An animal scratch or bite can be very frightening. Your child may need extra comfort and attention in the next few days or weeks to get over the experience.
First Aid for Bites*
Wash the bite thoroughly with soap and rinse with lots of water.
Get medical help the same day if possible. This is very important! If any stitches (sutures) are needed, they must be done within the first 12 hours after a bite (Picture 1).
If possible, know the date of your child’s last tetanus shot.
*Please note: Children may be bitten by other children during play or accidentally during sports. Human bites should receive the same first aid and prompt medical attention as an animal bite.
Report to the Health Department
If someone is bitten by a non-human mammal (dog, cat, ferret, squirrel, raccoon, etc.) here is what you need to do:
- Within 24 hours of the animal bite, report it to the Health Department in the city or county where the bite happened. The report can be made by the person who was bitten (or a child’s parent) or by a health care provider or veterinarian who knows about the bite.
- In Franklin County call: (614) 525-3160
- In the city of Columbus call: (614) 645-6748
- Fill out the Animal Bite Intake Report on page 4. Complete as much information as you can. Ask your child’s doctor to fax it to the Health Department in the city or county where the bite happened.
Management of the Animal
- If the animal was tame, try to find its owner. Find out if the animal has had shots for rabies and the date it was done. The doctor will need to know this to plan your child’s treatment.
- When possible, isolate the animal in a fenced area for 10 days and watch for any changes in behavior. Do not try to cage a vicious or wild animal. If the animal is threatening, call the police or animal control department.
- Bats - A child who has been bitten by a bat, or has slept in a room with one, must see a doctor.
Remove the bandage every day and clean the wound with a solution of ____________. Then put on a clean bandage. See these Helping Hands:
- HH-II-51, Dressing Change: Infected Wound
- HH-II-26, Sutured Wound Care
Signs of Infection in the Wound
Watch for signs of infection. Call your child's doctor or go to the Emergency Department if you notice:
- Increased redness or swelling around the wound
- Pain or foul odor
- Increased tenderness
- Discharge or drainage from the wound
- Fever (temperature over 102 degrees F by rectum or 101 degrees F by mouth)
- Skin is warm or hot to touch at and around wound site.
Until the wound is healed, your child should avoid rough activities that would cause it to open. In general, swimming and contact sports should be avoided.
Your child was given the following immunizations (shots): _________________________________________________________________________________________________
A prescription for (medicine) was given. Please tell your child’s doctor he or she is taking this medicine. This medicine is for ______________________.
How to Avoid Animal Bites
It is important to teach your child how to avoid being bitten by an animal. If approached by an animal that may attack you:
- Never scream and run.
- Stand very still with hands at your sides. Avoid eye contact with the animal.
- Once the animal loses interest in you, slowly back away until he is out of sight.
- If the animal does attack, “feed” him your jacket, book bag, or anything you can put between you and the animal.
- If you fall or are knocked to the ground, curl into a ball with your hands over your ears and do not move. Try not to scream or roll around.
- Never tease or chase an animal or pull its ears, tail or paws, even if the animal is known to you.
- Always walk away if an animal is growling or begins to growl when approached. Never run!
- Never bother an animal while it is eating.
- Do not eat or carry food when a strange animal is nearby.
- Never try to pet or catch a wild animal.
- Do not go near stray animals or animals you do not know.
If an animal is an immediate threat to people or other animals, call the local health department and speak to their veterinarian to ask for help.
Ways to Avoid Rabies
Rabies is a serious disease caused by a virus. The virus can infect wild animals, pets and people. In the United States, wild animals such as raccoons, skunks, foxes and bats are the most likely to carry rabies. The virus is carried in the saliva of an infected animal. If an infected animal bites a person, the virus can be given to humans. When rabies is carried by a bat, there does not have to be an actual bite for the person to be infected. If a person has been bitten by an infected animal or in contact with a bat, a series of anti-rabies shots is needed to prevent rabies. Without this treatment, rabies is almost always fatal. Here are some ways to avoid rabies:
- Parents or another adult should call Animal Control if they see animals acting strangely.
- Do not handle dead animals. Call 3-1-1 to have a dead animal removed.
- Have your pets vaccinated and see that they wear their rabies tags.
- Keep pets away from wildlife and walk dogs on a leash.
- Your child should tell you if he or she is bitten by an animal or wakes up in a room with a bat.
- Leave wild animals in the wild. If you find a sick or injured wild animal, call Animal Control, your local veterinarian or, in the Central Ohio area, the Crisis Hotline for the Ohio Wildlife Center at (614) 793-9453.
- Leave bats and other wild animals alone.
HH-I-57 5/83, Revised 6/15 Copyright 1983, Nationwide Children’s Hospital