Anatomy of the Endocrine System in Children
These are parts of the endocrine system:
Hypothalamus. This gland is in the brain. It secretes hormones that stimulate or suppress the release of hormones in the pituitary gland. It also controls water balance, sleep, temperature, appetite, and blood pressure.
Pineal body. The pineal body is in the brain. It sits below the corpus callosum, in the middle of the brain. It make the hormone melatonin. This hormone controls the sleep cycle. The pineal body may also be part of the timing of puberty.
Pituitary gland. This gland is at the base of the brain. It is called the "master gland." It is about the size of a pea. This gland secretes many hormones that control many functions of the other endocrine glands.
Thyroid and parathyroids. The thyroid gland and parathyroid glands are in front of the neck, below the larynx (voice box). The thyroid controls the body's metabolism. The parathyroid glands control the body's calcium and phosphorus balance.
Thymus. The thymus is in the upper part of the chest. It makes white blood cells, called T-cells. These cells fight infections and destroy abnormal cells.
Adrenal gland. There are 2 adrenal glands. There is 1 gland on top of each kidney. They work with the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to make cortisol and other hormones important for normal metabolism.
Pancreas. The pancreas is behind the stomach. It makes hormones for digestion and metabolism. These include the hormone called insulin. Insulin controls blood sugar levels.
Ovaries. Females have 2 ovaries. There is 1 ovary is on each side of the female's uterus, below the opening of the fallopian tubes. The ovaries contain egg cells for reproduction. They also make estrogen and progesterone.
Testes. Males have 2 testicles (testes). They are located in a pouch (scrotum) that hangs outside the groin. The testes make testosterone and sperm.
Online Medical Reviewer: Maryann Foley RN BSNRaymond Kent Turley BSN MSN RN Robert Hurd MD
Date Last Reviewed: 12/1/2018
© 2000-2019 The StayWell Company, LLC. 800 Township Line Road, Yardley, PA 19067. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional's instructions.
- Anatomy of a Child's Brain
- Anxiety Disorders in Children
- Asthma in Children Index
- Bone Marrow Transplant for Children
- Brain Tumors in Children
- Chemotherapy for Children: Side Effects
- Ewing Sarcoma
- Hepatitis B (HBV) in Children
- Inflammatory and Infectious Musculoskeletal Disorders
- Inflammatory and Infectious Neurological Disorders
- Inguinal Hernia in Children
- Insect Bites and Children
- Kidney Transplantation in Children
- Meningitis in Children
- Mood Disorders in Children and Adolescents
- Muscular Dystrophy
- Myasthenia Gravis (MG)
- Osteosarcoma (Osteogenic Sarcoma)
- Pediatric Blood Disorders
- Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Children
- Preparing the School-Aged Child for Surgery
- Schizophrenia in Children
- School-Aged Child Nutrition
- Sports Safety for Children
- Superficial Injuries of the Face and Head- Overview
- Television and Children
- The Growing Child: 2-Year-Olds
- The Heart
- The Kidneys
- Your Child's Asthma: Flare-ups
- For Parents: Bicycle, In-Line Skating, Skateboard, and Scooter Safety
- Helping Kids Get Over their Fears
- How Old Is "Old Enough" for Contacts?
- Sports Safety