Conditions We Treat

Browse Conditions A-Z

H. Pylori

Helicobacter pylori or H. pylori is a bacteria that infects the stomach.

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H1N1 (Influenza Virus)

Children under 5 years of age and young adults are at greater risk of illness from this virus. This is different from seasonal flu which usually is most severe in children younger than 2 years and the elderly.

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Haemophilus Influenzae Infections in Children

Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) is a group of bacteria that can cause different types of infections in babies and children. H. influenzae most often cause ear, eye, or sinus infections. They also cause pneumonia.

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Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib)

Haemophilus influenzae type b is a serious bacterial disease that usually strikes children younger than 5. It is spread from person-to-person by coughing and sneezing.

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Hamstring Strain

A hamstring strain is a stretching or tearing of the hamstring muscles located in the back of the thigh.

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Hand Eczema

Hand eczema can be chronic and hard to treat. It is more common in people who have a history of eczema on other parts of their bodies.

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Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Children

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is an illness caused by a virus. It causes a rash on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. It can also occur in the diaper area, and on the legs and arms.

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Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease

Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD) is a common illness caused by a virus. Early symptoms of HFMD are much like a common cold. After a day or two, you might see small painful sores (ulcers) on the throat and tonsils and a rash of very small blisters or red spots on the hands, feet and diaper area.

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Head Injury - Concussion

In this Helping Hand, learn more about head-injury concussions.

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Head Injury in Children

The more common causes of head injury in children are falls, motor vehicle accidents—in which the child is either a passenger or a pedestrian—or a result of child abuse.

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Head Lice

Lice are usually spread from child to child when sharing clothing, hats, scarves, combs, brushes, hair trims or helmets that have strands of hair with nits.

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Head Lice in Children

Head lice are tiny parasitic bugs that can infest the skin. They live on people’s heads and feed on their blood. Head lice can cause intense itching.

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Headaches

Most headaches in children are benign. Children’s headaches are very rarely from serious diseases or physical problems.

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Headaches in Children

Many headaches in children may be caused by tight muscles and dilated blood vessels in the head. Other headaches may be caused by an actual problem, such as a tumor or malformation of the brain, although this is much less common.

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Headaches in Children

A headache is one of the most common complaints of children and teenagers. Fussiness, crankiness and not being able to sleep may be the only signs of head pain in children who are too young to tell you where they hurt. There are many different types of headaches.

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Headaches: Migraine

Migraine headaches occur when there are changes in some of the nerves and blood vessels and are common in children.

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Health Maintenance

Detailed information on proper health maintenance for a child

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Health Promotion and Common Problems

Detailed information on health promotion and common health problems in children

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Healthy Diets Overview

Eating healthy is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and is something that should be taught to children at a young age.

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Healthy Eating During Adolescence

Encourage your teen to eat three balanced meals a day, with fruits or vegetables as snacks.

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Healthy Lifestyles

Detailed information on healthy lifestyle choices for teenagers

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Healthy Sleep Habits

The normal amount of sleep varies depending on the age of your child. A 2-year-old needs 10 to 12 hours a night, plus naps during the day. By age 6, a child usually has dropped naps, but still needs 10 hours at night.

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Hearing Aids for Children

Hearing aids can help improve hearing and speech, especially in children with hearing loss in the inner ear caused by damaged hair cells or a damaged hearing nerve. Read on to learn about the types of hearing aids available, and what to think about before buying one.

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Hearing Loss in Babies

Hearing loss in babies is rare in this country. But when it does happen, it's important to diagnose it early. Undetected hearing loss can delay speech and language development.

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Hearing Loss in Children

A look at the 3 different types of hearing loss, and what causes them.

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Hearing Screening Tests for Newborns

Today nearly all newborns are screened for hearing loss. Here's a look at why, and the types of screening tests that are done.

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Hearing Testing

Learn more about hearing tests for children.

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Hearing, Speech, and Language

Detailed information on hearing, speech, and language in children

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Heart Defects Causing Obstructions to Blood Flow

Detailed information on heart defects that cause obstructions in blood flow

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Heart Defects Causing Too Little Blood Flow Through the Lungs

Detailed information on heart defects that cause too little blood flow through the lungs

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Heart Defects Causing Too Much Blood Flow Through the Lungs

Detailed information on heart defects that cause extra blood flow through the lungs

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Heart Disorders

Detailed information on heart disorders in high-risk newborns

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Heart Failure

Heart failure means that the heart’s ability to squeeze is weaker than normal. As a result, the heart works less efficiently and can not pump enough oxygen and nutrients to meet the body’s needs.

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Heart Failure in Children

Heart failure is when the heart can't pump enough blood to the body. In children, it is often caused by a congenital heart defect.

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Heart Murmurs

Murmurs are extra or unusual sounds made by blood circulating through the heart's chambers or valves, or through blood vessels near the heart.

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Heart Murmurs in Children

Heart murmurs are extra or unusual sounds made by blood moving through the heart. Many children have heart murmurs. Some cause no problems or go away over time. Others require treatment.

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Heart Transplant for Children

A heart transplant is a surgery to replace a diseased heart with a healthy one from an organ donor. Organ donors are adults or children who have become critically ill, often because because of injury. They will not live because of their illness or injury.

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Heart-Healthy Eating

Detailed information on heart-healthy eating

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Heat or Thermal Burns

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Heat-Related Illnesses (Heat Cramps, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke)

Children and teens are at greater risk for heat-related illnesses for several reasons. They adjust more slowly to changes in air temperature. They also produce more heat with activity and sweat less.

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Helicobacter Pylori in Children

H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) is a spiral-shaped germ (bacteria) that infects the stomach. It can damage the tissue in your child’s stomach and the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). This can cause redness and swelling (inflammation). It may also cause painful sores called peptic ulcers in the upper digestive tract.

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HELLP Syndrome

HELLP syndrome is a rare but life-threatening condition in pregnancy. It causes red cells in the blood to break down. It also causes problems with the liver, bleeding, and blood pressure. It is often linked with preeclampsia and eclampsia. It often develops before delivery. But it may also occur after delivery.

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Hemangioma

A hemangioma is a common vascular birthmark, made of extra blood vessels in the skin. It is a benign growth.

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Hemangioma and Vascular Malformations

The treatment of a hemangioma is usually observation. Some hemangiomas can cause problems if they bleed or press on important nearby structures, such as the eye or the upper airway. Venous malformations, lymphatic malformations and arteriovenous malformations require a multidisciplinary approach.

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Hemifacial Microsomia (HFM) in Children

Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a congenital disorder. This means that your child is born with it. In this condition, one side of your baby’s face is underdeveloped (hemi means half). HFM usually only affects one side of the face. Sometimes both sides may be affected.

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Hemoglobin C Disease

Most people carry hemoglobin A in their red blood cells. Those who carry hemoglobin C, considered an abnormal variation, may develop hemoglobin C disease. This blood disorder develops because the red blood cells break down earlier than they should, leaving too few in the blood and leading to mild anemia.

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Hemoglobin E Trait

Hemoglobin E trait is an inherited blood disorder. That means it is passed down through your parent’s genes. It occurs most often in people of Southeast Asian descent. Many people with hemoglobin E trait have no symptoms.

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Hemoglobinopathy

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Hemolytic Anemia

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Hemolytic Anemia in Children

The hemolytic anemias are a group of disorders in which the red blood cells are destroyed faster than the bone marrow can make them. The term for destruction of red blood cells is hemolysis.

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Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN)

Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is a blood problem in newborns. It occurs when your baby's red blood cells break down at a fast rate.  It’s also called erythroblastosis fetalis.

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Hemolytic Disorders

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Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Children

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a rare condition that can lead to kidney failure. The syndrome harms the small structures and vessels inside the kidneys. HUS causes red blood cells to clog the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys. It may cause damage to the kidney tissues.

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Hemophilia

Hemophilia is an inherited blood disorder. In hemophilia, a blood clotting factor is missing.

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Hemophilia Carrier

A hemophilia carrier is a female who has the gene that causes hemophilia A or hemophilia B deficiency.

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Hemophilia in Children

Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder. Children with hemophilia can’t stop bleeding because they don’t have enough clotting factor in their blood. Clotting factors are needed for blood to clot. Blood clots to prevent excessive bleeding.

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Hemorrhagic Stroke

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Henoch-Schönlein Purpura

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Henoch-Schonlein Purpura (HSP)

HSP results from inflammation of small blood vessels in the skin and other organs in the body.

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Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) in Children

Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a condition that involves swelling (inflammation) of small blood vessels. The swollen blood vessels leak into the skin, joints, intestines, and kidneys. 

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Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is caused by a virus found in feces, contaminated water and food that has been handled by infected persons

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Hepatitis A, B and C

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Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is caused by a virus found in blood, semen, vaginal secretions and saliva. It is mainly spread through unprotected sexual activity or exposure to blood.

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Hepatitis B (HBV) in Children

An infant or young child who contracts hepatitis B is at greater risk of staying infected with the virus and of having life-long liver problems, such as scarring of the liver and liver cancer.

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Hepatitis in Children

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. It can damage and destroy liver cells.

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Hepatoblastoma

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Hepatoblastoma in Children

Hepatoblastoma is a very rare cancer. It’s a tumor that starts in the liver. The cancer cells are similar to fetal liver cells. It usually affects children less than 3 to 4 years of age.

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Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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Hereditary Non-polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC)

Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, often called HNPCC or Lynch Syndrome, is an inherited cancer syndrome that affects the digestive tract, reproductive tract and other major organs.

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Hereditary Retinoblastoma

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Herpangina in Children

Herpangina is a very common illness in children. It causes small blister-like bumps or sores (ulcers) in the mouth.

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Herpes Simplex Virus

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a very contagious virus that causes infections. There are two types of HSV. One type (HSV-1) usually causes sores around the lips or inside the mouth that are sometimes called fever blisters or cold sores. The other type (HSV-2) usually causes sores on the genitals.

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Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores) in Children

Cold sores are small blisters around the mouth caused by the herpes simplex virus. Once a child is infected with the virus, the virus becomes inactive (dormant) for long periods of time. It can then become active at any time and cause cold sores.

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Hidradenitis Supperativa (HS)

Hidradenitis suppurativa (hy drah duh NY tiss supp yoo ruh TY vuh) or HS is a long-term (chronic) skin condition. Plugged pores and red, tender bumps or boils begin deep in the skin around hair follicles that contain specific sweat glands called apocrine glands.

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High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure means that there is higher than normal pressure inside the arteries either during systole or during diastole.

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High Blood Pressure in Children and Teens

Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls. High blood pressure (hypertension) means that the pressure inside the arteries is too high. This higher pressure may harm the arteries and cause the heart to work harder.

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High Cholesterol

There are two important types of cholesterol. One is LDL (low density lipoprotein) or "bad" cholesterol. The other is HDL (high density lipoprotein) or the "good" cholesterol.

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High-Risk Newborn Blood Disorders

Detailed information on blood disorders that place a newborn at higher risk and require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional

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Hip Dysplasia

Hip Dysplasia can be presented as early as infancy. Early screenings and detection are critical in treating hip dysplasia long-term. 

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Hirschsprung Disease

Hirschsprung disease, also known as megacolon, is a congenital condition that causes blockage of the intestine. The blockage is caused by a lack of nerves in the bottom segment of the colon. Children with Hirschsprung disease will need surgery to remove the non-functional segment of the intestine.

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Hirschsprung Disease (HD)

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss Hirschprung disease. The symptoms of Hirschprung disease depend on the person’s age. Several tests may be done to see if a child has this condition. Resources are available to help better understand diagnostic tests and management programs.

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Hirschsprung Disease in Children

Hirschsprung disease is a rare birth defect. It affects the nerve cells in the large intestine. These nerve cells control the muscles that move food and waste, or stool, through the large intestine. The large intestine is the last part of the digestive tract.

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HIV Home Care

Detailed information on HIV home care for your child

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HIV Infection/AIDS

HIV is a virus that causes a number of different health problems including AIDS. The HIV virus is passed from person to person in certain ways

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HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

A mother with HIV can pass the virus to her baby during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and breastfeeding.

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Hives

Hives, also called urticaria (yer ti CARE ee uh), are red, itchy, raised bumps or welts on the skin. They may be small, like mosquito bites, or many inches wide. Hives can appear alone, in a group or can connect with each other to cover bigger areas. When pressed, the center of the hive turns pale.

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Hoarse Voice (Dysphonia)

Dysphonia, also known as hoarseness, refers to having an abnormal voice. For those affected by dysphonia, the voice can be described as hoarse, rough, raspy, strained, weak, breathy or gravely. There may also be voice breaks and pitch changes. Causes may include inflammation, growths and scarring.

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Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children

Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections. The lymphatic system also helps with balancing fluids in different parts of the body.

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Hodgkins Lymphoma

Hodgkins Lymphoma (also known as Hodgkin’s Disease) is a form of cancer of the lymphatic (lim FA tik) system. The cause of Hodgkin Lymphoma is not known. The lymphatic system is a part of the circulatory system. It plays a main role in fighting infection.

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Holter Monitoring for Children

Holter monitoring is a way to continuously check the electrical activity of the heart. Your child will wear a small device called a Holter monitor for at least 24 to 48 hours. The device constantly checks your child's heart during this time.

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Home Care for Children with Sickle Cell Disease

Although a child who has sickle cell disease should be under a healthcare provider's care, parents can do many things at home to reduce symptoms and maintain the child's health.

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Home Page - Adolescent Medicine

Detailed information on adolescent medicine, including growth and development, cognitive development, relationship development, health and injury problems, and safety

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Home Page - Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

Detailed information on allergy, asthma, and immunology

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Home Page - Burns

Detailed information on burns, including anatomy, classification, treatment, and prevention

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Home Page - Cardiovascular Disorders

Detailed information on cardiovascular diseases in children

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Home Page - Care of the Terminally Ill Child

Detailed information on care of the terminally ill child

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Home Page - Child and Adolescent Mental Health

Detailed information on child and adolescent mental health disorders

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Home Page - Common Childhood Injuries and Poisonings

Detailed information on the common poisonings and injuries of children

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Home Page - Craniofacial Anomalies

Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies, including Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate, Craniosynostosis, Deformational Plagiocephaly, Hemifacial Microsomia, Vascular Malformations, and Hemangiomas

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Home Page - Dental and Oral Health

Detailed information on dental and oral health in children

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Home Page - Dermatology and Children

Detailed information on dermatology and children

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Home Page - Diabetes and Other Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

Detailed information on diabetes and other endocrine and metabolic disorders that affect children

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Home Page - Digestive and Liver Disorders

Detailed information on digestive disorders in children

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Home Page - Ear, Nose, and Throat

Detailed information on ear, nose, and throat disorders in children

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Home Page - Eye Care and Children

Detailed information on eye disorders in children

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Home Page - Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders

Detailed information on genitourinary and kidney disorders in children

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Home Page - Growth and Development

Detailed information on proper health maintenance for a child

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Home Page - Hematology and Blood Disorders in Children

Detailed information on blood disorders, including Anemia, Aplastic Anemia, Hemolytic Anemia, Iron Deficiency Anemia, Megaloblastic Anemia, Sickle Cell Anemia, Thalassemia, Alpha Thalassemia, Beta Thalassemia (Cooley's Anemia)

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Home Page - High-Risk Newborn

Detailed information on high-risk newborns

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Home Page - High-Risk Pregnancy

Detailed information on high-risk pregnancy

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Home Page - Infectious Diseases in Children

Detailed information on infectious diseases in children

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Home Page - Medical Genetics

Detailed information on medical genetics, including chromosome abnormalities, single gene defects, multifactorial inheritance, teratogens, and non-traditional inheritance

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Home Page - Neurological Disorders

Detailed information on neurological disorders in children

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Home Page - Normal Newborn

Detailed information on newborn care

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Home Page - Oncology

Detailed information on cancer in children

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Home Page - Orthopedics

Detailed information on orthopedic disorders in children

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Home Page - Pediatric Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases

Detailed information on pediatric arthritis and other rheumatic diseases

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Home Page - Respiratory Disorders in Children

Detailed information on respiratory disorders in children

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Home Page - Safety and Injury Prevention

Detailed information on safety and injury prevention of children

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Home Page - The Child Having Surgery

Detailed information on surgery in children

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Home Page - Transplantation

Detailed information on transplantation in children

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Home Wound Care

Your child may come home with unhealed areas that still require dressing changes. You will be instructed on how to change dressings before you leave the hospital.

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Horseshoe Kidney

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Horseshoe Kidney (Renal Fusion) in Children

Horseshoe kidney is when the 2 kidneys join (fuse) together at the bottom. They form a U shape like a horseshoe.

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Hospice

The goal of hospice care is to provide the terminally ill child peace, comfort, and dignity.

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Hospital Visit/Preoperative Clinic

Touring the hospital before surgery can help your child see the sights, sounds, and events he or she will experience the day of surgery. It is a nonthreatening, often reassuring, way to learn about the hospital.

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How Breastmilk Is Made

Detailed information on how breastmilk is made for breastfeeding

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How the Liver Works

Detailed information on how the liver works, including a full-color, labeled illustration of the digestive system

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How to Manage Hearing Loss in Children

A look at the healthcare team members involved in diagnosing a child's hearing loss, and different ways of managing hearing loss.

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Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) in Children

Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of viruses that cause different types of respiratory infections. They are more common in children and babies. But they can occur in people of any age, especially those with a weak immune system.

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Hydramnios

In this condition, there is too much amniotic fluid around your baby during pregnancy. It happens in about 1 in 100 pregnancies.

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Hydrocele

Hydrocele (pronounced hydro-seal) is a collection of clear or yellow fluid around the testicle within the scrotum. Many male newborns have small hydroceles present at birth, most of which will go away on their own within the first year and do not require surgery. Babies, toddlers or older children may develop hydroceles later on.

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Hydrocele in Children

A hydrocele is fluid buildup in the thin pouch that holds the testes in the scrotum. Up to 1 in 10 baby boys have a hydrocele at birth. In most cases, it goes away without treatment in the first year.

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Hydrocephalus

A baby with hydrocephalus has extra fluid around the brain. This fluid is called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Too much CSF can increase the pressure in your baby’s head. This causes the bones in your baby’s skull to expand and separate. The baby's head may look larger than normal.

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Hydrocephalus

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Hydronephrosis

Hydronephrosis (pronounced high-dro-nef-row-sis) is a radiology term for swelling or fluid in the kidney.

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Hydrops Fetalis

Hydrops fetalis is severe swelling (edema) in an unborn baby or a newborn baby. It is a life-threatening problem.

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Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn

Hyperbilirubinemia happens when there is too much bilirubin in your baby’s blood. Bilirubin is made by the breakdown of red blood cells. It’s hard for babies to get rid of bilirubin. It can build up in their blood, tissues, and fluids.

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Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Many pregnant women have some nausea and sometimes vomiting in the first trimester. A few pregnant women have a severe kind of nausea and vomiting called hyperemesis gravidarum. These women often lose weight, and get dehydrated. They may also have changes in the body's chemical processes.

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Hyperhidrosis

Sweating (or perspiration) is a normal body function that helps to maintain the body temperature and prevent overheating. An increased, unusual amount of sweating is called hyperhidrosis (hie purr hie DROH sis). This is common, but can be embarrassing and frustrating.

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Hypermobile Joints

Hypermobile joints, also known as loose joints, describes the ability of a joint to move beyond its normal range of motion. People with hypermobile joints are sometimes referred to as being double jointed. Benign hypermobility syndrome can lead to weak, loose ligaments and joint instability.

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Hyperparathyroidism in Children

Hyperparathyroidism is when the parathyroid glands make too much parathyroid hormone. The condition is rare in children.

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Hypertelorbitism

Hypertelorbitism, also known as orbital hypertelorism, is an abnormally increased distance between the orbits, which are the bony sockets holding the eyes. In addition, patients may have a flat nasal bridge. The surgical treatment of hypertelorbitism depends on the underlying cause.

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Hyperthyroidism

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Hypocalcemia in the Newborn

Hypocalcemia is when a person doesn't have enough calcium in the blood. In babies, it’s called neonatal hypocalcemia. Your baby can get it at different times and from different causes.

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Hypoglycemia in a Newborn Baby

Hypoglycemia is when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too low. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain and the body. In a newborn baby, low blood sugar can happen for many reasons. It can cause problems such as shakiness, blue tint to the skin, and breathing and feeding problems.

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Hypoglycemia in Children

Hypoglycemia is when the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood is too low. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the brain and the body. The normal range of blood glucose is about 70 to 140 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). The amount blood differs based on the most recent meal. Babies and small children with type 1 diabetes will have different goal ranges of blood glucose levels. 

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Hypoparathyroidism in Children

Hypoparathyroidism is when the parathyroid glands don’t make enough parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid glands are 4 tiny glands on the thyroid. The hormone they make helps manage levels of calcium in the bloodstream. Low levels of the hormone leads to low levels of calcium. This can lead to muscle spasms and cramping, called tetany.

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Hypopituitarism in Children

Hypopituitarism means that the pituitary gland is not working normally. The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain. It’s the master endocrine gland in the body. The pituitary gland normally releases as many as 8 different hormones. These hormones control growth, metabolism, blood pressure, and other body processes. The effects of hypopituitarism may be slow over time. Or they may be sudden.

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Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital heart defect where most of the structures on the left side of the heart are small and underdeveloped. The Hybrid approach, developed by surgeons at Nationwide Children's Hospital, is an alternative to Norwood open heart surgery for HLHS.

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Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) in Children

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a group of defects of the heart and large blood vessels. A child is born with this condition (congenital heart defect). It occurs when part of the heart doesn't develop as it should during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

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Hypospadias

Mild hypospadias is when the urethral opening is just below the tip of the penis. Very severe hypospadias is when the opening is at the level of or below the scrotum.

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Hypospadias in Children

Hypospadias is a problem where the opening of the urethra is not at the tip of the penis. With hypospadias, the end of the tube is lower down on the underside of the penis. Or it may be in the scrotum.

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Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism happens when the body does not make enough thyroid hormone. As a result, many body functions slow down.

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Helping Hands Patient Education Materials

Written and illustrated by medical, nursing and allied health professionals at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Helping Hand instructions are intended as a supplement to verbal instructions provided by a medical professional. The information is periodically reviewed and revised to reflect our current practice. However, Nationwide Children's Hospital is not responsible for any consequences resulting from the use or misuse of the information in the Helping Hands.