Conditions We Treat

Baby's Care After a Cesarean Delivery

Because babies born by cesarean may have difficulty clearing some of the lung fluid and mucus, extra suctioning of the nose, mouth, and throat are often needed.

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Baby's Care After a Vaginal Delivery

Healthy babies born in a vaginal delivery are usually able to stay with the mother. In many cases, immediate newborn assessments are performed right in the mother's room.

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Baby's Care After Birth

Detailed information on baby's care after birth

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Baby's Care in the Delivery Room

A newborn baby is wet from the amniotic fluid and can easily become cold. Drying the baby and using warm blankets and heat lamps can help prevent heat loss. Often a knitted hat is placed on the baby's head.

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Bacterial Endocarditis in Children

Bacterial endocarditis is an infection of the lining of the heart (endocardium), and the heart valves. It does not happen very often, but when it does, it can cause serious heart damage.

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Bacterial Skin Infections

Detailed information on bacterial skin infections, including impetigo, cellulitis, scarlet fever, folliculitis, boils, carbuncles, and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

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Bacterial Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis or BV is an infection of the vagina. BV is not a sexually transmitted disease. It is an overgrowth of specific anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that do not need oxygen to grow) in the vagina. Women with BV report a fishy-smelling discharge (fluid) that is white to gray in color.

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Bacterial Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis is an infection of the vagina. Females of any age can have it and you do not have to be sexually active to get bacterial vaginosis. This infection is not a sexually transmitted infection (STI).

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Bartholin’s Cyst

Girls have two Bartholin glands that are located just inside the opening of the vagina. The glands produce fluid that lubricates the vagina. A Bartholin gland cyst forms when the opening of the gland becomes blocked and the fluid cannot get out.

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Bathing and Skin Care for the Newborn

Bath time is a great time to bond with your newborn while keeping his or her skin healthy and cuddly soft. Get the fact - îand proper supplies - to make these moments safe and enjoyable for both you and baby.

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Batten Disease

Batten Disease, also known as Spielmeyer-Vogt-Sjogren-Batten disease, is the most common form of a group of disorders called neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (or NCLs). Although Batten disease is usually regarded as the juvenile form of NCL, it has become the term which encompasses all forms of NCL.

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Becker Muscular Dystrophy

Becker muscular dystrophy is the same basic disease as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, except it is less common and the symptoms are milder and slower to progress. It only affects males. Once symptoms begin, they follow a slower, but similar, course to that of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

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Behavior Changes

Your baby's activity level, appetite, and cries normally vary from day to day, and even hour to hour. But a distinct change in any of these areas may signal illness.

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Behavior Disorders

Detailed information on behavior problems in adolescents, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder

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Benign Skin Growths and Pigmentation Disorders

Detailed information on benign skin growths and pigmentation disorders in children.

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Beta Thalassemia in Children

Beta thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. This means it is passed down through the parent’s genes. It is a form of anemia. Anemia is a low red blood cell or low hemoglobin level. Hemoglobin is part of red blood cells. It carries oxygen to organs, tissues, and cells. Beta thalassemia affects the production of hemoglobin.

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Bicuspid Aortic Valve

Bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV) is an irregularity in the heart where there are only two leaflets on a valve, instead of the normal three.

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Bicycle / In-Line Skating / Skateboarding Safety

Detailed information on bicycle, in-line skating, and skateboarding safety

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Bicycle, In-Line Skating, Skateboarding Safety—Prevention

Skateboards should never be used on surface streets. Your child should wear protective gear, such as helmets, padding, and closed-toe and slip-resistant shoes.

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Bifid Uvula

A bifid uvula, also known as a cleft uvula, is a uvula that is split in two. A bifid uvula may be an isolated finding or it may be related to submucous cleft palate. In cases of isolated bifid uvula, and in cases of submucous cleft palate without hypernasality, no surgical intervention is needed.

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Biliary Atresia

Biliary atresia is a rare liver disease that occurs in infants. It is often found shortly after birth. The disorder affects tubes in the liver called bile ducts. If not treated with surgery, it can be fatal.

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Biochemical Genetic Testing

Detailed information on biochemical genetic testing

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Biophysical Profile

A biophysical profile is a test that is sometimes used during the third trimester of pregnancy. It is often done if there is a question about the baby’s health. This may be because of other test results or certain pregnancy symptoms, or because your pregnancy is high risk.

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Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic-depression, is a chronic mental illness that causes extreme mood swings from high to low and vice versa.

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Bipolar Disorder in Teens

Bipolar disorder is a type of depression. A teen with bipolar disorder often has extreme mood swings. These mood swings go beyond the day's normal ups and downs.

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Birth Defects in Children

A birth defect is a health problem or abnormal physical change that is present when a baby is born. Birth defects can be very mild, where the baby looks and acts like any other baby. Or birth defects can be more severe.

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Birth Defects in Newborn Babies

Birth defects may be caused by inherited (genetic) problems or by environmental things such as exposure to certain toxic substances during pregnancy. Some birth defects can be linked to a direct cause. Other reasons are not as clear.

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Birth Defects Index

Detailed information on birth defects, including their cause and frequency

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Birth Injuries

Some babies have a more difficult trip through the birth canal than others, resulting in physical injuries. These injuries usually are not serious and clear up or improve within a few days or weeks after the birth.

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Birth Injury

Detailed information on birth injury, including the most common types of birth injury

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Birthmarks

More than 80 percent of babies have some type of birthmark. Most birthmarks are harmless and require no treatment. Vascular birthmarks include macular stains, hemangiomas and port wine stains. Pigmented birthmarks include congenital melanocytic nevi (moles), dermal melanosis and café-au-lait spots.

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Bites

Detailed information on bites, including human bites, animal bites, and insect bites

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Bites and Stings

Detailed information on insect bites, including bee stings, flea bites, mite bites, chigger bites, spider bites, tick bites and Lyme disease.

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Biting

Young children may bite others out of frustration or stress, or because they feel powerless. Infants and toddlers often bite as a way of exploring their world.

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Bleeding Disorders

Detailed information on bleeding disorders, including Hemophilia and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura

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Blepharitis in Children

Blepharitis is an inflammation in the oil glands of the eyelid. It causes swollen eyelids and crusting around the eyelashes. Even after it’s treated and goes away, it can often come back again and again for years. It can often lead to an infection of the eye and a loss of eyelashes.

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Blisters in Children

Detailed information on blisters, including cause, first aid, and treatment.

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Blocked Tear Duct (Dacryostenosis) in Children

In some babies, the openings into the tear duct don’t form the right way. This causes a blockage. The tears have no place to drain.

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Blood Circulation in the Fetus and Newborn

During pregnancy, the fetal lungs are not used for breathing - the placenta does the work of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide through the mother's circulation. With the first breaths of air the baby takes at birth, the fetal circulation changes.

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Blood Clots

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Blood Clotting Disorders in Children

Blood-clotting disorders are a group of conditions in which there is too much clotting. They are often inherited.

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Blood in the Eye (Hyphema) in Children

Hyphema is blood in the front (anterior) chamber of the eye. This is located between the clear front part of the eye (cornea) and the colored part of the eye (iris). This section is where fluid flows in and out. The fluid gives nourishment to the eye and tissues around it.

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Blood Tests and Your Child's Heart

Detailed information on blood tests used to diagnosis heart disease

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Blood Types in Pregnancy

A baby may have the blood type and Rh factor of either parent, or a combination of both parents.

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Bone Cancers in Children

Detailed information on bone cancer in children, including Ewing sarcoma and osteogenic sarcoma

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Bone Marrow

Detailed information on bone marrow and bone marrow transplantation in children

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Bone Marrow Suppression During Cancer Treatment in Children

Bone marrow suppression is when fewer blood cells are made in the marrow. It's a common side effect of some strong medicines, such as chemotherapy.

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Bone Marrow Transplant for Children

A bone marrow transplant (BMT) is a treatment for children with certain types of cancer or other diseases. The goal of BMT is to replace a child's diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow.

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Bottle-Feeding

Detailed information on bottle-feeding, including information on the different types of baby formulas.

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Boxer's Fracture

This fracture in the hand is often caused by hitting something with a closed fist, thus the name Boxer’s Fracture. It is commonly seen in teenagers. The fracture will typically heal within 3 to 4 weeks from the date of injury.

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Brachial Plexus

The brachial plexus is a bundle of nerves that separates into the major nerves that supply movement and touch function to the arm.

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Brain Abscess in Children

An abscess is a pocket of infection. In the brain, an abscess may be in one or more areas. This condition may cause problems with how the brain and spinal cord function. It is a serious and life-threatening condition that needs to be treated right away.

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Brain Tumors

Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Primary brain tumors start in the brain and usually do not spread outside the brain tissue.

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Brain Tumors in Children

A brain tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The brain is part of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS also includes the spinal cord.

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Branchial Cleft Cyst/Sinus/Fistula

During early prenatal development, gill-like structures (branchial) usually resorb but in rare circumstances, they may remain. These are referred to as branchial anomalies. They include branchial sinus, branchial fistula and branchial cyst. Branchial anomalies can be removed surgically.

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Breast Conditions in Young Women

Some breast changes or conditions are related to a young woman's menstrual cycle, but others may occur at any time. Most breast conditions are benign.

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Breast Health and Adolescents

Detailed information on breast health for children

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Breast Milk Collection and Storage

Detailed information on breast milk collection and storage

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Breast Milk Expression

Most mothers who plan to continue breastfeeding will need to express their breast milk during the work or school day if away from the baby for more than three or four hours.

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Breastfeeding and Delayed Milk Production

If your milk is delayed coming in, or you're not making enough milk, don't give up. Read on for some helpful tips.

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Breastfeeding and Returning To Work

Detailed information on breastfeeding while at work

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Breastfeeding at Work

Discuss your plan to continue to breastfeed, and your need to pump or express breast milk during the workday, with your employer when you are pregnant or before you return to work.

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Breastfeeding Difficulties - Baby

Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the baby, including ineffective latch-on, ineffective sucking, slow infant weight gain, poor infant weight gain, mismanaged breastfeeding, over-active breast milk let down

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Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother

Detailed information on breastfeeding difficulties of the mother, including sore nipples, low breast milk production, flat nipples, plugged milk ducts, and mastitis

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Breastfeeding the High-Risk Newborn

Detailed information on breastfeeding the high-risk newborn

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Breastfeeding When Returning to Work

Helpful advice on how to maintain your milk production when going back to work.

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Breastfeeding Your Baby

Click on the links below to learn more about this topic. Breast Milk is the Best Milk Getting Started How Milk is Made Effective Breastfeeding Effective Sucking Breastfeeding Difficulties - Mother Sore Nipples Insufficient or Delayed Milk Production Low Milk Production Flat or Inverted Nipples

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Breastfeeding Your High-Risk Baby

Learning to breastfeed effectively is a process that may take days or weeks for premature and many other high-risk babies. But you and your baby can become a breastfeeding team if you are patient and persistent.

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Breastfeeding Your Premature Baby

Breastfeeding your premature infant is not only possible, it's the best thing for your baby.

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Breastfeeding: Getting Started

The first weeks of breastfeeding should be considered a learning period for both you and your baby. Here's what you need to know.

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Breastfeeding: Returning to Work

It's important to give yourself enough time to practice pumping and get your body used to pumping before you return to work. Read on for some helpful tips.

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Breastmilk Is Best

Your milk contains just the right balance of nutrients in a form most easily used by your baby's immature body systems.

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Breastmilk: Pumping, Collecting, Storing

"Fresh breastmilk" contains the most active anti-infective properties. Refrigerated breastmilk has fewer anti-infective properties than fresh milk and frozen breastmilk has the least.

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Breathing Problems

If you listen closely, you'll notice that your baby's breathing isn't like yours. Babies breathe much more frequently and with different patterns than adults. Here's how to recognize normal breathing in your infant - and how to spot signs of respiratory distress.

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Broken Bone

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Bronchiolitis

Bronchiolitis is an infection of the small airways (bronchioles) caused by a virus. The most common viruses that cause it are RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), para influenza virus, rhinovirus (common cold), human metapneumovirus and adenovirus. Bronchiolitis is also often called "RSV infection."

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Bronchiolitis in Children

Bronchiolitis is an infection of the lungs. It's when your child has swelling in the smaller airways (bronchioles) of the lung. This swelling blocks air in the smaller airways.

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Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a term used to describe long-term breathing problems for premature babies. It involves abnormal development of the lungs, and sometimes the lungs are scarred and inflamed.

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Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) is a term used to describe long-term breathing problems for premature babies. BPD involves abnormal development of the lungs, and in the most severe cases the lungs are scarred and inflamed.

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Bronchoscopy

Bronchoscopy is the examination of the main airways of the lungs using a flexible tube. It helps assess and diagnose lung problems, assess blockages, take samples of tissue or fluid, or help remove a foreign body.

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Brown Recluse and Black Widow Spider Bites in Children

All spiders in the U.S. are poisonous. The fangs of most spiders are too short or too fragile to break through human skin. Or their poison (venom) is too weak to cause damage. Most spider bites cause only minor, local reactions. But some spider bites can be deadly.

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Bruising or Black Eye (Ecchymosis)

A black eye should be seen by a healthcare provider to make sure no injury has happened to the eye itself. Most black eyes heal completely and do not cause any damage.

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Brushing and Toothpaste for Children

You should begin brushing your child's teeth around 24 months of age, or as directed by your child's doctor. Children will need help brushing their teeth until they are 7 to 8 years old.

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Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is a type of eating disorder in which a person regularly eats excessive amounts of food and then attempts to eliminate the consequences of overeating by vomiting, taking laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or exercising excessively.

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Bulimia Nervosa in Children

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder. A child with bulimia overeats or binges uncontrollably. This overeating may be followed by self-induced throwing up (purging).

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Burkitt Lymphoma in Children

Burkitt lymphoma is a rare, fast-growing form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It’s a type of cancer of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is part of the immune system. It helps to fight diseases and infections.

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Burkitt's Lymphoma

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Burkitt's Lymphoma/Burkitt's Like Lymphoma

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Burners and Stingers Syndrome in Children

Burners and stingers syndrome is a type of sports injury. It is a pain in the shoulder or neck that causes a burning or stinging feeling down an arm to the hand.

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Burns Caused by Heat

A heat-induced or thermal burn can occur when the skin comes in contact with any heat source, such as a cooking pan, an iron, a fire, a hot surface, or a hot, scalding liquid.

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Burns Overview

Burns are a type of injury caused by thermal, electrical, chemical, or electromagnetic energy. Most burn accidents happen at home.

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Burns: Symptom Management

Most children with burns have pain, which can be controlled with medicine. They also usually experience itching at some point during the healing process.

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Bursitis

Bursitis is swelling or irritation of a bursa. A bursa is a fluid-filled sac that acts as a cushion between tendons, ligaments, bones, and skin.

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Helping Hands Patient Education Materials

Written and illustrated by medical, nursing and allied health professionals at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Helping Hand instructions are intended as a supplement to verbal instructions provided by a medical professional. The information is periodically reviewed and revised to reflect our current practice. However, Nationwide Children's Hospital is not responsible for any consequences resulting from the use or misuse of the information in the Helping Hands.