Conditions We Treat

Browse Conditions A-Z

Taking Care of Your Breast Pump and Collection Kit

Moms who bottle feed their babies are always worried about keeping the bottles and nipples clean and sterilized at all times. Likewise, if you’re a breastfeeding mom you have to be concerned with keeping your breast pump and all its parts clean to keep your baby safe from breast milk contamination.

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Taking Your Baby Home

Your baby is finally ready to come home. Turn your nervous energy into positive action. Make a checklist for what you and she needs before leaving the hospital so that you can create a safe home environment. Here's a list of items to get you started.

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Teen Drivers

Information on teen driving, including safety tips.

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Teen Suicide

Suicide is when a teen causes his or her own death on purpose. Before trying to take his or her own life, a teen may have thoughts of wanting to die. Read on to learn how to recognize the warning signs, and how to get your teen help.

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Teens and Diabetes Mellitus

Detailed information on special considerations for teenagers with diabetes

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Teething

A baby's first tooth usually appears between 5 and 7 months of age. Often, the two middle bottom teeth come through the gums first, followed by the middle four upper teeth.

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Television and Children

Many children watch too much digital media, which includes TV, the internet, and smart devices. Learn why too much screen time is not good for kids--and how to set limits and establish good viewing habits.

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Temper Tantrums

These fits of rage - the stomping, screaming, and falling on the floor - are a normal part of childhood development. Temper tantrums often happen only with a parent. They are a way for the child to communicate his or her feelings.

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Tennis Elbow

Lateral epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow) is a painful inflammation of the bony bump on the outside of your elbow.

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Tennis Elbow in Children

Tennis elbow is a repetitive stress injury. It happens when the muscles and tendons in the elbow area are torn or damaged.

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Teratogens

Detailed information on teratogens and non-teratogenic agents

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Testicular Cancer

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Testicular Torsion

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Testicular Torsion in Children

Testicular torsion is a painful twisting of a boy’s testicles and spermatic cord. Torsion causes blood to not flow to the testicles. This can damage them. Treatment needs to be done right away to prevent long-lasting (permanent) injury to the testicles.

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Testing for Birth Defects

Detailed information on testing for birth defects

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Tests for a Newborn Baby in Intensive Care

Babies in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU) undergo regular testing so they get the important care they need. Here are several common lab tests. Ask your baby's healthcare provider about them.

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Tetanus in Children

Tetanus is a severe illness of the central nervous system caused by bacteria. It's not contagious. It can be prevented by a vaccine.

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Tetralogy of Fallot

Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that is made up of 4 problems and results in not enough blood flow to the lungs.

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Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)

Tetralogy of Fallot is 4 congenital heart defects. This means that your child is born with them. These 4 problems occur together (tetralogy refers to 4).

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Thalassemia

Detailed information on thalassemias, including alpha thalassemia, beta thalassemia (Cooley's anemia)

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Thawing Breast Milk

Helpful tips for thawing and using frozen breastmilk.

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The Benefits of Mother's Own Milk

Premature babies who get breastmilk develop better eyesight. They also often do better on intelligence tests as they grow older.

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The Craniofacial Team

Detailed information on craniofacial abnormalities and the craniofacial treatment team

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The Day of Surgery

Before coming to the hospital, remove any watches, necklaces, or earrings that your child wears and leave them at home so they are not misplaced.

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The Dying Process

Understanding the physical and mental changes the body goes through as death happens, may help ease some fears and misconceptions about death.

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The Genetics of Cystic Fibrosis

Detailed information on the genetics involved in cystic fibrosis.

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The Growing Child

Detailed information on the growth and development of a child

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The Growing Child- Teenager (13 to 18 Years)

The teen years are a time of growth spurts, puberty changes, and emotional and social development. Here's what you need to know.

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The Growing Child: 1 to 3 Months

At this stage of growth, your baby will gain 1-1/2 to 2 pounds in weight and more than an inch in height each month.

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The Growing Child: 10 to 12 Months

Your child now says da-da and ma-ma, and possibly 2 other words, as well. He or she can also make a simple gesture, such as shaking the head.

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The Growing Child: 1-Year-Olds

Your child is a toddler now and very active! He or she can climb stairs while holding on and play with push and pull toys.

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The Growing Child: 2-Year-Olds

Speech at this age is becoming clearer. Your child has a vocabulary of 200 to 300 words and can tell his or her age and name.

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The Growing Child: 3-Year-Olds

Most 3-year-olds have lost the rounded tummy of a toddler. Your child can use a spoon well and can wash and dry his or her hands.

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The Growing Child: 4 to 6 Months

This age is very social, and babies begin moving in much more purposeful ways.

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The Growing Child: 7 to 9 Months

A baby of this age rolls over easily from front to back and back to front, and bounces when supported to stand.

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The Growing Child: Newborn

A helpful look at what to expect with your newborn—from your baby's growth and reflexes to crying and emotional development.

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The Growing Child: Preschool (4 to 5 Years)

Children at this age begin to understand concepts and can compare abstract ideas.

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The Growing Child: School-Age (6 to 12 Years)

Although friendships become more important at this age, children are still fond of their parents and like being part of a family. Read on to learn more.

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The Heart

Detailed information on the anatomy of the heart and heart transplantation in children

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The Hospital Setting

Many surgeries performed on children are done as an outpatient. With minor surgeries, your child will return to the outpatient surgery center after spending the required time in the recovery room.

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The Immune System

Detailed information on the immune system and how it works.

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The Kidneys

Detailed anatomical description of the kidneys

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The Liver

Detailed anatomical description of the liver and liver transplantation in children

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The Lungs

Detailed anatomical description of the lungs and lung transplantation in children

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The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)

NICUs provide specialized care for the tiniest patients. NICUs may also have intermediate or continuing care areas for babies who are not as sick but do need specialized nursing care.

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The New Mother: Taking Care of Yourself After Birth

You will need plenty of rest, good nutrition, and help during the first few weeks after your baby is born.

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The Operating Room

Your child will need to know that people in the operating room will be wearing surgical clothes to help prevent germs from infecting the surgical incision.

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The Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialist

A pediatric sports medicine specialist is a healthcare provider who helps children with injuries caused during sports or athletic activities.

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The Pediatrics Orthopedic Team

Detailed information on each member of the pediatric orthopedic treatment team

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The Respiratory System in Babies

A look at the respiratory system, and lung development in babies.

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The Surgical Team for Children

Most surgical teams include a surgeon, an anesthesiologist, a nurse anesthetist, and an operating room nurse. The number of team members differs depending on the type of surgery performed.

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Thermal Burns

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Thermal Injuries

Detailed information on thermal injuries in children

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Thigh and Hip Strains

A strain of the thigh/hip is a stretching or tearing of a muscle and is commonly referred to as a “pulled muscle.”

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Third-Degree Burn in Children

A burn is damage to tissues of the body caused by contact with things such as heat, radiation, or chemicals. A third-degree burn damages affects the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and the inner layer of skin (dermis). A child with a third-degree burn needs immediate medical care.

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Thrombocytopenia

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Thrombocytopenia in the Newborn

Thrombocytopenia [thrombo-boh-sy-toh-PEE-nee-uh] means that a newborn baby has too few platelets in his or her blood. Platelets are blood cells that help the blood clot. They are made in the bone marrow.

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Thrombophilia

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Thrush

Thrush is an infection caused by a fungus called Candida. Thrush can affect a child's mouth or diaper area. Oral thrush begins as flat white spots and come together to form patches. These spots are often mistaken for "milk patches." Candida in the diaper area can cause a red rash with tiny blisters.

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Thrush (Oral Candida Infection) in Children

Thrush is a mouth infection that is common in babies and children. Symptoms include white or yellow velvety patches in the mouth. Thrush is caused by a type of fungus called Candida.

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Thumb Sucking

Thumb sucking is normal in infants and young children. It shouldn't cause any permanent problems if your child stops by age 5.

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Thyroglossal Duct Cyst

A thyroglossal duct cyst is typically noticed as an area of fullness or a lump in the midline of the neck, usually just above the voice box.

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Thyroglossal Duct Cyst in Children

A thyroglossal duct cyst is a pocket in the front part of neck that is filled with fluid. A child is born with this cyst.

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Thyroid Conditions

Detailed information on thyroid conditions and pregnancy

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Tibial Torsion in Children

Tibial torsion is an inward twisting of the shinbones. These bones are located between the knee and the ankle. Tibial torsion causes a child's feet to turn inward.

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Tick Bite Diseases

Ticks feed on human blood. Most tick bites are harmless, but some species can cause serious diseases.

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Tick Bites

Ticks attach themselves to the scalp, behind the ear, in the armpit and groin, and also between fingers and toes. Find out what to do if you find a tick on your child.

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Tilt Table Test for Children

The tilt table test is done find the cause of fainting (syncope). Tilt table testing is done with a special table or bed that changes a child's position from lying to standing. The child's blood pressure and heart rate are checked while he or she is in the different positions.

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Time-Out

Time-out is a type of discipline that is used to stop bad behavior in a child. It takes the child out of the situation and gives him or her time to calm down.

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Tinea Capitis

Tinea capitis (TIN-ee-uh CAP-i-tis) is an infection of the scalp which is caused by a fungus. It is also called ringworm.

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Tinea Pedis

Tinea pedis (tin EE uh PEE duss) is a very common fungal infection on the skin of the feet. It is usually called athlete’s foot.

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Tinea Versicolor

Tinea versicolor (TIN ee uh VUHR sih kuhl er) is a common rash caused by the overgrowth of microscopic yeast on the skin's surface. The rash looks like small, scaly spots. 

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Tinea Versicolor in Children

Tinea versicolor is a fungal skin infection. It’s caused by yeast on the skin. It occurs most often in teens and young adults. But it can happen at any time.

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Toddler

Detailed information on toddler health

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Toddler Nutrition

Mealtime with a toddler can be challenging, because children at this age are striving for independence and control. It's best to provide structure and set limits.

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Toddler Play

Ideas for toddler toys: a rocking horse, a shovel and a bucket, and toys that can be pushed or pulled.

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Toddler Problems of the Teeth and Mouth

Detailed information on toddler problems of the teeth and mouth

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Toilet Training

Read on to learn more about toilet training, from signs your child is ready to helpful tips for potty training success.

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Tongue Tie

While up to 10 percent of children can have some degree of tongue tie, not all children with tongue tie require intervention.

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Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy for Children

A tonsillectomy may be recommended if your child has throat infections that keep coming back. Adenoidectomy is recommended if your child has a lot of trouble breathing through the nose. Often the tonsils and adenoids are removed at the same time.

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Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis refers to inflammation or infection of the tonsils.

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Tooth Decay in Children

Tooth decay is the breakdown of tooth enamel. Enamel is the hard outer surface of a tooth. Tooth decay can lead to cavities.

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Toothache (Pulpitis) in Children

A toothache means that the pulp inside a tooth is inflamed and infected. The pulp is the soft part inside the tooth that has blood vessels and nerves.

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Topic Index - Adolescent Medicine

Detailed information on adolescent medicine, including growth and development, cognitive development, relationship development, health and injury problems, and safety

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Topic Index - Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

Detailed information on allergy, asthma, and immunology

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Topic Index - Burns

Detailed information on burns, including anatomy, classification, treatment, and prevention

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Topic Index - Cardiovascular Disorders

Detailed information on cardiovascular diseases in children

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Topic Index - Care of the Terminally Ill Child

Detailed information on care of the terminally ill child

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Topic Index - Child and Adolescent Mental Health

Detailed information on child and adolescent mental health disorders

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Topic Index - Common Childhood Injuries and Poisonings

Detailed information on the common poisonings and injuries of children

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Topic Index - Craniofacial Anomalies

Detailed information on craniofacial anomalies, including Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate, Craniosynostosis, Deformational Plagiocephaly, Hemifacial Microsomia, Vascular Malformations, and Hemangiomas

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Topic Index - Dental and Oral Health

Detailed information on dental and oral health in children

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Topic Index - Dermatology for Children

Detailed information on dermatology and children

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Topic Index - Diabetes and Other Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

Detailed information on diabetes and other endocrine and metabolic disorders that affect children

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Topic Index - Digestive and Liver Disorders

Detailed information on digestive disorders in children

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Topic Index - Ear, Nose, and Throat

Detailed information on ear, nose, and throat disorders in children

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Topic Index - Eye Care for Children

Detailed information on eye disorders in children

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Topic Index - Genitourinary and Kidney Disorders

Detailed information on genitourinary and kidney disorders in children

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Topic Index - Growth and Development

Detailed information on proper health maintenance for a child

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Topic Index - Hematology and Blood Disorders in Children

Detailed information on blood disorders, including Anemia, Aplastic Anemia, Hemolytic Anemia, Iron Deficiency Anemia, Megaloblastic Anemia, Sickle Cell Anemia, Thalassemia, Alpha Thalassemia, Beta Thalassemia (Cooley's Anemia)

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Topic Index - High-Risk Newborn

Detailed information on high-risk newborns

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Topic Index - High-Risk Pregnancy

Detailed information on high-risk pregnancy

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Topic Index - Infectious Diseases in Children

Detailed information on infectious diseases in children

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Topic Index - Medical Genetics

Detailed information on medical genetics, including chromosome abnormalities, single gene defects, multifactorial inheritance, teratogens, and non-traditional inheritance

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Topic Index - Neurological Disorders

Detailed information on neurological disorders in children

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Topic Index - Normal Newborn

Detailed information on newborn care

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Topic Index - Oncology

Detailed information on cancer in children

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Topic Index - Orthopedics

Detailed information on orthopaedic disorders in children

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Topic Index - Pediatric Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases

Detailed information on pediatric arthritis and other rheumatic diseases

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Topic Index - Respiratory Disorders in Children

Detailed information on the most common types of respiratory disorders, including symptoms, prevention, diagnostic, and treatment information

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Topic Index - Safety and Injury Prevention

Detailed information on safety and injury prevention of children

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Topic Index - The Child Having Surgery

Detailed information on surgery in children

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Topic Index - Transplantation

Detailed information on transplantation in children

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Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return

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Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)

Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) is a congenital heart defect. This means that your child is born with it.  It happens as the baby’s heart develops during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

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Tourette Disorder

Tourette disorder is a neurological disorder. It is also called Tourette syndrome. The disorder causes repeated tics.

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Tourette Disorder in Children

Tourette disorder is a neurological disorder that causes repeated tics. Tics are sudden, uncontrolled vocal sounds or muscle jerks. Symptoms of TD often begin between ages 5 and 10. They usually start with mild, simple tics of the face, head, or arms.

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Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

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Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in Children

Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a life-threatening skin disorder. It causes blistering and peeling of the skin. Read on to learn more about this condition.

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Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is not only harmful to moms-to-be, but also to their unborn babies. If you haven't heard of toxoplasmosis, you'll definitely want to brush up on this new word.

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Toy Safety

Detailed information on toy safety and injury prevention in children

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Toy Safety—Identifying High-Risk Situations

Small toys or toys with small removal parts are not appropriate for children ages 3 and younger.

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Toy Safety—Prevention

To make sure a toy is appropriate for your young child, check the label. In general, most toys on the market today are safe.

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Tracheoesophageal Fistula and Esophageal Atresia

Tracheoesophageal fistula is a connection between the esophagus and the trachea. The esophagus is the tube that connects the throat to the stomach. The trachea is the tube that connects the throat to the windpipe and lungs. Normally, the esophagus and trachea are 2 tubes that are not connected. This issue is also called TE fistula or TEF. It can happen in one or more places.

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Tracheomalacia

In this Helping Hand™document, we discuss tracheomalacia, which is when the walls of a child’s windpipe (trachea) collapse. If the collapsed part of the windpipe goes past the area where it branches off into the two lungs, it is called bronchomalacia. This causes noisy or difficult breathing.

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Tracheomalacia (Primary and Secondary)

Tracheomalacia is characterized by collapse of the walls of the windpipe (trachea). If the collapse is due to weakness of the cartilage in the tracheal wall, it is called primary tracheomalacia. If it's due to compression by a structure outside of the windpipe, it is called secondary tracheomalacia.

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Transesophageal Echocardiography for Children

Echocardiography is an imaging test. It uses sound waves to make detailed moving pictures of the heart. It shows the size and shape of the heart, as well as the heart chambers and valves. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) uses a device, called a transducer, that is placed in the esophagus.

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Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn

Transient tachypnea of the newborn is a mild breathing problem. It affects babies during the first hours of life. Transient means it is short-lived. Tachypnea means fast breathing rate. The problem usually goes away without treatment in about 3 days.

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Translocation Down Syndrome

Detailed information on translocation Down syndrome

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Translocations

Detailed information on chromosome translocations, including reciprocal translation and Robertsonian translocation

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Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA)

Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a type of congental heart defect. This means that your baby is born with it. In this condition, the large blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the lungs and body aren’t connected as they should be.

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Trauma

Detailed information on neurological trauma in children

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Treatment for a Child's Allergy

Detailed information on avoidance of allergens and treatment for allergy, including immunotherapy (allergy shots) and medication

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Treatment for Cystic Fibrosis

A look at treatment options for cystic fibrosis.

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Treatment for Dog and Cat Bites and Scratches

When your child is bitten or scratched by an animal, remain calm and reassure your child that you can help. Here's what you need to know.

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Treatment for Human Bites

Human bite wounds are more likely to become infected than dog or cat bites. A healthcare provider should check any human bite that breaks the skin.

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Treatment for Skin Cancer in Children

Skin cancer in children can be treated in several ways. The best choice for your child depends on the size, place, and stage of the cancer, along with other factors.

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Tree Nut Allergy Diet for Children

Tree nuts include almonds, pecans, and walnuts. Tree nuts are also found in many food products. Here's what you need to know.

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Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis (trick-o-moe-NYE-ah-sis), is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STI). It is caused by a parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. The infection can happen to both men and women. It is passed during sexual contact with an infected person.

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Trichomoniasis (Trich) in Teens

Trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI). It can cause vaginal redness and swelling in teen girls. In teen boys it can cause painful urination.

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Tricuspid Atresia

Tricuspid atresia (TA) is a heart defect present at birth (congenital). It occurs when the tricuspid valve doesn’t form right during fetal heart development. This happens during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy. The tricuspid valve is located between the right upper chamber (atrium) and the right lower chamber (ventricle) of the heart. The defect keeps blood from flowing normally from the right atrium to the right ventricle.

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Tricuspid Atresia

Tricuspid atresia (TA) is a heart defect present at birth (congenital). It occurs when the tricuspid valve doesn’t form right during fetal heart development. This happens during the first 8 weeks of pregnancy.

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Trinucleotide Repeats: Fragile X Syndrome

Detailed information on trinucleotide repeats, including fragile X syndrome

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Trisomy 13 and Trisomy 18 in Children

Trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 are genetic disorders. They include a combination of birth defects. This includes severe learning problems and health problems that affect nearly every organ in the body.

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Truncus Arteriosus (TA)

Truncus arteriosus is a heart defect that is present at birth (congenital). It occurs when there is an abnormal connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery. Normally, the aorta and the pulmonary artery are separate.

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Tuberculosis (TB) in Children

Tuberculosis (TB) is an ongoing (chronic) infection caused by bacteria. It usually infects the lungs. But the kidneys, spine, and brain may also be affected.

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Turner Syndrome

Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females.

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Turner Syndrome (Genetic Disorder)

Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females.

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Turner Syndrome (Monosomy X) in Children

A detailed look at Turner syndrome, a genetic disorder that occurs in girls.

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Tympanic Membrane Perforation

Tympanic membrane perforation can be suspected with a history of ear trauma, ear tubes, frequent ear drainage or hearing loss. 

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Tympanometry

Learn more about tympanometry.

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Tympanostomy Tubes for Children

Ear tubes are small tubes that are placed in your child’s eardrum by an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeon. The tubes help to drain the fluid out of the middle ear. Read on to learn more.

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Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children

Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't make enough insulin, or can't use insulin normally. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. The body's immune system damages the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Insulin is a hormone. It helps sugar (glucose) in the blood get into cells of the body to be used as fuel. When glucose can’t enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. This is called high blood sugar (hyperglycemia).

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Type 2 Diabetes in Children

Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't make enough insulin, or can't use insulin normally. Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder. Insulin is a hormone. It helps sugar (glucose) in the blood get into cells of the body to be used as fuel. When glucose can’t enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. This is called high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). High blood sugar can cause problems all over the body.

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Types of Allergens

Detailed information on allergy triggers and symptom control

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Types of Anesthesia

During surgery, your child will be given some form of anesthesia - medicine given to relieve pain and sensation.

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Types of Chromosome Abnormalities

Detailed information on the different types of chromosome abnormality

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Types of Hearing Tests for Babies and Children

A look at the different types of hearing tests used for babies and children.

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Types of Surgery for Children

Surgery doesn't always mean large incisions. Minimally invasive surgery is often used today. This uses small cuts, and allows a child to recover faster and with less pain.

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Types of Visual Screening Tests for Infants and Children

Many types of vision tests can be used to check your child's ability to see. Some of them can be used at any age, and some are used based on your child's age and understanding.

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Helping Hands Patient Education Materials

Written and illustrated by medical, nursing and allied health professionals at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Helping Hand instructions are intended as a supplement to verbal instructions provided by a medical professional. The information is periodically reviewed and revised to reflect our current practice. However, Nationwide Children's Hospital is not responsible for any consequences resulting from the use or misuse of the information in the Helping Hands.