Conditions We Treat

Browse Conditions A-Z

Pacemaker and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) Insertion for Children

A child with an arrhythmia may need a pacemaker or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). These devices require a simple surgery to implant. They can increase a slow heartbeat or correct a possibly life threatening fast or chaotic beat.

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Pain Control After Your Child's Surgery

If your child has moderate to severe pain, he or she may receive narcotics during and after surgery. If your child is in the ICU after surgery, he or she may receive sedatives along with pain medicines.

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Pain Management and Children

When a child has cancer or another pain-causing disease, one of his or her greatest fears is pain. Every effort should be made to ease the pain during the treatment process.

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Painful Menstruation

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Palliative Care

Supportive, or palliative, care is care aimed at comfort of the child versus cure and treatment.

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Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is an inflammation, or swelling, of the pancreas.

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Pap Test for Adolescents

A Pap test, along with a pelvic examination, is an important part of a female's routine health care because it may detect abnormalities that can lead to invasive cancer.

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Paradoxical Vocal Cord Dysfunction (PVCD)

With Paradoxical Vocal Cord Dysfunction (PVCD), the vocal cords close together, or constrict, when a person inhales, leaving only a small opening for air to flow into the windpipe.

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Parasitic Skin Infections

Detailed information on parasitic skin infections, including scabies and lice

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Parenting in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)

In most cases, you can be with your baby in the NICU at any time. The staff of the NICU will give you instructions on special hand-washing techniques before entering the area.

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Patellar Subluxation

A patellar subluxation means that the kneecap has briefly slid out of its normal place in the groove at the center of the bottom end of the thigh bone.

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Patellar Tendinitis

Patellar Tendinitis is inflammation of the patellar tendon located directly below the knee cap.

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Patellofemoral Pain

Patellofemoral pain is when there is pain in the soft tissue of the knee and around the patella (kneecap).

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Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a heart defect found in the days or weeks after birth. Read on to learn about symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options.

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Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

The ductus arteriosus is a blood vessel that is formed during fetal growth to provide blood flow between two of the major arteries in the baby’s body while in the womb.

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Pavlik Harness

Does your child wear a pavlik harness? This Helping Hand can aid you in day to day activities with your child in a pavlik harness.

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Peanut Allergy Diet for Children

A detailed look at how to follow a peanut-free diet for your child, including how to read food labels.

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Pectus Carinatum

Pectus carinatum - also known as pigeon breast - is characterized by a prominent sternum and is usually asymptomatic.

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Pectus Excavatum

Pectus excavatum - also known as sunken chest syndrome - is the most common chest wall disorder treated at Nationwide Children’s.

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Pedestrian Safety

Children are at higher risk for pedestrian injury and death because they often don't understand traffic rules or the danger that vehicles pose. In addition, parents and caregivers often overestimate a child's traffic skills.

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Pediatric Blood Disorders

Detailed information on blood disorders, including Anemia, Aplastic Anemia, Hemolytic Anemia, Iron Deficiency Anemia, Megaloblastic Anemia, Sickle Cell Anemia, Thalassemia, Alpha Thalassemia, Beta Thalassemia (Cooley's Anemia)

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Pediatric Obesity

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends using body mass index (BMI) to screen for overweight children beginning at age 2 and through age 19.

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Pediatric Trigger Thumb

Pediatric trigger thumb (PTT) is also called a flexion contracture of the IP joint. It is a condition that affects the movement of the thumb in children. In PTT, a tendon cannot slide back and forth through the ligament and the thumb gets stuck in a bent (flexed) position.

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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease, also known as PID, is an infection in the uterus, the fallopian tubes or the ovaries. PID most commonly occurs in sexually active females, but may also occur in females who have never been sexually active.

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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection in the uterus, the fallopian tubes or the ovaries.

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Pelvic Masses

Pelvic masses may be caused by adnexal cysts, ovarian masses and tumors and uterine abnormalities. The most common reason the uterus would become enlarged in a girl or young woman is due to build-up of menstrual blood, also known as an outflow tract obstruction.

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Pelvic Pain

Pelvic pain is considered pain in the lowest part of your abdomen. Acute pelvic pain is pain that is present for less than three months. Chronic pelvic pain is persistent and presents for six months or greater.

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Pericarditis in Children

Pericarditis is inflammation or infection of the pericardium. In children, pericarditis is most likely to happen after surgery to repair heart defects.

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Periodontal Disease in Children

Periodontal disease is a serious bacterial infection. It destroys the gums and the nearby tissues of the mouth.

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Perioral Dermatitis

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss perioral dermatitis, which is a common dry or bumpy rash that can occur around the mouth, the nose and the eyes. To treat the rash, it is important to stop using any topical steroids. Instead, your child’s doctor may prescribe topical or oral antibiotics.

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Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL) in Children

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is a softening of white brain tissue near the ventricles. The ventricles are fluid-filled chambers in the brain.

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Pernicious Anemia

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Persistent Depressive Disorder in Children

Persistent depressive disorder is a type of depression. A child with this disorder has a low, sad, or irritable mood for at least 1 year.

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Persistent Diarrhea & Malabsorption

Diarrhea lasting more than seven days is considered persistent, while less than seven days is acute. Diarrhea that lasts more than 30 days is chronic. Toddler's diarrhea is caused by a diet low in fat and high in sugar and fluids. Malabsorption is the inability to use the food the body takes in.

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Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension in the Newborn

Persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) happens in newborn babies. It occurs when a newborn’s circulation changes back to the circulation of a fetus. When this happens, too much blood flow bypasses the baby’s lungs. This is sometimes called persistent fetal circulation.

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Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN)

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. PPHN is a life-threatening condition. Another term for high blood pressure is hypertension. In PPHN, blood is forced away from the lungs due to high blood pressure in the arteries that go to the lungs.

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Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss pertussis, also known as whooping cough. Pertussis is an infection of the respiratory tract caused by bacteria. The bacteria are easily spread by breathing in droplets from an infected person who coughs or sneezes. Call 911 if your child stops breathing.

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Pets and Infectious Diseases in Children

One way to prevent the spread of disease from your pet: Feed your pet a balanced diet. Don't give your pet raw foods or allow it to drink out of the toilet.

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Peutz Jeghers Syndrome (PJS)

Two findings make up Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: intestinal hamartomatous polyps and blue/black freckling or macules that can be seen on the lips, mouth, nostrils, hands, feet and genitalia.

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PFAPA Syndrome

PFAPA (Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis) is a childhood syndrome that affects both boys and girls. It causes repeated episodes of fever, mouth sores, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes. PFAPA usually starts in early childhood between ages 2 and 5.

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Phalangeal Neck (Finger) Fracture

The hand is the most often injured body part in children. Finger fractures, especially phalangeal neck fractures, often happen because of a direct hit to a finger.

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Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis in Children

Pharyngitis is redness, pain, and swelling of the throat (pharynx). Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils. The tonsils are a pair of tissue masses on either side of the back of the throat. They are part of the immune system, the part of the body that fights infection and other disease.

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Phenylketonuria (PKU) in Children

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a rare metabolic disorder. Children with PKU can't process an amino acid called phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is in many common foods.

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Phenytoin

Phenytoin is a medicine used to treat seizures (epilepsy). But the medicine can cause birth defects if a woman takes it during pregnancy.

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Pheochromocytoma in Children

Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal glands. The tumor makes hormones called epinephrine and norepinephrine. This leads to an excess of the hormones in the body. These hormones help manage heart rate and blood pressure, and they have other tasks. Too much of these hormones in the body causes problems.

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Phimosis

Phimosis is a condition of the male foreskin where the skin is tight and unable to retract back behind the head of the penis. This condition is completely normal and physiologic in most baby boys whose penis is otherwise without abnormalities.

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Phimosis and Paraphimosis in Children

Phimosis and paraphimosis are problems with the foreskin of the penis. Phimosis is when a foreskin can’t be pulled down (retracted) from the tip of the penis. Paraphimosis is when the foreskin is retracted but can’t move back up.

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Phobias in Children

A phobia is an excessive fear of an object or situation. It's a fear that lasts for at least 6 months. It is a type of anxiety disorder. Here's what you need to know.

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Phosphorus Restriction for Children

Detailed information on controlling phosphorus in your child's diet.

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Physical Abnormalities

Detailed information on physical abnormalities of high-risk newborns

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Physical Abuse/Trauma

Physical abuse is any act that results in physical injury to a child or adolescent, even if the injury was unintentional.

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Physical Exam for a Child with Congenital Heart Disease

Detailed information on childhood physical exam.

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Physical Exam of the Newborn

A complete physical exam is an important part of newborn care. Each body system is carefully checked for signs of health and normal function.

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Physical Exam: Adolescent Male

Detailed information on what males can expect during a physical examination

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Physical Needs of the Dying Child

A terminally ill child has many of the same needs as any seriously ill child, including a routine for sleep and rest, and for pain management.

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Pilomatrixoma

A pilomatrixoma (PEE-lo-may-trick-SO-mah) is a slow-growing, hard lump found under the skin. It is most common on the face and neck, but it may be on other parts of the body. A pilomatrixoma is usually a single lump, but occasionally, there may be more than one.

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Pilonidal Disease

Pilonidal disease is a condition that affects mainly teenagers and young adults. A pilonidal sinus is a small hole under the skin between the buttocks cheeks. Symptoms of an infected pilonidal sinus include pain, red skin, fever, drainage of blood or pus and a tender lump under the skin.

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Pinworms: Treatment and Prevention

Pinworms are small white worms that live in the large intestine. They are about 1/2 inch long and as thin as a thread. They can sometimes be seen in and around the child's bowel movements. The adult female pinworm lays her eggs on the skin around the anus. This causes itching and scratching.

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Pityriasis Rosea

Pityriasis rosea is a common skin problem in children and young adults. It often begins with a large scaly lesion called the “herald patch.”

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Pityriasis Rosea in Children

Pityriasis rosea is a mild, common rash. It causes the skin to become scaly, pink, and inflamed. The rash can last from 1 to 3 months and usually leaves no lasting marks. This rash is not contagious.

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Placenta Previa

Bleeding can happen at any time during pregnancy. Placenta previa can cause bleeding late in pregnancy. This means after about 20 weeks.

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Planning to Be Away from Your Baby: Introducing a Bottle

You’ve been breastfeeding your baby up until now—but it’s time to return to work. You haven’t given her a bottle with breast milk yet. When should you make the change? Here are tips to make a successful transition from breast to bottle.

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Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis occurs when a broad band of tissue located on the bottom of the foot becomes painful and irritated.

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Plasmaphoresis

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Play

Detailed information on the stages of play for all ages

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Play Therapy

Play therapy is used to help children understand and cope with illness, surgery, hospitalization, treatments, and procedures.

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Plugged Milk Ducts

Some breastfeeding moms may be more likely to get plugged milk ducts than others. Read on for some quick tips on avoiding and managing this condition.

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Pneumococcal Infection in Children

Pneumococcus bacteria can cause serious illness in children, including pneumonia, infection in the blood, and meningitis.

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Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a lung infection that is usually caused by a virus or bacteria. This makes the air sacs in the lungs fill with fluid (phlegm or mucus). Walking pneumonia is a non-medical word that describes a mild case of bacterial pneumonia. Pneumonia caused by bacteria is treated with an antibiotic.

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Pneumonia in Children

Pneumonia is an infection in the lungs. It can be mild or serious. Pneumonia is generally more common in children younger than 5 years old.

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Pneumothorax in Children

A pneumothorax is an air leak in the lungs. It's when air from the lungs leaks into the chest area.

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Poison Ivy Rash in Children

Poison ivy rash is an allergic reaction to poison ivy. Poison ivy is very common plant in the U.S. It is similar to two other plants called poison oak and poison sumac. The plants cause allergic dermatitis.

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Poison Ivy, Poison Oak and Poison Sumac: Treatment and Prevention

Poison Ivy, Poison Oak and Poison Sumac are plants that can cause a rash after contact with the sap of the plant.

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Poisons and Children

Detailed information on poisoning, preventing poisoning and how to respond in an emergency

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Polio (IPV)

The poliovirus destroys the nervous system, causing paralysis. Today, polio is extremely rare in the United States because of the polio vaccine. It's still common in other countries, though, so children still need to be immunized.

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Poliomyelitis (Polio) in Children

Polio is a very contagious disease caused by a virus. The virus is most known for causing paralysis. But very few children with polio develop paralysis. Read on to learn more about this condition in children.

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Pollen and Children

Detailed information on pollen allergy, also called hay fever, including information on which plants produce the most pollen and allergic rhinitis prevention during pollen season

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Polycystic Kidney Disease

Learn about the two different types of Polycystic Kidney Disease.

 

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Polycystic Kidney Disease

Detailed information on the different types of polycystic kidney disease

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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common problem in women that begins in the teenage years. It is an imbalance of hormones (chemical messengers) in the brain and ovaries.

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Polycythemia Vera in Children

Polycythemia vera is a serious, but very rare blood disorder in children. With polycythemia vera, the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells. The extra cells make the blood too thick. This may lead to blood clots. The clots can decrease the blood supply to organs, tissues, and cells.

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Polydactyly

Polydactyly refers to extra fingers or toes that are present at birth. Polydactyly usually is genetic. These extra digits can be made up of one or more of the following: Skin, soft tissue and bone with joint, ligament, and tendon.

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Polyps

A polyp is an outgrowth of tissue that can extend out into the empty space within the stomach, small intestine, or colon. Polyps can generally be divided into two groups: hamartomas and adenomas.

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Positional Plagiocephaly (Flattened Head)

Positional plagiocephaly is a flat area on the back or on one side of your baby’s head that does not go away on its own.

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Post Concussion Syndrome

After a concussion, we expect that most children will return to typical functioning within 3-4 weeks. However, a small portion of children can experience symptoms that continue for a longer duration. This is called post-concussion syndrome (PCS).

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Posterior Pituitary Disorders

Detailed information on posterior pituitary disorders

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Posterior Urethral Valves in Children

Posterior urethral valves are a problem with the urethra in a boy. The valves partly block urine flow because not enough urine can get through them to leave the body. This can harm the urethra, bladder, ureters, and kidneys.

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Postmaturity in the Newborn

The normal length of pregnancy is 37 to 41 weeks. Postmaturity is a word used to describe babies born after 42 weeks. Very few babies are born at 42 weeks or later. Other terms often used to describe these late births include post-term, postmaturity, prolonged pregnancy, and post-dates pregnancy.

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Postoperative Care

Detailed information on postoperative management

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Postpartum Hemorrhage

Postpartum hemorrhage is more bleeding than normal after the birth of a baby. About 1 in 100 to 5 in 100 women have postpartum hemorrhage. It is more likely with a cesarean birth. It most often happens after the placenta is delivered, but it can also happen later.

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Post-Term Pregnancy

A pregnancy that lasts more than 42 weeks is called post-term. A pregnancy that is between 41 and 42 weeks is called late-term. Most women deliver between 37 and 42 weeks of pregnancy.

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Post-Thrombotic Syndrome (PTS)

Post-Thrombotic Syndrome or PTS can occur when there are changes in a blood vessel after a blood clot is formed.

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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Children

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health problem. A child with PTSD has constant, scary thoughts and memories of a past event. He or she finds the event terrifying, either physically or emotionally.

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Potassium Restriction for Children

Read on for detailed information to help your child limit or avoid high-potassium foods.

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Prader Willi Syndrome

Prader-Willi Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder.

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Precocious Puberty

Puberty that happens early is called precocious puberty. This means a child's physical signs of sexual maturity develop too soon. This includes breast growth, pubic hair, and voice changes. These are known as secondary sexual characteristics. Precocious puberty happens before age 8 in girls, and before age 9 in boys.

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Preconception Care

Detailed information on preconception care

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Pregnancy and Medical Conditions

Detailed information on pregnancy and medical conditions

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Pregnancy and Pre-existing Heart Disease

Pre-existing heart disease is a heart problem that you had before you got pregnant. This usually means a heart condition that you were born with (congenital). These can include heart problems that may have been fixed. It can also include heart valve issues.

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Pregnancy and the Nervous System

Do you know how your nervous system works? This system coordinates all your body’s activities, and chances are it’s functioning normally during your pregnancy. In the rare case that it’s not, here’s what you need to know.

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Pregnancy Complications

Detailed information on the most common complications during pregnancy

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Pregnancy Loss

Detailed information on pregnancy loss, including types, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

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Pregnancy: Issues and Answers

Access basic information about what you may be feeling, your choices, and what you can expect from prenatal care.

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Prematurity

A baby born before 37 weeks of pregnancy is considered premature or born too early. The number of premature births in the U.S. is rising. Twins and other multiples are more likely to be premature than single birth babies.

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Prenatal Counseling

Detailed information on prenatal diagnosis to detect fetal abnormalities in the womb

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Preoperative Management for Children

Detailed information on preoperative management

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Preoperative Visit with the Surgeon

This is the time to ask questions: What are the expected results? What are the possible risks and complications? How long will the surgery take?

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Preparing a Child for Surgery

Detailed information on preparing the child having surgery

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Preparing for Your New Baby

Detailed information on preparing for your new baby

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Preparing for Your Next Pregnancy

Are you ready to start thinking about a younger sibling for your baby? If so, here’s what you need to keep in mind before you prepare to keep growing your family.

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Preparing Siblings for Surgery

When your child goes to the hospital, brothers and sisters may feel afraid, worried, or confused. They are often afraid simply because they do not know what to expect, and they may imagine the worst.

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Preparing the Family

Most families soon find ways to adjust to the changes that take place after a baby is born. But it is helpful to prepare some family members for what is ahead.

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Preparing the Infant for Surgery

It's important to keep your baby's routine the same before the day of surgery. Make sure you, your baby, and your family are well rested.

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Preparing the Preschooler for Surgery

One of the major fears preschoolers have is fear of the unknown. Tell your child about the surgery several days before the procedure and perhaps even visit the hospital for a tour.

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Preparing the School-Aged Child for Surgery

Have your child explain back to you what is going to happen in the hospital. School-aged children sometimes will listen carefully, but not understand all that was said.

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Preparing the Teen for Surgery

Allow your teen to be part of the decision-making process. Encourage him or her to make a list of questions to ask the healthcare providers.

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Preparing the Toddler for Surgery

Read books to your toddler about going to the hospital. Keep any explanations simple and be careful of the words you use.

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Preschool (4 to 5 Years)

Detailed information on preschool-aged children, ages 4 to 5 years

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Preschool and School-Aged Problems of the Teeth and Mouth

Detailed information on preschool and school-aged problems of the teeth and mouth

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Preschool Play

A preschooler needs space in which to run and explore. Take him or her on trips to the playground, park, or beach. Encourage him or her to play with other children.

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Preschooler Nutrition

Preschool children are still developing their eating habits and need encouragement to eat healthy meals and snacks.

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Preterm Labor

Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. Labor is when the uterus regularly tightens and the cervix starts to thin and open. This lets the baby (fetus) enter the birth canal.

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Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM)

Preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM) is a pregnancy complication. In this condition, the sac (amniotic membrane) surrounding your baby breaks (ruptures) before week 37 of pregnancy. Once the sac breaks, you have an increased risk for infection. You also have a higher chance of having your baby born early.

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Preventing Burn Injuries

Here are safety tips: Periodically, check electrical plugs and cords for dirt or fraying. When cooking with hot oil, keep your child a safe distance from the stove. Teach your child to stay away from lighters and matches.

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Preventing Eye Injuries in Children

Children should wear protective eyewear during sports and recreational activities. In the classroom, they should wear eye protection when doing lab experiments.

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Preventing Falls

Falls are the most common cause of injury visits to the emergency room for young children. Falls cause more open wounds, fractures, and brain injuries than any other cause.

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Preventing MRSA in Athletes

MRSA most often causes minor skin infections in young athletes, but if untreated, the bacteria may invade the bloodstream and become a life-threatening infection.

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Preventing Scars and Contractures

Most second- and third-degree burns cause scarring. Physical therapists will work with your child to prevent or reduce scarring.

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Prevention of Infectious Disease

Detailed information on prevention of infectious diseases

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Prevention of Oral Problems

Detailed information on the prevention of oral diseases and dental problems

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Primary Immune Deficiencies

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Problems Affecting the Coronary Arteries and Blood Vessels

Detailed information on problems affecting the coronary arteries and blood vessels of children

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Problems Affecting the Lower Digestive Tract

Detailed information on problems affecting the lower digestive tract of children

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Problems Affecting the Upper Digestive Tract

Detailed information on problems affecting the upper digestive tract of children

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Problems in Prenatal Development of the Digestive Tract

Detailed information on problems in prenatal development of the digestive tract

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Problems in Puberty

Detailed information on problems in puberty, including precocious puberty, gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, and delayed puberty

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Problems Involving Heart Rhythm

Detailed information on problems involving heart rhythm

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Protein Restriction for Children

Detailed information on limiting protein in your child's diet, when your child has kidney failure.

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Prune Belly Syndrome in Children

A child with prune belly syndrome often can't fully empty his or her bladder. This can cause serious bladder, ureter, and kidney problems.

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Psoriasis

Psoriasis (sore-EYE-uh-sis) is a common skin problem that looks like pink or red areas of skin topped with white or silvery scaly patches.

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Psoriatic Arthritis in Children

Psoriatic arthritis is a rare form of arthritis or joint inflammation that affects both skin and joints. It can occur in people who have psoriasis, a skin and nail disease.

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Psychiatric Treatment Team

Team members may include a child and adolescent psychiatrist, a psychologist, a social worker, and a psychiatric nurse.

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Psychogenic Non Epileptic Events

Psychogenic non-epileptic events are behavioral episodes that look like real epileptic seizures.

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Psychological Complications of Chronic Illness in Teens

Adolescence is a stressful time of life even for physically healthy teens. Chronic illness further complicates adolescent development.

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Psychosis

Psychosis is an extreme mental state. Children with the disorder show impaired thinking and emotions that cause them to lose contact with reality.

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Psychosocial Needs of the Dying Child

The child with a terminal illness has the same need for love, emotional support, and normal activities as any person facing death.

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Puberty: Adolescent Female

Girls experience puberty as a sequence of events, and their pubertal changes usually begin before boys of the same age. The first pubertal change in girls usually is breast development.

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Puberty: Adolescent Male

During puberty, a teenage boy will grow taller and heavier, and hormones will lead to sexual maturity.

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Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)

Pulmonary hypertension is a rare lung disease in which the blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries are high.

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Pulmonary Atresia

Pulmonary atresia (PA) is a heart defect. It happens when the fetal heart doesn’t form as it should during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

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Pulmonary Embolism

A pulmonary embolism is a blood clot that travels to the blood vessels in the lungs. You may hear a pulmonary embolism referred to as a “PE.”

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Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a disease in which the blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary artery system) is higher than normal. Normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg.

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Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema

Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) is when air gets trapped in the tissue outside the tubes and air sacs of the lungs. It affects newborn babies. PIE is fairly common in neonatal intensive care units.

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Pulmonary Stenosis in Children

Pulmonary stenosis is a birth defect of the heart (congenital). It can happen when the pulmonary valve doesn’t develop as it should during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. The pulmonary valve connects the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery.

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Puncture Wounds

A puncture wound is a deep wound made by a sharp object. This type of wound may become infected easily because dirt and germs are carried deep into the tissues.

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Pyelonephritis

Pyelonephritis is the medical term for a kidney infection. The most common cause of acute kidney infections in children is a bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) that has spread from the bladder to the kidneys. Repeat acute kidney infections can lead to the need for a kidney transplant.

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Pyloric Stenosis

Pyloric stenosis is a problem that affects babies between birth and 6 months of age. In pyloric stenosis, the muscles in the lower part of the stomach enlarge, narrowing the opening of the pylorus and eventually preventing food from moving from the stomach to the intestine.

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Pyloric Stenosis

Pyloric stenosis is a problem that causes forceful vomiting. It affects babies from birth to 6 months of age. It can lead to dehydration. This condition is the second most common reason why newborns have surgery.

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Pyloric Stenosis

Pyloric stenosis is common in infants. It affects babies from birth to a few months of age. It is caused by the thickening of the muscle between the stomach and the small intestine.

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Pyogenic Granuloma

A pyogenic granuloma (pie uh JENN ik gran yuh LOH muh) or PG is a vascular (blood vessel) growth. It usually appears after an area of skin that has been injured.

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Helping Hands Patient Education Materials

Written and illustrated by medical, nursing and allied health professionals at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Helping Hand instructions are intended as a supplement to verbal instructions provided by a medical professional. The information is periodically reviewed and revised to reflect our current practice. However, Nationwide Children's Hospital is not responsible for any consequences resulting from the use or misuse of the information in the Helping Hands.