood flow to the lungs.

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Thermal Burns

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Thigh and Hip Strains

A strain of the thigh/hip is a stretching or tearing of a muscle and is commonly referred to as a “pulled muscle.”

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Thrombocytopenia

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Thrombophilia

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Thrush

Thrush is an infection caused by a fungus called Candida. Thrush can affect a child's mouth or diaper area. Oral thrush begins as flat white spots and come together to form patches. These spots are often mistaken for "milk patches." Candida in the diaper area can cause a red rash with tiny blisters.

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Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

The thyroglossal duct cyst is typically noticed as an area of fullness or a lump in the midline of the neck, usually just above the voice box.

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Tinea Capitis

Tinea capitis (TIN-ee-uh CAP-i-tis) is an infection of the scalp (head) which is caused by a fungus. It is also called ringworm. (This is not caused by a worm.) 

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Tinea Pedis

Tinea pedis (tin EE uh PEE duss) is a very common fungal infection on the skin of the feet. It is usually called athlete’s foot.

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Tinea Versicolor

Tinea versicolor (TIN ee uh VUHR sih kuhl er) is a common rash caused by the overgrowth of microscopic yeast on the skin's surface. The rash looks like small, scaly spots. 

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Tongue Tie

While up to 10 percent of children can have some degree of tongue tie, not all children with tongue tie require intervention.

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Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis refers to inflammation or infection of the tonsils.

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Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

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Tourette Disorder

Tourette disorder is a neurological disorder. It is also called Tourette syndrome. The disorder causes repeated tics.

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Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

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Tracheomalacia

In this Helping Hand™document, we discuss tracheomalacia, which is when the walls of a child’s windpipe (trachea) collapse. If the collapsed part of the windpipe goes past the area where it branches off into the two lungs, it is called bronchomalacia. This causes noisy or difficult breathing.

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Tracheomalacia (Primary and Secondary)

Tracheomalacia is characterized by collapse of the walls of the windpipe (trachea). If the collapse is due to weakness of the cartilage in the tracheal wall, it is called primary tracheomalacia. If it's due to compression by a structure outside of the windpipe, it is called secondary tracheomalacia.

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Traumatic Brain Injury

A traumatic brain injury can affect a child in several ways. Your child may have a few, many or none of these effects. Here are answers to many of the questions that parents ask. Behavior Changes in a child’s behavior are common after a head injury.

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Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis (trick-o-moe-NYE-ah-sis), is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STI). It is caused by a parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. The infection can happen to both men and women. It is passed during sexual contact with an infected person.

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Tricuspid Atresia

Tricuspid atresia (TA) is a heart defect present at birth (congenital). It occurs when the tricuspid valve doesn’t form right during fetal heart development. This happens during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

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Turner Syndrome

Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females.

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Turner Syndrome (Genetic Disorder)

Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females.

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Tympanic Membrane Perforation

Tympanic membrane perforation can be suspected with a history of ear trauma, ear tubes, frequent ear drainage or hearing loss. 

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Tympanometry

Learn more about tympanometry.

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Types of Anesthesia

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Umbilical Hernia

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Undescended Testes

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Undescended Testicle

Testicles are formed prior to birth in the abdomen below the kidneys, and progressively descend during pregnancy from the abdomen through the groin into the scrotum. An undescended testicle is a testis that fails to descend into the scrotum.

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Unwrap the Gift of Toy Safety

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Upper GI Bleeding

Upper GI bleeding occurs when irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum result in bleeding. When this occurs, the child will vomit bright red blood, or dark looking flecks or clots that look like “coffee grounds”.

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Upper Respiratory Infections (Colds)

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss the common cold, which is a respiratory infection caused by a virus. Rest and proper hydration are important when your child is ill. Viruses are spread by the hands and by respiratory contact. Washing hands often helps prevent the disease from spreading.

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Ureterocele

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Urinary Incontinence

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Urinary Tract and Kidney Infections

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Urinary Tract Infection (UTIs)

UTIs are typically caused by a bacterial infection in the urethra and bladder. 

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Urinary Tract Infection: Prevention

How to Prevent Urinary Tract Infection

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Urticaria (Hives)

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Uterine Didelphys

Uterine Didelphys is a disorder present before birth in which a female develops two uteruses instead of one.

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Vaginal Anomalies

Vaginal anomalies are disorders that involve abnormally formed or absent vaginas. These include: vaginal agenesis, imperforate hymen, septate hymen, transverse vaginal septum and transverse vaginal septum. These occur in about 5% of females with an anorectal malformation/imperforate anus.

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Vaginal Atresia

Vaginal atresia is a birth defect in which the vagina is closed or absent.

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Vaginal Discharge

As you grow up, you may notice a discharge from your vagina during the time between your menstrual periods. It is normal for all women to have some vaginal discharge. The amount, color and thickness of this discharge are different for each woman.

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Varicocele

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Varicoceles

A varicocele is a mass of swollen blood vessels in the spermatic cord – the structure in the scrotum that connects the testicles to the body. 

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Vascular Malformations

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Velocardiofacial Syndrome

Velocardiofacial Syndrome is also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Velopharyngeal Dysfunction (VPD)

Velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) is the inadequate separation of the oral and nasal cavities during speech and/or swallowing. At Nationwide Children’s Hospital, our experts in the Velopharyngeal Dysfunction Program provide specialized treatment for patients with speech disorders resulting from VPD.

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Ventricular Septal Defect

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Vertigo in Children

Vertigo (VER ti go) is the medical word for the feeling of spinning. Your child may feel like the world is moving, but there is no movement. These feelings come and go.

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Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the abnormal backward flow of urine from the bladder to the kidneys. This backwards flow increases the child’s risk of urinary tract and kidney infections. 

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Viruses Bacteria and Parasites in the Digestive Tract

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Vocal Fold Nodules

Vocal fold or vocal cord nodules are small, non-cancerous growths on your child’s vocal cords. They are often caused by voice abuse. Over time, your child’s repeated misuse of the vocal folds results in soft, swollen spots on each vocal fold.

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Voiding Dysfunction

Going to the bathroom may seem like a simple thing, but there are actually a series of complicated signals that make sure the bladder does exactly what the brain is telling it to do.

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Volar Plate Injuries

The volar plate is a thick ligament that connects two bones in the finger. A volar plate injury is commonly called a jammed finger or sprain. This happens when the finger is bent backward too far (hyperextended). These injuries can also lead to a fracture (break) called an avulsion fracture.

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Vomiting

Care for your child if they are vomiting with this Helping Hand.

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Von Willebrand Disease

Von Willebrand Disease is caused by low amounts or structural abnormalities in a protein called Von Willebrand Factor. This results in prolonged clotting and easy bleeding and bruising.

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Vulva Abnormalities

To diagnose vulvar disorders and diseases, a doctor will take a complete medical history to find out about symptoms and how long they have been happening. 
 

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Warts

There are many types of warts.Learn how to prevent and treat warts.

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WBC Count

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White Cell Disorders

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Wilms' Tumor

The kidneys are organs that filter waste products from the blood and create urine. Wilms' tumor (nephroblastoma) is a cancerous tumor of the kidney. It is thought to be caused by abnormal genes. The tumor may occur at any age, but it is most common in children 1 to 5 years of age.

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Wrist and Hand Sprains

A sprain of the wrist or hand is a stretching or tearing of the ligaments which connect the bones together and provide stability.

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Your Child's Asthma: Flare-ups

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Zika Virus

Zika (ZEE ka) is a disease caused by the Zika Virus. A person becomes infected by the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito or by having unprotected sex with an infected person. Infection during pregnancy has been shown to be linked to birth defects in babies.

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Zoonoses

Zoonoses (zoo NO seez) are infections that people can get from animals. Children with compromised immune systems are at higher risk for these infections. This includes those on chemotherapy or radiation, or who have had bone marrow transplants.

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Helping Hands Patient Education Materials

Written and illustrated by medical, nursing and allied health professionals at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Helping Hand instructions are intended as a supplement to verbal instructions provided by a medical professional. The information is periodically reviewed and revised to reflect our current practice. However, Nationwide Children's Hospital is not responsible for any consequences resulting from the use or misuse of the information in the Helping Hands.