Conditions We Treat

Browse Conditions A-Z

22q Deletion Syndrome

In approximately 1 in 10 families, the deletion is present because one of the parents has the same deletion and passes it on to their baby. As a result, parents of a baby born with this syndrome should have a blood test to determine their chances of having other children with the syndrome.

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Abdominal Pain

Functional Abdominal Pain is a common problem in which chronic or frequent abdominal pain interferes with a child’s regular activities and daily life.

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Abdominal Pain: Outpatient

Abdominal pain (pain in the stomach area) can happen for many reasons. This Helping Hand will explain when action needs to be taken.

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Acanthosis Nigricans

Acanthosis nigricans is a dark patch that appears on on your neck, armpit, under the breast or a skin crease. It is usually a sign that your body is making extra insulin that it cannot use well.

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Achondroplasia

Achondroplasia is the most common form of short-limb dwarfism. It is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation in the gene that creates the cells (fibroblasts) which convert cartilage to bone.

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Acne

Acne is the one of the most common skin problems that young people have. Almost everyone will develop acne to some degree. Some people have more pimples than others. Treatment requires time, patience, and regular use of any medicine you are given.

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Active Tuberculosis Disease

Active TB disease is contagious and is often spread through the air. Learn how this condition can be treated.

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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

Leukemia is cancer of the blood. It’s the most common form of cancer in childhood.

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Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)

Leukemia is cancer of the blood. It’s the most common form of cancer in childhood.

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Acute Renal Failure

Acute kidney disease starts suddenly. In some cases, it may be reversed and the kidneys can work normally again.

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Addiction

Addiction refers to a wide range of compulsive behaviors.

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Adjustment Disorders

An adjustment disorder is an unhealthy emotional or behavioral reaction to a stressful event or change in a person’s life.

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Adolescent Mental Health

Learn about the different mental health problems affecting adolescents that require the clinical care of a physician or other healthcare professional.

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Advanced Lung Disease

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Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is a common condition caused by an abnormal reaction of the body’s immune system response to various particles (allergens) in the environment.

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Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever)

Allergic rhinitis is a condition commonly known as hay fever. It affects millions of people in the United States. There are two types of allergic rhinitis: seasonal (occurs during a season) and perennial (occurs year around).

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Allergies to Foods

A food allergy occurs when the body’s immune system overreacts to certain foods. The body then makes antibodies to that food and an allergic reaction occurs.

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Allergy to Stinging Insects

Children who are allergic to the venom (poison) in bee stings and other insects should be very careful not to get stung. The most common stinging insects found in the Ohio area are: honeybees, wasps, yellow jackets, and hornets.

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Alopecia Areata

Alopecia areata is a form of hair loss that occurs in children and adults. It is considered an autoimmune condition that results in inflammation and loss of hair.

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Amenorrhea

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Anaphylaxis

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Anemia

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Anemia B12 Deficiency

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Anemia of Chronic Disease

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Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a highly destructive benign bone tumor, representing 1 to 6 percent of all solid bone tumors.

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Ankle Sprain

An ankle sprain is a stretching or tearing of the ligaments in the ankle. Signs of an ankle injury include pain, swelling or trouble walking. Often this happens after an injury that involves twisting or rolling of the ankle.

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Anorectal Malformations or Imperforate Anus

Imperforate anus, also called anorectal malformation, is a congenital defect that happens early in pregnancy, while a baby is still developing.

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Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa, also known as just anorexia, is an eating disorder. This disorder makes you obsess about your weight and food.

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Answers to Questions About Your Child's Mental Health

The following answers to questions parents often ask can help you protect your child's mental health.

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of four main ligaments in the knee. Learn more about this injury and how it is treated. 

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Anxiety

Anxiety disorders are the most common type of mental health disorder in childhood.

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Aortic Stenosis

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APGAR Scoring

The Apgar score helps find breathing problems and other health issues.

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Aplastic Anemia

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Apnea

Apnea is a pause in breathing that lasts 20 seconds or longer for full-term infants. Most infants outgrow this problem by the time they are a year old.

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Arrhythmias

An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart.

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Arteriovenous Malformations

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Arthrogryposis

Arthrogryposis is a rare disorder occurring in 1 out of every 3,000 live births. Learn more about arthrogryposis, also called arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.

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Asperger's Syndrome

Asperger’s Syndrome, a form of Autism Spectrum Disorder, is a developmental disorder. Young people with Asperger’s Syndrome have a difficult time relating to others socially and their behavior and thinking patterns can be rigid and repetitive.

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Asthma

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Asthma and Reactive Airway Disease (RAD) (Wheezing)

Prepare for your child's asthma flare ups with this Helping Hand.

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Atrial Septal Defect

Atrial septal defects (ASD) are congenital heart defects in which a persistent opening between the atrial and ventricular septa exists.

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder. It affects about ten percent of school-age children.

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) begins before a child is 7 years of age. Symptoms are usually noticed by the time a child is school age. It occurs more often in boys than in girls. Children with ADHD may be bright and creative but may have difficulty with learning or behavior.

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Audiology

As part of a hearing evaluation, your child's healthcare provider will do a complete medical history and physical exam. In addition, there are many different types of hearing tests.

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Auditory Processing Disorder

Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) is a disorder of the auditory (hearing) system that causes a disruption in the way that an individual’s brain understands what they are hearing.

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Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that impacts a child’s ability to communicate and interact socially. It also impacts the way the child thinks and behaves.

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Autosomal Dominant Opitz G/BBB Syndrome

22q.11.2 deletion syndrome includes the autosomal dominant form of Opitz G/BBB Syndrome.

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AVMs (Arteriovenous Malformations)

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Bacterial Skin Infections

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Bacterial Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis, or BV, is an infection of the vagina. Learn more about this condition.

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Batten Disease

Batten disease is the most common form of a group of disorders called neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (or NCLs).

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Becker Muscular Dystrophy

Becker muscular dystrophy is the same basic disease as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, except it is less common and the symptoms are milder and slower to progress.

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Behavior Disorders

Learn more about conditions associated with behavior disorders.

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Bicuspid Aortic Valve

Bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV) is an irregularity in the heart where there are only two leaflets on a valve, instead of the normal three.

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Biliary Atresia

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Binge Drinking Dangers for Young People

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Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic-depression, is a chronic mental illness that causes extreme mood swings from high to low and vice versa.

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Bladder Exstrophy and Epispadias

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Blood Clots

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Bone Marrow Aspirates and Biopsies

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Bone Marrow Aspiration

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Brachial Plexus

The brachial plexus is a bundle of nerves that exits the spinal cord at the level of the neck. The brachial plexus can be injured during childbirth.

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Brain Tumors

Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Approximately 4,000 children and adolescents in the US are diagnosed with primary brain tumors each year. Primary brain tumors start in the brain and generally do not spread outside the brain tissue. Most central nervous system cancers are brain tumors. Brain tumors, either malignant or benign, are tumors that originate in the cells of the brain. A tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue.

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Branchial Cleft Cyst/Sinus/Fistula

If your child has a draining pit on their neck or around the ear, or if there is an area of fullness in the neck, this may represent a branchial anomaly

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Broken Bone

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Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis affects the small airways in the lower respiratory tract. These small airways become swollen and filled with mucus and tiny cell particles. The narrow airways make it hard for the child to breathe out.

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Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

BPD is a chronic lung disease. It happens in babies who are born prematurely and who have had breathing problems. Learn more about this condition.

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Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a term used to describe long-term breathing problems for premature babies.

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Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy is the examination of the main airways of the lungs using a flexible tube. It helps assess and diagnose lung problems, assess blockages, take samples of tissue or fluid, or help remove a foreign body.

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Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder. It’s also called bulimia. A child with bulimia overeats or binges uncontrollably.

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Burkitt's Lymphoma

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Burkitt's Lymphoma/Burkitt's Like Lymphoma

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Burns

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Bursitis

A bursa can become swollen or irritated when muscles or tendons become tight and increase the pressure over the bursa.

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Cancer

Cancer is an abnormal growth of cells. Cancer cells quickly reproduce event without enough space and nutrients. They also grow despite signals sent from the body to stop reproduction. Cancer cells are often shaped differently from healthy cells. They do not work well and can spread to many parts of the body.

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Cardiomyopathy

Cardiomyopathy is disease of the heart muscle that reduces the heart's ability to pump blood effectively. Different kinds of cardiomyopathy cause the heart muscle to enlarge, thicken, or become stiff.

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Cauliflower Ear

Cauliflower ear is the result of a direct blow to the outer ear.

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Cayler Cardiofacial Syndrome

Cayler Cardiofacial Syndrome is also known as 22q.11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Celiac Disease

Celiac disease is a chronic condition that occurs in about 1 in 100 people and results in damage to the lining of the small intestines.

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Cerebral Palsy (CP)

Cerebral Palsy is an injury or abnormality of the developing brain that affects movement. This means that something happened to the brain or the brain did not develop normally. 

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Chemical Burns

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Chemotherapy

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Chest Wall Tumors

A variety of soft tissue tumors can present in the chest wall, including benign conditions, such as neurofibromas, and malignant tumors, such as soft tissue sarcomas.

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Chiari Malformations

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Chickenpox

What to expect if your child has the chickenpox. 

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Chlamydia

Anyone who has sex has a chance of getting chlamydia. Those who have had more than one partner are at greater risk. Most people who have Chlamydia have no symptoms and do not realize they have the infection.

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Chronic Constipation

Many kids will experience occasional bouts of constipation during their childhood. Chronic constipation is a slightly different, yet much more challenging condition to treat. Because chronic constipation can lead to long-term discomfort and loss of bowel control, it can be very stressful for both parents and kids.

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Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is a rare disorder of gastrointestinal motility where coordinated contractions (peristalsis) in the intestinal tract become altered and inefficient. When this happens, nutritional requirements cannot be adequately met.

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Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

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Chronic Renal Failure

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Chronic Sinusitis

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Cloaca

A cloaca is a malformation in females where the rectum, vagina, and urinary tract are fused together, creating a single common channel.

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Clubfoot

A clubfoot is a foot disorder in which the foot turns inward and downward at birth and remains tight in this position. This Helping Hand will explain how this can be treated.

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Clubfoot (Talipes Equinovarus)

Clubfoot, also known as talipes equinovarus (TEV), is a common foot abnormality, in which the foot points downward and inward.

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Coagulation Disorders

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Coarctation of the Aorta

Coarctation of the aorta is a congenital heart defect where the aorta is narrowed and results in decreased blood flow to the lower body.

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Common Variable Immune Deficiency

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Communication Disorders

A child with a communication disorder has trouble communicating with others. He or she may not understand or make the sounds of speech and may struggle with word choice, word order or sentence structure.

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Complete Blood Count (CBC)

A CBC count is a measurement of size, number, and maturity of the different blood cells in a specific volume of blood.

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Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation for Children

A comprehensive psychiatric evaluation may help diagnose any number of emotional, behavioral, or developmental disorders.

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Concussion

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Conduct Disorders

Conduct disorder refers to a group of behavioral and emotional problems characterized by a disregard for others. Children with conduct disorder have a difficult time following rules and behaving in a socially acceptable way. 

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Congenital Hypothyroidism

When a baby is born without enough thyroid hormone, it is called congenital hypothyroidism.

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Congenital Neurological Disorders

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Congenital Protein C or S Deficiency

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Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Vessels

Congenitally corrected transposition of the great vessels (CCTGA; l-TGA) is an uncommon congenital heart abnormality, where the receiving chambers (atria) are connected to their opposite pumping chambers (ventricles) because the ventricles are switched from their normal anatomic positions.

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Congestive Heart Failure

Congestive heart failure happens when the heart does not pump enough blood to the body for normal function and activity. Learn more about signs and symptoms and treatment for this condition.

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Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

Conjunctivitis may be caused by germs (viruses or bacteria), an allergy, or by something that gets into the eye. Conjunctivitis caused by germs is very contagious.

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Conotruncal Anomaly Face Syndrome

Conotruncal Anomaly Face Syndrome is also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Constipation

Many children have constipation at one time or another.

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Constipation and Fecal Soiling

Fecal soiling is the leakage of stool that a child cannot control. Learn more about this condition.

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Constipation: Child Over One Year of Age

Constipation in children can cause concern for parents. Sometimes children have poor stooling habits because they are not encouraged to go to the bathroom on a regular schedule. Sometimes, they are just "too busy" playing or doing something else to spend enough time on the toilet to stool.

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Constipation: Infant

This Helping Hand explains how infants with constipation can be treated.

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Contusions Bruises

Contusions, or bruises, are one of the most common types of injuries occurring in active children.

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Cradle Cap

Read more about what causes cradle cap and what you can do to treat it. 

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Craniopharyngioma

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Craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis occurs when one or more of the bones in the skull closes early.  

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Croup

 Croup can cause a barky cough or hoarse voice and is usually worse at night. Care for your child with croup with this Helping Hand.

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Cystic Fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease. It is not contagious. CF affects the digestive system and the glands in the lungs that produce mucus. It also affects the glands that produce sweat and saliva. 

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Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes

Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes (CFRD) is a type of diabetes that affects children and adults with cystic fibrosis.

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Dehydration

Prevent your child from getting dehydrated with this Helping Hand.

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Delirium

Delirium is a serious disturbance in mental abilities. It involves changes in behavior, confused thinking, and reduced awareness of a person's surroundings. It is a serious complication of medical illness.

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Depression

Learn more about the signs of depression and what you can do to help your child.

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Dermoid Cyst

Dermoid cysts are the most common orbital/periorbital tumors found in the pediatric population. They are slow growing, cystic masses, lined by skin containing oil and skin cells.

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Desmopressin tablets

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Developmental Disorders

Learn more about developmental disorders that could be affecting your child.

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Developmental Hip Dysplasia

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Diabetes Type II

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that occurs when your body makes insulin but does not know how to use it well.

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Diabetes: Ketoacidosis (DKA)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (KEY toe as i DOE sis), also known as DKA, is a serious complication of diabetes.

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Diabetes: MODY

MODY is the name given to a collection of different types of inherited forms of diabetes that usually develop in adolescence or early adulthood.

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Diabetes: Type 1

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition that occurs when your body makes little to no insulin.

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Diabetes: Type 2

Type 2 diabetics may produce some insulin but not enough, or else the body does not recognize the insulin. If your child has Type 2 diabetes, his body either does not make enough insulin or his body cannot properly use the insulin it makes.

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Diamond Blackfan Anemia

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Diaper Dermatitis (Diaper Rash)

Diaper rash happens when urine and bowel movements irritate your baby’s skin. This Helping Hand will teach you how to prevent and treat diaper rash.

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Diarrhea

Diarrhea is a common problem of young children. Diarrhea may be caused by a serious illness, but usually it is only the result of a minor infection.

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DiGeorge Syndrome

DiGeorge Syndrome is also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Dislocations

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Disruptive Behavior Disorders

Disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) can seriously impact a child’s daily life. Children with disruptive behavior disorders show ongoing patterns of uncooperative and defiant behavior.

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Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

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Distal Radius Buckle (Torus) Fracture

This fracture is a common injury in children. It is often caused from falling on the hand. 

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Double Outlet Right Ventricle

In Double Outlet Right Ventricle, or DORV, the two Great Arteries (the Aorta and the Pulmonary Artery) are both attached to the right ventricle.

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Drugs, Herbs and Supplements

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D-Transposition of the Great Vessels

D-Transposition of the great vessels (d-TGA) is a congenital heart defect where the aorta and pulmonary artery are switched from their normal positions.

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Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder that affects all races and ethnicities. Affecting only males, it occurs in 1/3,600 live-born infant boys.

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Dyskeratosis Congenital

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Dysmenorrhea

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Dysthymia

Persistent depressive disorder is a type of depression. Depression involves a child’s body, mood, and thoughts.

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Ear Infections (Otitis Media)

Otitis media (oh TIE tis ME dee uh) means the middle ear is infected or inflamed. It is the most common reason for young children to visit their primary care provider. Ear infections are usually seen in children younger than three years of age, but anyone of any age can get an ear infection.

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Ear Tube Insertion for Children

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Early Puberty in Boys

Care for your son who is going through early puberty with this Helping Hand.

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Early Puberty in Girls

Puberty is the time when girls’ bodies and minds mature and they grow into young women. This usually starts when a girl is about 10 years old. Sometimes, though, a much younger girl starts to show the signs of puberty. This is called precocious (pre-KOH-shuss), or early puberty (PU-ber-ty).

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Echocardiography

Echocardiography is an imaging test. It uses sound waves to make detailed pictures of the heart.

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Eczema

Care for your child that has eczema with this Helping Hand.

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Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis)

Eczema is a chronic skin problem characterized by dry, itchy, rough skin rashes.

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Ehlers Danlos Syndrome with Associated Bleeding Disorders

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects mainly the skin and joints. A person is born with EDS.

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Electrical Burns

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Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

Electrocardiography (ECG) is a simple, fast test to check the electrical activity of your child's heart as blood moves through it. Abnormal ECG results may mean there is a problem with your child's heart.

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Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is a rare form of MD that affects only males. Symptoms may begin in childhood or adolescence. The condition causes slowly progressive (worsening) weakness in the muscles of the shoulders, upper arms, and lower legs and joint stiffness (contractures).

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Encephalitis in Children

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Encopresis

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Enlarged Adenoid

Adenoids sometimes become enlarged during childhood and the increased size may cause problems.

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Enlarged Lymph Nodes

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Enlarged Tonsils

The function of the tonsils is to help identify and fight infections caused by viruses or bacteria. They can cause problems if they are enlarged or become infected.

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Enterovirus D68 Infographic

View an easy to read infographic that teaches you everything you need to know about Enterovirus D68.

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Enuresis (Bedwetting)

Enuresis is the medical term for wetting the bed. It means a child urinates without meaning to.

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Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EOE)

A condition caused by inflammation of the esophagus, or swallowing tube, from your mouth to stomach.

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Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a neurological condition involving the brain that makes people more susceptible to having recurrent unprovoked seizures.

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EPT Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. Learn more about this condition.

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EPT Trichomoniasis

Learn more about one of the most common sexually transmitted infections, Trichomoniasis.

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Evoked Auditory Potentials

Learn more about evoked auditory potentials.

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Ewing's Sarcoma

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Ewing's Sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is a form of cancer that usually starts in the bone. It is the second most common tumor of the bone.

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Exercise and Children

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Exercised Induced Asthma (EIA)

Difficulty breathing triggered by increased activity. There are many factors that contribute to EIA.

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Extreme Prematurity

A birth that occurs any time prior to 37 weeks of pregnancy is considered premature. The most extreme issues occur in babies born at less than 28 weeks. These are cases of extreme prematurity.

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Eye Injury Corneal Abrasion

An abrasion is an injury caused by something scratching or rubbing the surface of the eye. Trauma is the most common cause of corneal abrasion.

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Facial Re-animation

Sometimes children are born without a facial nerve. More commonly, a child's facial nerve is damaged from an injury or during a surgical procedure such as tumor removal.

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Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

Affecting both males and females, the severity of symptoms vary greatly, from very mild to completely disabling.

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Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD)

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Factor V Leiden

Factor V Leiden is a genetic disorder. An abnormality in the affected individual's DNA results in the production of an abnormal form of Factor V.

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Failure to Thrive

Failure to thrive (FTT) is a term that is traditionally used for children who have failed to develop and grow normally.

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Failure to Thrive In Infants

Failure to Thrive (FTT) describes an infant or child who does not gain weight at the expected rate.

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Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)

Familial adenomatous polyposis, is an inherited colorectal cancer syndrome that can be passed from one generation to the next by a specific error or mutation in the genetic code of the APC gene.

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Fanconi Anemia

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Febrile Seizures

Febrile seizures are brief and brought on by a fever. They do not cause brain damage, but they can be very upsetting to parents.

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Fecal Incontinence

Fecal soiling can cause children intense embarrassment and social problems, and can be frustrating for both parents and children.

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Feeding Disorders

Feeding disorders are characterized by extreme food selectivity by type, texture, brand, shape or color.

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Fever

Manage your child's fever with this Helping Hand.

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Fifth Disease

Fifth disease is a mild illness caused by a virus. Symptoms include a blotchy rash that begins on the cheeks and spreads to the arms, legs and torso.

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First Degree Burns

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Flu

Learn more about the flu in this Helping Hand.

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Folliculitis

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Folliculitis

This rash appears as small red bumps or pus bumps that can itch or be mildly painful.

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Food Allergy

About 5% of all children under the age of three years are allergic to one or more foods.

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Food Poisoning

When people eat tainted food, they can develop anything from a mild illness to a serious disease.  Learn what to look for in food poisoning. 

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Foot Sprain or Strain

A foot sprain is a stretching or tearing of the ligaments that connect the bones of the foot. A foot strain is a stretching or tearing of the tendons and muscles in the foot.

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For Parents: Bicycle, In-Line Skating, Skateboard and Scooter Safety

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Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose, and Throat

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Fractures in Children

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Frostbite

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Frostbite

Frostbite is damage to the skin and underlying tissues caused by the cold. Rain, snow, water and wind can cause the skin to cool faster and may lead to frostbite.

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Fungal Infections

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Ganglion Cysts

A ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled lump under the skin. It is often found over a joint or in a tendon in the hand or wrist.

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Gastroesophageal Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux is so common that it should be considered normal for babies. Even if your child has a problem with reflux that requires treatment, he or she is still likely to outgrow their reflux.

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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Infants

Care for your child with GERDS with these helpful hints. 

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Gastroparesis

Gastroparesis is a condition where the stomach contracts less often and less powerfully, causing food and liquids to stay in the stomach for a long time

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Gastroschisis

Gastroschisis is a defect in the abdominal wall. Part of the intestine is outside of the baby's body, rather than inside the abdomen.

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Generalized anxiety disorder is a mental health problem. A child with GAD has a lot of worry and fear that seems to have no real cause.

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Genital Warts (HPV Infection)

Genital warts are skin-colored, cauliflower-like, painless growths. They are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus.

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Genital Warts in Babies and Children

In adolescents and adults, genital warts are often spread by sexual contact. However, young children often get them in other ways.

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Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders

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Germ Cell Tumor

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GI Bleeding (Upper and Lower)

Upper GI bleeding occurs when irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum result in bleeding. Lower GI bleeding occurs most frequently from the large intestine and rectum.

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Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis is a type of kidney disease that involves inflammation of tiny filter units in the kidneys called glomeruli.

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Gonorrhea

This Helping Hand will teach you about gonnorhea and how to treat it. 

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Granuloma Annulare

Granuloma annulare is common, but no one knows what causes it. It is not infectious or contagious.

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Graves' Disease

Graves’ disease is the most common kind of hyperthyroidism. It happens when a person’s immune system acts against his or her thyroid gland by mistake.

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H. Pylori

Helicobacter pylori or H. pylori is a bacteria that infects the stomach.

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H1N1 (Influenza Virus)

Children under 5 years of age and young adults are at greater risk of illness from this virus. This is different from seasonal flu which usually is most severe in children younger than 2 years and the elderly.

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Hamstring Strain

A hamstring strain is a stretching or tearing of the hamstring muscles located in the back of the thigh.

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Hand Eczema

Hand eczema can be chronic and hard to treat. It is more common in people who have a history of eczema on other parts of their bodies.

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Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease

This is a mild illness; symptoms usually go away without treatment in 5 to 7 days. Most outbreaks occur in the summer and fall.

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Head Injury-Concussion

In this Helping Hand, learn more about head-injury concussions.

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Head Injury-Inpatient

In this Helping Hand, learn more about inpatient head injuries.

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Head Injury-Mild

In this Helping Hand, learn more about mild head injuries.

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Head Lice

Lice are usually spread from child to child when sharing clothing, hats, scarves, combs, brushes, hair trims or helmets that have strands of hair with nits.

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Headaches

Most headaches in children are benign. Children’s headaches are very rarely from serious diseases or physical problems.

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Headaches in Children

A headache is one of the most common complaints of children and teenagers. Fussiness, crankiness and not being able to sleep may be the only signs of head pain in children who are too young to tell you where they hurt. There are many different types of headaches.

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Hearing Testing

Learn more about hearing tests for children.

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Heart Failure

Heart failure means that the heart’s ability to squeeze is weaker than normal. As a result, the heart works less efficiently and can not pump enough oxygen and nutrients to meet the body’s needs.

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Heart Murmurs

Murmurs are extra or unusual sounds made by blood circulating through the heart's chambers or valves, or through blood vessels near the heart.

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Heat or Thermal Burns

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Hemangioma

A hemangioma is a common vascular birthmark, made of extra blood vessels in the skin. It is a benign growth.

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Hemoglobinopathy

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Hemolytic Anemia

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Hemolytic Disorders

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Hemophilia

Hemophilia is an inherited blood disorder. In hemophilia, a blood clotting factor is missing.

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Hemophilia Carrier

A hemophilia carrier is a female who has the gene that causes hemophilia A or hemophilia B deficiency.

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Hemorrhagic Stroke

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Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

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Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP)

HSP results from inflammation of small blood vessels in the skin and other organs in the body.

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Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is caused by a virus found in feces, contaminated water and food that has been handled by infected persons

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Hepatitis A, B and C

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Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is caused by a virus found in blood, semen, vaginal secretions and saliva. It is mainly spread through unprotected sexual activity or exposure to blood.

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Hepatoblastoma

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Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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Hereditary Non-polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC)

Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, often called HNPCC or Lynch Syndrome, is an inherited cancer syndrome that affects the digestive tract, reproductive tract and other major organs.

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Hereditary Retinoblastoma

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Hernias Inguinal and Umbilical

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Herpes Simplex Virus

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a virus that causes infections. It is very contagious. There are two types of this virus. One type (HSV-1) usually causes sores around the lips or inside the mouth that are sometimes called fever blisters or cold sores.

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HiB Vaccine

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Hidradenitis Supperativa (HS)

Hidradenitis suppurativa (hy drah duh NY tiss supp yoo ruh TY vuh) or HS is a long-term (chronic) skin condition. Plugged pores and red, tender bumps or boils begin deep in the skin around hair follicles that contain specific sweat glands called apocrine glands.

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High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure means that there is higher than normal pressure inside the arteries either during systole or during diastole.

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High Cholesterol

There are two important types of cholesterol. One is LDL (low density lipoprotein) or "bad" cholesterol. The other is HDL (high density lipoprotein) or the "good" cholesterol.

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Hip Dysplasia

Hip Dysplasia can be presented as early as infancy. Early screenings and detection are critical in treating hip dysplasia long-term. 

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Hirschsprung Disease

Hirschsprung disease is a condition you are born with, which causes blockage of the intestine.

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Hirschsprung Disease (HD)

Hirschsprung (HERSH prung) disease (HD), affects the part of the bowel also known as the large intestine, or the colon. It can affect the entire colon and part of the small intestine, but this is rare. With HD, the colon did not form the nerves needed for it to work as it should.

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HIV Infection/AIDS

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that causes a number of different health problems including AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). The HIV virus is passed from person to person in certain ways: Sexual contact (heterosexual and homosexual) Contact with blood from an infected

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Hives

Hives, also called urticaria (yer-ti-CARE-ee-uh) or welts, are red, very itchy swollen areas of the skin. About 1 out of every 5 people has hives at some time in his life. Hives often appear suddenly and in groups.

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Hoarse Voice (Dysphonia)

Everything you need to know about Dysphonia.

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Hodgkins Lymphoma

Hodgkins Lymphoma (also known as Hodgkin’s Disease) is a form of cancer of the lymphatic (lim FA tik) system. The cause of Hodgkin Lymphoma is not known. The lymphatic system is a part of the circulatory system. It plays a main role in fighting infection.

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Horseshoe Kidney

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Hydrocele

Hydrocele (pronounced hydro-seal) is a collection of clear or yellow fluid around the testicle within the scrotum. Many male newborns have small hydroceles present at birth, most of which will go away on their own within the first year and do not require surgery. Babies, toddlers or older children may develop hydroceles later on.

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Hydrocephalus

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Hydronephrosis

Hydronephrosis (pronounced high-dro-nef-row-sis) is a radiology term for swelling or fluid in the kidney.

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Hyperhidrosis

Sweating (or perspiration) is a normal body function that helps to maintain the body temperature and prevent overheating. An increased, unusual amount of sweating is called hyperhidrosis (hie purr hie DROH sis). This is common, but can be embarrassing and frustrating.

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Hypermobile Joints

“Loose joints” has at times been used to describe hypermobile joints and people with hypermobile joints as being “double jointed”.

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Hyperthyroidism

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Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is a congenital heart defect where the heart did not develop properly and most of the structures on the left side of the heart are small and underdeveloped.

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Hypospadias

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Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism (hi po THI roid izm) happens when the body does not make enough thyroid hormone. As a result, many body functions slow down. Under active thyroid is the most common thyroid problem. Sometimes hypothyroidism is caused by our own immune system.

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Ibuprofen Chewable Tablets

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Iliotibial Band Syndrome

The Iliotibial Band (IT Band) is an extension of muscle located on the outside of the thigh. IT Band syndrome is a painful condition caused by overuse.

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Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP)

Platelets are a kind of blood cell. These cells help the blood to clot after a person gets cut or bruised. The normal platelet count is between 150,000 and 450,000. A child with immune (ih MUNE)thrombocytopenia (THROM bow site oh PEE nia), or ITP, may have a platelet count of less than 1,000.

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Immune Thrombocytopenia Purpura (ITP)

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Impetigo

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Increased Intracranial Pressure

Increased intracranial (in-tra-CRANE-ee-al) pressure (ICP) means greater than normal pressure on the brain. It results from a greater volume of fluid or swelling of the brain.

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Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) refers to a chronic inflammation of the intestines not due to infections or other identifiable causes. There are two main types of IBD: ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

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Influenza

nfluenza (in flu EN za), also known as “the flu,” is an illness caused by a virus. A child who has the flu may have some or all of these symptoms: High fever Headache Dry cough Sore throat Runny or stuffy nose Muscle aches Tiredness Stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea In some people, the

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Influenza (Flu) in Children

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Inguinal and Umbilical Hernias in Children

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Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri)

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, sometimes called pseudotumor cerebri, is a condition in which the cerebro-spinal fluid (the fluid inside the skull) is not able to drain normally.

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Intussusception (Inpatient)

Intussusception (In-TUSS-uh-SEP-shun) is a blockage of the intestines. It happens when one part of the intestine folds into another part. In most cases the cause is not known. It may occur any time between 3 months and 5 years of age, but is more common in children younger than 18 months.

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Intussusception (Outpatient)

Intussusception (In-TUSS-uh-SEP-shun) is a blockage of the intestines. It happens when one part of the intestine folds into another part. In most cases the cause is not known. It may occur any time between 3 months and 5 years of age, but is more common in children younger than 18 months.

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Iron Deficiency Anemia

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Iron Deficiency Anemia

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder that affects the large intestine (colon). Symptoms are caused by changes in how the GI tract works. IBS is a group of symptoms that occur together, not a disease.

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Is Your Teen Abusing Drugs or Alcohol?

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Jaundice

Jaundice (JOHN-diss) is also called hyperbilirubinemia (HI-per-bil-ee-roo-bin-EE-mee-ah). It means that there is a high level of bilirubin (BIL-ee-rue-bin) in the blood. This is a yellow pigment that settles in body tissues and can make your baby's skin look yellow.

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Jeune's Syndrome

Jeune's Syndrome is a form of congenital dwarfism causing children to have a deformity of their chest wall.

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Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome (JPS)

Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an inherited condition that is characterized by the development of hamartomatous polyps throughout the digestive tract.

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Kawasaki Disease

Kawasaki  Disease, although rare, is the most common cause of acquired heart disease in the United States and Japan. More than 80% of the children who get it are younger than 5 years of age. It is more common in boys and in Asians and Asian-Americans.

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Keratosis Pilaris

Keratosis pilaris (ker uh TOH siss pill AIR iss) is a dry skin type. It looks like dry, rough, small bumps that are flesh-colored or pink and can feel like sandpaper or chicken skin. It is usually not itchy.

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Kidney Stones

Stones in the urinary tract form in the kidneys when small particles, which are usually dissolved in the urine, become oversaturated and begin to form small crystals

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Knee Sprain

Knee sprains can be significant injuries that occur from a stretch or tear of the ligaments in and around the knee.

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Knock Knees (Genu Valgum)

Genu valgum is a common lower leg abnormality that is usually seen in the toddler, preschool and early school age child. In genu valgum, the lower extremities turn inward, causing the appearance of the knees to be touching while the ankles remain apart.

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Knowing When to Seek Treatment for Your Child

Parents are often the first to suspect that their child or teen is challenged by feelings, behaviors, or environmental conditions that cause him or her to act disruptive, rebellious, or sad.

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Kyphosis

Kyphosis is the natural curve of the upper back (thoracic) area of the spine. In the extreme curves, the spine looks like a “hunchback.” Some excessive curves can be passed on by parents. Some can be brought on from bad posture. 

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Lactose Intolerance

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Langerhan Cell Histiocytosis (LCH)

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is among a rare and diverse group of disorders affecting primarily children. Although it was first described more than a century ago, much remains to be discovered about the causes of LCH.

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Large Cell Lymphoma

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Laryngomalacia

Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of noisy breathing in infants. More than half of infants have noisy breathing during the first week of life, and most develop this by two to four weeks of age.

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Laryngomalacia (Laryngeal Stridor)

Laryngomalacia (LAYR inn go mah LAY shah) is also called laryngeal stridor. It results from a weakness of parts of the voice box (larynx) that is present at birth. This condition can cause a high-pitched sound called stridor (STRI der). You may hear this sound when your child breathes in.

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Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI)

Tuberculosis (too ber cu LOW sis), or TB, is the common name for a germ called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Persons with latent TB infection (LTBI) do not feel sick. They do not have any symptoms but can potentially develop active TB disease. Also, persons with LTBI are not contagious.

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Learning Disorders

A learning disorder is when a child has trouble learning in certain school subjects.

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Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease

Learn more about Legg-Calve-Perthes disease.

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Leukemia

Although childhood cancer is rare, leukemia is the most common form. The cause of leukemia is not known, but we do know it is not contagious (“catching”). It is not thought to be hereditary (inherited from your parents).

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Leukemia (ALL and AML)

Learn more about the most common form of pediatric cancer, leukemia. 

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Lichen Planus

Lichen planus (LIE kun PLAY nuss) is a rash that appears on the skin as shiny, flat bumps.The bumps may be clustered together in patches or dispersed (scattered far apart). They can be red or purple in color. The rash may be itchy.

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Lichen Striatus

Lichen striatus (LY kuhn stry AY tuhs) is a rash that appears as pink or lightly-colored, scaly, flat bumps. Over the following weeks, these bumps come together to form a line or band on the skin. Sometimes the rash can appear inflamed or redder, with a thicker scale.

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Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy

Limb-Girdle muscular dystrophy affects males and females. Most commonly it causes progressive (worsening) hip and shoulder muscle weakness that spreads to the arms, legs, and back. Symptoms usually begin between 8 and 15 years of age, and progress slowly.

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Little League Elbow

Little League Elbow (also known as Medial Epicondylitis) is a painful inflammation of the bony bump on the inside of the elbow.

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Liver Disease

Liver disease occurs in children for a variety of reasons. Babies may have problems with inherited disease, despite having healthy parents. Congenital problems where the bile ducts don’t develop normally may also cause problems in babies.

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Lordosis

Lordosis is the natural curve of the lower back (lumbar) area of the spine. With an extreme curve, the lower spine will have a deep curve, causing the abdomen (stomach area) to stick out and causing the pelvis (hip areas) to curve back and up.

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Low Back Strain

A low back strain is a stretch or tear of a muscle in the lower back that hold the vertebrae in its proper place.

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Lumbar Puncture

A spinal tap (lumbar puncture) is a test that checks the health of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

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Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is caused by ticks and is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. The ticks that carry Lyme disease are very small and hard to see - only as big as a sesame seed. Boys ages 5 to 19 are most at risk for Lyme disease but anyone can get it.

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Lymphatic Malformation

A lymphatic malformation is the result of abnormal formation and development during fetal development of the otherwise normal lymphatic vessels in the body. This is usually in one area of the body: neck, chest, abdomen and extremities.

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Lymphatic Malformations

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Lymphoblastic Lymphoma

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Lymphoma

Lymphoma is cancer which arises in the lymph system, the body’s circulatory network for filtering out impurities. There are two broad varieties, Hodgkin’s disease, and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

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Major Depression in Teens

Major depression is a type of mood disorder. It’s also known as clinical depression or unipolar depression.

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Malignant Teratoma

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Mallet Finger

Mallet finger is an injury to the end of the finger. It is sometimes also called “baseball finger.” It occurs when an object (most often a ball) hits the tip of the finger. This forcibly bends the fingertip further than it should go. This causes damage to the extensor tendon.

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Marfan Syndrome

Marfan Syndrome is an inherited disorder of connective tissue, and is caused by genetic mutations that result in the dysregulation of the proteins of the extracellular matrix (fibrillin).

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Mastoiditis

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Measles

Measles, also known as rubeola, is a disease caused by a virus. Measles spreads easily from person to person when someone coughs or sneezes. The disease usually develops about 14 days after a person is exposed to it.

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Megaloblastic Anemia

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Melanoma

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Ménière's Disease

Ménière's disease is a balance disorder caused by an abnormality found in a section of the inner ear called the labyrinth.

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Meningitis

Meningitis is an infection of the meninges. These are the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.

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Meningocele

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Meningococcal Infections in Children

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Meniscus Injuries

The meniscus are two pieces of cartilage located in the knee joint that are responsible for cushioning and adding stability to the knee.

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Menstruation

Menstruation is a very normal and natural part of growing up and becoming a woman. Your body is going through many physical and emotional changes right now, and menstruation is just one part of these changes.

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Metatarsus Adductus

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Microcephaly in Children

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Micropenis

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Migraine Headaches

Migraine headaches occur when there are changes in some of the nerves and blood vessels and are common in children.

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Mold

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Moles

Moles are areas of the skin where there are more cells called melanocytes. Melanocytes are the cells in the body that produce pigment, or color.

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Molluscum

Molluscum are smooth, pearly, skin-colored, benign bumps on the skin. They begin as small bumps and they may grow as large as a pencil eraser.

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Molluscum Contagiosum

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Mononucleosis (Infectious)

Mononucleosis is an illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). “Mono,” as it is sometimes called, is contagious and can be passed from person to person through the saliva.

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Mood Disorders

Learn more about common mood disorders among children.

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Mosquito-Borne Diseases

Mosquito-borne diseases are spread to people and animals by the bite of an infected mosquito.

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Mouth Sores

Viruses are tiny germs that can cause mouth sores as well as other illnesses. Some mouth sores are caused by the herpes virus; one of the germs that cause cold sores or fever blisters.

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MRSA Infection in the Community (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus)

Staphylococcus aureus often simply called "staph," are common bacteria. In the United States, staph germs are some of the most common causes of skin infections.

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Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney

Multicystic dysplastic kidney is a common condition that occurs when one kidney doesn't get put together correctly as it's forming in the womb.

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Mumps

Mumps is an illness caused by a virus. The virus is spread through saliva, so you can catch mumps from being around someone who already has it.

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Muscular Dystrophy

The muscular dystrophies, or MD, are a group of more than 30 genetic (passed down by parents) neuromuscular disorders, in which defects of muscle (not nerves) cause muscle weakness and difficulties in body movement and control.

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Myasthenia Gravis

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Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS)

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Myelomeningocele

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Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

Myotonic muscular dystrophy, also known as MMD or Steinert’s disease, is the most common form of MD in adults.

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Nasal Congestion

Nasal congestion, nasal obstruction, and mouth breathing are all descriptions of a similar condition where the nasal passages are blocked, resulting in the sensation of difficulty breathing through the nose.

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Nasal Turbinate Hypertrophy

Turbinate hypertrophy, inferior turbinate hypertrophy, and nasal turbinate hypertrophy are all descriptions of a similar condition where the tissue on the lateral (outside) walls of the nose are too large, causing nasal obstruction.

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Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a disease of the bowel (intestine) of newborn infants.

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Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a condition that starts at birth when an infant’s mother has used drugs (legal or illegal) or alcohol during her pregnancy.

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Neonatal Diabetes

Neonatal diabetes mellitus is a rare form of diabetes that occurs within the first 6 months of life.

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Neonatal Hypothyroidism

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Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome happens when protein passes from the kidneys into the urine through tiny filters in the kidneys. When this happens, there is too little protein in the blood.

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Nephrotic Syndrome in Children

Nephrotic syndrome is characterized by symptoms that result from changes that occur to the small, functional filters in the kidneys.

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Neuroblastoma

Found only in children, neuroblastoma arises in the adrenal glands, located in the abdominal area near the kidneys, and along the sympathetic nerve chain in the chest and abdomen.

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Neurocutaneous Syndromes

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Neurogenic Bladder

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Neurological Disorders

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Neuromuscular Disorders

Patients benefit from coordinated care from specialists, all with expertise in pediatric neuromuscular disorders.

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Neutropenias

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Nevus Sebaceous

A nevus sebaceous is a type of birthmark that usually appears on the scalp. It may also appear on the face but this is less common. It is made of extra oil glands in the skin.

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Newborn Clavicle Fractures

 A clavicle fracture is a break in the collar bone and occurs as a result of a difficult delivery or trauma at birth.

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Newborn Screening Tests

The U.S. has a national program of newborn screening tests to check for several different disorders that can be treated if they are found very early in life.

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Noisy Breathing (Stertor, Stridor or Wheezing)

Noisy breathing is common in children, and can be a sign of many different conditions, some of which are very benign and some of which require urgent treatment.

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Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a malignant (cancerous) tumor that starts in the lymphatic tissue in the body. There are 2 major forms of NHL: lymphoblastic and non-lymphoblastic lymphoma.

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Nosebleeds

Most nosebleeds are a nuisance, but they can be frightening. Bleeding from the nose can happen easily because the blood vessels and tissues of the nose are very delicate.

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Nosebleeds (Epistaxis)

Nosebleeds, also called epistaxis, commonly occur in children for a number of reasons.

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Nursemaid's Elbow

Nursemaid’s elbow is a partial dislocation at the elbow joint. Nursemaid’s elbow is also known as a radial head subluxation.

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a type of anxiety disorder. A child with OCD has obsessive thoughts that are not wanted.

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Obstructed Mullerian Duct Anomalies

Obstructed mullerian duct anomalies are defects in the development of the reproductive system that are present in a female baby before birth.

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Omphalocele

In normal development before birth, the intestines are formed in a sac around the umbilical cord, and then move into the baby's body. If the intestines stay in the sac (and do not move into the baby’s body) it is called an omphalocele.

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Omphalocele Repair

Treatment of an omphalocele will depend on your child’s symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.

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Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Children with ODD are uncooperative, defiant, and hostile toward peers, parents, teachers, and other authority figures.

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Optic Neuritis

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Orthodontics

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Osgood-Schlatter Disease

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Osgood-Schlatter's Disease

Osgood-Schlatter's Disease is one of the most common causes of knee pain in active children.

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Osteochondritis Dissecans

Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD) is a condition in which a piece of cartilage and the underlying bone separate.

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Osteosarcoma

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Otorrhea

Otorrhea is the medical term for ear drainage. In order for there to be drainage from the middle ear into the ear canal, there must be a connection present.

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Ovarian Cyst and Torsion

An ovarian cyst s a fluid filled sac in or on the surface of an ovary. It often forms during or after ovulation.

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Over-The-Counter Medicines for Infants and Children

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Overuse Injuries

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Painful Menstruation

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Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is an inflammation, or swelling, of the pancreas.

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Paradoxical Vocal Cord Dysfunction (PVCD)

With Paradoxical Vocal Cord Dysfunction (PVCD), the vocal cords close together, or constrict, when a person inhales, leaving only a small opening for air to flow into the windpipe.

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Patellar Subluxation

A patellar subluxation means that the kneecap has briefly slid out of its normal place in the groove at the center of the bottom end of the thigh bone.

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Patellar Tendinitis

Patellar Tendinitis is inflammation of the patellar tendon located directly below the knee cap.

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Patellofemoral Pain

Patellofemoral pain is when there is pain in the soft tissue of the knee and around the patella (kneecap).

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Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that is formed during fetal growth to provide blood flow between two of the major arteries in the baby’s body while in the womb.

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Patent Ductus Arteriosus PDA

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Pavlik Harness

Does your child wear a pavlik harness? This Helping Hand can aid you in day to day activities with your child in a pavlik harness.

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Pectus Carinatum

Pectus carinatum - also known as pigeon breast - is characterized by a prominent sternum and is usually asymptomatic.

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Pectus Excavatum

Pectus excavatum - also known as sunken chest syndrome - is the most common chest wall disorder treated at Nationwide Children’s.

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Pediatric Obesity

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends using body mass index (BMI) to screen for overweight children beginning at age 2 and through age 19.

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Pediatric Trigger Thumb

Pediatric trigger thumb (PTT) is also called a flexion contracture of the IP joint. The thumb gets stuck in a bent (flexed) position.

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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection in the uterus, the fallopian tubes or the ovaries.

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Perioral Dermatitis

Perioral dermatitis is a dry or bumpy rash that can occur around the mouth, the nose, and the eyes. It can be red and scaly at times. Perioral dermatitis is not contagious (cannot be spread from person to person).

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Pernicious Anemia

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Persistent Diarrhea & Malabsorption

Malabsorption is the body's inability to use the food that it takes in, often causing diarrhea.

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Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN)

Another term for high blood pressure is hypertension. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a life-threatening condition. With PPHN the baby does not change over from fetal to normal newborn circulation.

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Pertussis

Whooping cough is another name for pertussis; an infection of the respiratory tract caused by bacteria. It can occur at any age, but is most common and severe in infants and children younger than 4 years old who have not been immunized.

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Peutz Jeghers Syndrome (PJS)

Two findings make up Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: intestinal hamartomatous polyps and blue/black freckling or macules that can be seen on the lips, mouth, nostrils, hands, feet and genitalia.

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Phimosis

Phimosis is a condition of the male foreskin where the skin is tight and unable to retract back behind the head of the penis. This condition is completely normal and physiologic in most baby boys whose penis is otherwise without abnormalities.

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Phobias

A phobia is an excessive fear of an object or situation. It’s a fear that lasts for at least 6 months.

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Physical Abuse/Trauma

Physical abuse is any act that results in physical injury to a child or adolescent, even if the injury was unintentional.

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Pilomatrixoma

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Pilonidal Disease

Pilonidal (pie luh NY dul) disease is a condition that affects mainly teenagers and young adults. A pilonidal sinus is a small hole that occurs under your skin between your buttocks cheeks, where the buttocks separate. Usually, more than one sinus may be present.

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Pilonidal Disease

Pilonidal disease is a condition that affects mainly teenagers and young adults.  A pilonidal sinus is a small hole that occurs under your skin between your buttocks cheeks, where the buttocks separate. 

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Pinworms: Treatment and Prevention

Pinworms are small white worms about 1/2 inch long and as thin as a thread. They can sometimes be seen in and around the child's bowel movements. These worms live in the large intestine.

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Pityriasis Rosea

Pityriasis rosea is a common skin problem in children and young adults. It often begins with a large scaly lesion called the “herald patch.”

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Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis occurs when a broad band of tissue located on the bottom of the foot becomes painful and irritated.

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Plasmaphoresis

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Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a lung infection. It is usually caused by a virus or bacteria. These germs make the air sacs in the lungs fill with fluid (phlegm or mucous) .

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Poison Ivy Poison Oak and Poison Sumac

Poison Ivy, Poison Oak and Poison Sumac are plants that can cause a rash after contact with the sap of the plant.

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Polycystic Kidney Disease

Learn about the two different types of Polycystic Kidney Disease.

 

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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common problem in women that begins in the teenage years. It is an imbalance of hormones (chemical messengers) in the brain and ovaries.

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Polydactyly

Polydactyly refers to extra fingers or toes (digits) that are present at birth.

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Polyps

On occasion the renewal process of the lining of the digestive tract creates an outgrowth of tissue referred to as a polyp that can extend out into the empty space within the stomach, small intestine, or colon.

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Positional Plagiocephaly (Flattened Head)

Positional plagiocephaly is a flat area on the back or on one side of your baby’s head that does not go away on its own.

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Posterior Urethral Valves

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

A child with PTSD has persistent, scary thoughts and memories of a past event. He or she finds the event terrifying, either physically or emotionally.

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Prader Willi Syndrome

Prader-Willi Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder.

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Precocious (Early) Puberty in Girls

Puberty is the time when girls’ bodies and minds mature and they grow into young women. This usually starts when a girl is about 10 years old. Sometimes, though, a much younger girl starts to show the signs of puberty.

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Pregnancy

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Pregnancy: Issues and Answers

Access basic information about what you may be feeling, your choices, and what you can expect from prenatal care.

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Primary Immune Deficiencies

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Prune Belly Syndrome

Prune belly syndrome, also known as triad syndrome or Eagle-Barrett syndrome, includes three main problems: missing or severe weakness of muscles in the belly (abdomen); one or both testicles not in the scrotal sac (undescended testicles); and abnormal, large bladder and problems with the kidneys.

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Psoriasis

Psoriasis (sore-EYE-uh-sis) is a common skin problem that looks like pink or red areas of skin topped with white or silvery scaly patches.

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Psychiatric Treatment Team

Mental health disorders are complex and require clinical care by a multidisciplinary treatment team.

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Psychogenic Non Epileptic Events

Psychogenic non-epileptic events are behavioral episodes that look like real epileptic seizures.

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Psychological Complications of Chronic Illness

Being a teen is stressful even for physically healthy teens. Chronic illness during adolescence can complicate development.

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Psychosis

Psychosis is an extreme mental state. Children with the disorder show impaired thinking and emotions that cause them to lose contact with reality.

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Puberty: Adolescent Female

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Puberty: Adolescent Male

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Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)

Pulmonary hypertension is a rare lung disease in which the blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries are high.

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Pulmonary Atresia

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Pulmonary Embolism

A pulmonary embolism is a blood clot that travels to the blood vessels in the lungs. You may hear a pulmonary embolism referred to as a “PE.”

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Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary Hypertension is a term to describe a rare disease in which the blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary artery system) is higher than normal.

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Pyelonephritis

Pyelonephritis is the medical term for a kidney infection.

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Pyloric Stenosis

Pyloric stenosis is a problem that affects babies between birth and 6 months of age and causes forceful vomiting that can lead to dehydration. It is the second most common problem requiring surgery in newborns.

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Pyogenic Granuloma

A pyogenic granuloma (pie uh JENN ik gran yuh LOH muh) or PG is a vascular (blood vessel) growth. It usually appears after an area of skin that has been injured.

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RBC Count

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Recovery Room/Post-Anesthesia Care Unit

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Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP)

RRP is caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), which is a highly prevalent virus.

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Red Cell Disorders

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Renal Failure in Children

Renal failure refers to temporary or permanent damage to the kidneys that results in loss of normal kidney function. There are two different types of renal failure—acute and chronic.

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Respiratory Distress

Respiratory distress describes many of the symptoms related to breathing problems. There can be many causes of respiratory distress in children, but usually it’s caused by infections, chronic illness or a blocked airway.

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Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Newborn

RDS stands for "respiratory distress syndrome." It is the most common lung disease in premature infants and it occurs because the baby’s lungs are not fully developed. The more premature the infant, the more likely it is for the baby to have RDS.

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Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

RSV stands for respiratory syncytial virus. Each year thousands of babies must stay in the hospital because of RSV.

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Retinoblastoma

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Retinopathy of Prematurity

Retinopathy of Prematurity (re tin OP uh thee of pree mah TURE i tee), also known as ROP, is an eye problem for which premature babies are at high risk.

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Reye Syndrome in Children

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Rhabdomyosarcoma

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Rhabdomyosarcoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma (rab-doe-my-oh-sar-KOE-mah), or RMS, is a soft-tissue cancer. It can start in muscle cells (rhabdomyoblasts) from many different areas of the body.

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Ringworm

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Ringworm

Ringworm is another name for tinea corporis. It is an infection of the skin caused by a fungus (a plant which is too small to see.)

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Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by the Rickettsia bacteria. This bacteria is most commonly carried by dog ticks.

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Roseola

Roseola (ROSE–ee-OH-lah) is a common childhood illness caused by a virus. It usually affects children age 6 months to 3 years but can occur in children somewhat younger or older.

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Rotator Cuff Tendinitis

Rotator Cuff Tendinitis is inflammation of the rotator cuff muscles tendons surrounding the shoulder joint.

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Rotavirus

Rotavirus (ROE-tuh-vie-russ) is a contagious illness caused by a virus.

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Rubella

Rubella, also known as German measles, is an illness caused by a virus.

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Rumination Syndrome

Rumination Syndrome (RS) is a condition where people constantly regurgitate and either vomit or re-swallow their food or drink soon after eating. Although the syndrome was first described many years ago as occurring in young children with developmental disabilities, it is now recognized that the syndrome occurs in children and adolescents with intact cognitive abilities.

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Salivary Gland Ablation (Ranula)

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Sarcoma

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Sarcomas of Bone

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Scabies

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Scabies

Scabies is a skin condition caused by a mite.

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Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness. It is a long-lasting and disabling problem of the brain. A child with this disorder has unusual behavior and strange feelings.

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Scoliosis

Scoliosis (skoe-lee-OH-sis) is a deformity of the spine which results in a rotation and curve of the spine.

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Second Degree Burns

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Seizure Care

Activity in the brain is controlled by electrical impulses. If these electrical signals are not sent in the right order or at the proper rate, seizures can occur.

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Seizures and Epilepsy in Children

A seizure occurs when part(s) of the brain receives a burst of abnormal electrical signals that temporarily interrupts normal electrical brain function.

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Seizures Generalized

Seizures occur when nerve cells in the brain send out sudden, excessive, uncontrolled electrical signals. Generalized seizures occur when nerve cells in both sides of the brain are involved at the same time

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Seizures: Focal (Partial)

Seizures occur when nerve cells in the brain send out sudden, excessive, uncontrolled electrical signals. Focal seizures occur when nerve cells in a part of the brain are involved.

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Separation Anxiety

Separation anxiety is usually at its peak between 10 and 18 months. It typically ends by the time a child is 3 years old.

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Severe Combined Immune Deficiency

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Sever's Disease

Sever’s disease is a painful condition of the heel that occurs in growing children. It happens when the tendon that attaches to the back of the heel (the Achilles tendon) pulls on the growth plate (the apophysis) of the bone of the heel (the calcaneus).

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Sexual Abuse/Trauma

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Sexually Transmitted Infections

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Seymour Fractures

Seymour (SEE moor) fractures are usually the result of a crush injury. This often happens during sports, such as when a ball hits the end of the finger. The joint nearest the end of the finger is hurt as well as the nail.

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Shaken Baby Syndrome

Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is a form of child abuse. SBS happens when an infant is violently shaken, usually by the arms, shoulders, or legs.

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Shin Splints

Shin splints are a painful condition that affects the front and/or sides of the lower leg.

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Shingles

Shingles is an infection caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox.

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Short Bowel Syndrome

Short bowel syndrome is exactly what the name sounds like - a condition in which the bowel is too short generally due to surgical resection.

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Shoulder Sprain

A shoulder sprain is a stretching or tearing of the Acromioclavicular (AC) ligament. This is located where your collar bone and shoulder meet, often called the AC joint.

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Shprintzen Sydrome

Shprintzen Sydrome is also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Sickle Cell Disease

Have you been tested for Sickle Cell Disease? If not, you can ask your doctor for blood tests called “Hemoglobin Electrophoresis and CBC”.

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Sickle Cell Disease and Spleen Crisis (Splenic Sequestration)

Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder. Children are born with the condition. It affects a part of the red blood cell called hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen to different parts of the body.

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Sickle Cell Trait

“Trait” is a word used to describe a person who has inherited one abnormal gene from one parent and a normal gene from the other parent. A person with sickle cell trait inherits one gene to make normal hemoglobin (A) and another gene to make some sickle cell hemoglobin (S).

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Sinusitis

Sinusitis is a general term that indicates inflammation in the sinuses.

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Skin Cancer

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Sleep Apnea

A sprain is an injury to a ligament, or band of tough, elastic-like tissue that connects bone to bone and holds a joint in place. 

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Sleep Terrors and Sleepwalking

Sleep terrors and sleepwalking are related disorders of sleep that usually go away by adolescence. They usually happen within 1 to 2 hours after the child has fallen asleep. The sleep terror or sleepwalking may last a few minutes to an hour. Sleep terrors are different from nightmares.

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Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) is defined as the femoral neck and femoral shaft (top portions of the femur) moving either posteriorly (back), anteriorly (forward) or laterally (to the side) away from the femoral epiphysis and acetabulum (the ball portion of the femur). A SCFE can be either unilateral (one side) or bilateral (both sides).

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Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE)

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE) is a hip disorder that involves the epiphysis (eh PIFF I siss). This is the growing portion or ball on the top part of the femur (thigh bone).

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Sore Throat

Most sore throats are caused by viruses. A virus is a tiny germ that can cause illness. If your child has a sore throat, the doctor may swab the throat to take a sample of the mucus at the back of the throat.

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Spasticity

Spasticity is a muscle control disorder that involves tight or stiff muscles and an inability to control those muscles.

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Spina Bifida

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Spina Bifida and Myelomeningocele

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Spinal Injury

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Spinal Muscular Atrophy

Spinal muscular atrophies (SMA) are a group of genetic (passed down by parents) diseases that affect motor neurons (nerve cells) in the spinal cord, causing the weakening of voluntary muscles (muscles that you control).

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Spondylolysthesis/Spondylolysis

Spondylolysthesis and Spondylolysis are common causes of low back pain in adolescents.

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Sprains

There are three types of sprains, which range from mild (Grade I) to severe (Grade III).

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Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome

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Staphylococcus Scalded Skin Syndrome

Staphylococcus-Scalded Skin Syndrome (STAFF lo cok us SKAWL did skin SIN drome), also known as Scalded Skin Syndrome, SSSS, or Ritter’s Disease, is a skin infection caused by a bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus. This infection produces a toxin that can affect skin all over the body.

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Stem Cell Harvest

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Strains

A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon, the tough fibrous tissues that connects muscle to bone.

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Strep Throat

"Strep throat" means a sore throat caused by bacteria called streptococci (strep-toe-KAW-ki). Antibiotic medicine must be given as soon as possible to prevent these germs from causing kidney or heart problems (rheumatic fever) or possibly causing kidney problems (glomerulonephritis).

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Stress Fractures

A stress fracture is an overuse injury resulting from repetitive forces that are directed to weight bearing bones.

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Strokes in Children

A stroke is a brain injury caused by lack of blood flow in a brain artery. A stroke can result from abnormal blood clots, heart problems, changes in blood vessels or injury to blood vessels. Sometimes strokes lead to bleeding in the brain. Strokes can happen to people of any age.

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Stuttering

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Subglottic Stenosis

Subglottic stenosis is a narrowing of the airway in the part of the voice box below the vocal cords (glottis).

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Sudden Cardiac Arrest

Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) not only affects young athletes, but can affect healthy children and adolescents who do not participate in organized athletic activity.

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Suicidal Behaviors

Suicide in children and adolescents is a major public health issue. Nationally, suicide is the second leading cause of death for 10- to 19-year-olds.

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Sunburn

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Supracondylar Humerus Fracture

When your child’s humerus bone is fractured near the elbow area, just above the joint it is called a supracondylar humerus fracture.

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Swallowing Disorders

A swallowing disorder can result in aspiration or food “going down the wrong pipe”.  Aspiration can place a child at a higher risk for respiratory/pulmonary issues.

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Syncope

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Syncope in Children

Syncope (SIN ko pee) is the medical word that means fainting.

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Syphilis

Syphilis (SIF-i-lis) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) 

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Tennis Elbow

Lateral epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow) is a painful inflammation of the bony bump on the outside of your elbow.

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Testicular Cancer

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Testicular Torsion

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Testicular Torsion in Children

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Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that is made up of 4 problems and results in not enough blood flow to the lungs.

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Thermal Burns

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Thigh and Hip Strains

A strain of the thigh/hip is a stretching or tearing of a muscle and is commonly referred to as a “pulled muscle.”

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Thrombocytopenia

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Thrombophilia

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Thrush

Thrush is an infection caused by a fungus called Candida (CAN-did-ah). Thrush in the mouth begins as tiny flat white spots. 

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Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

The thyroglossal duct cyst is typically noticed as an area of fullness or a lump in the midline of the neck, usually just above the voice box.

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Tinea Capitis

Tinea capitis (TIN-ee-uh CAP-i-tis) is an infection of the scalp (head) which is caused by a fungus. It is also called ringworm. (This is not caused by a worm.) 

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Tinea Pedis

Tinea pedis (tin EE uh PEE duss) is a very common fungal infection on the skin of the feet. It is usually called athlete’s foot.

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Tinea Versicolor

Tinea versicolor (TIN ee uh VUHR sih kuhl er) is a common rash caused by the overgrowth of microscopic yeast on the skin's surface. The rash looks like small, scaly spots. 

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Tongue Tie

While up to 10 percent of children can have some degree of tongue tie, not all children with tongue tie require intervention.

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Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis refers to inflammation or infection of the tonsils.

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Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

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Tourette Disorder

Tourette disorder is a neurological disorder. It is also called Tourette syndrome. The disorder causes repeated tics.

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Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

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Tracheomalacia

Tracheomalacia (tray key oh mah LAY she ah) means that the walls of a child’s windpipe (trachea) collapse (fall in on themselves). 

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Tracheomalacia (Primary and Secondary)

Tracheomalacia is characterized by the collapse of the windpipe (trachea) walls. This can be due to softness of the walls of the trachea or due to compression from something outside of the trachea.

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Traumatic Brain Injury

A traumatic brain injury can affect a child in several ways. Your child may have a few, many or none of these effects. Here are answers to many of the questions that parents ask. Behavior Changes in a child’s behavior are common after a head injury.

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Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis (trick-o-moe-NYE-ah-sis), is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STI). It is caused by a parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. The infection can happen to both men and women. It is passed during sexual contact with an infected person.

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Tricuspid Atresia

Tricuspid atresia (TA) is a heart defect present at birth (congenital). It occurs when the tricuspid valve doesn’t form right during fetal heart development. This happens during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

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Turner Syndrome

Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females.

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Turner Syndrome (Genetic Disorder)

Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females.

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Tympanic Membrane Perforation

Tympanic membrane perforation can be suspected with a history of ear trauma, ear tubes, frequent ear drainage or hearing loss. 

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Tympanometry

Learn more about tympanometry.

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Types of Anesthesia

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Umbilical Hernia

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Undescended Testes

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Undescended Testicle

Testicles are formed prior to birth in the abdomen below the kidneys, and progressively descend during pregnancy from the abdomen through the groin into the scrotum. An undescended testicle is a testis that fails to descend into the scrotum.

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Unwrap the Gift of Toy Safety

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Upper GI Bleeding

Upper GI bleeding occurs when irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum result in bleeding. When this occurs, the child will vomit bright red blood, or dark looking flecks or clots that look like “coffee grounds”.

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Upper Respiratory Infections (Colds)

The common cold is a respiratory infection caused by a virus. It affects the child's nose and throat (Picture 1). Antibiotics do not work against a virus. It may take 3 to 14 days for your child to get well.

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Ureterocele

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Urinary Incontinence

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Urinary Tract and Kidney Infections

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Urinary Tract Infection (UTIs)

UTIs are typically caused by a bacterial infection in the urethra and bladder. 

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Urinary Tract Infection: Prevention

How to Prevent Urinary Tract Infection

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Urticaria (Hives)

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Uterine Didelphys

Uterine Didelphys is a disorder present before birth in which a female develops two uteruses instead of one.

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Vaginal Anomalies

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Vaginal Atresia

Vaginal atresia is a birth defect in which the vagina is closed or absent.

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Vaginal Discharge

As you grow up, you may notice a discharge from your vagina during the time between your menstrual periods. It is normal for all women to have some vaginal discharge. The amount, color and thickness of this discharge are different for each woman.

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Varicocele

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Varicoceles

A varicocele is a mass of swollen blood vessels in the spermatic cord – the structure in the scrotum that connects the testicles to the body. 

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Vascular Malformations

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Velocardiofacial Syndrome

Velocardiofacial Syndrome is also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Ventricular Septal Defect

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Vertigo in Children

Vertigo (VER ti go) is the medical word for the feeling of spinning. Your child may feel like the world is moving, but there is no movement. These feelings come and go.

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Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR)

Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the abnormal backward flow of urine from the bladder to the kidneys. This backwards flow increases the child’s risk of urinary tract and kidney infections. 

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Viruses Bacteria and Parasites in the Digestive Tract

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Vocal Fold Nodules

Vocal fold or vocal cord nodules are small, non-cancerous growths on your child’s vocal cords. They are often caused by voice abuse. Over time, your child’s repeated misuse of the vocal folds results in soft, swollen spots on each vocal fold.

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Voiding Dysfunction

Going to the bathroom may seem like a simple thing, but there are actually a series of complicated signals that make sure the bladder does exactly what the brain is telling it to do.

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Volar Plate Injuries

A volar plate injury is commonly called a “jammed finger” or “sprain.” 

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Von Willebrand Disease

Von Willebrand Disease is caused by low amounts or structural abnormalities in a protein called Von Willebrand Factor. This results in prolonged clotting and easy bleeding and bruising.

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Vulva Abnormalities

To diagnose vulvar disorders and diseases, a doctor will take a complete medical history to find out about symptoms and how long they have been happening. 
 

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Warts

There are many types of warts.Learn how to prevent and treat warts.

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WBC Count

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White Cell Disorders

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Wilms' Tumor

The kidneys are organs that filter waste products from the blood and create urine. Wilms' tumor (nephroblastoma) is a cancerous tumor of the kidney. It is thought to be caused by abnormal genes. The tumor may occur at any age, but it is most common in children 1 to 5 years of age.

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Wrist and Hand Sprains

A sprain of the wrist or hand is a stretching or tearing of the ligaments which connect the bones together and provide stability.

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Your Child's Asthma: Flare-ups

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Zika Virus

Zika (ZEE ka) is a disease caused by the Zika Virus. A person becomes infected by the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito or by having unprotected sex with an infected person. Infection during pregnancy has been shown to be linked to birth defects in babies.

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Zoonoses

Zoonoses (zoo NO seez) are infections that people can get from animals. Children with compromised immune systems are at higher risk for these infections. This includes those on chemotherapy or radiation, or who have had bone marrow transplants.

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Helping Hands Patient Education Materials

Written and illustrated by medical, nursing and allied health professionals at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Helping Hand instructions are intended as a supplement to verbal instructions provided by a medical professional. The information is periodically reviewed and revised to reflect our current practice. However, Nationwide Children's Hospital is not responsible for any consequences resulting from the use or misuse of the information in the Helping Hands.