Conditions We Treat

A Child Living with a Pacemaker or Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

Detailed information on living with a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator

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A Child's Concept of Death

From babies to teens, a look at how children understand death.

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Abdominal / Duplication Cysts

Abdominal cyst is a general term used to describe a rare, congenital birth defect that causes an irregular mass of tissue to grow in a baby’s abdomen. Growths can appear anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract or reproductive organs like the ovaries. Surgery is the most common treatment for cysts.

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Abdominal Pain

Functional abdominal pain is a common problem that interferes with a child’s daily life. Some red flags to look for include weight loss, vomiting, lack of energy and bloody diarrhea. A physician can perform tests to determine the cause of abdominal pain. Treatment plans vary depending on the cause.

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About Cancer

Detailed information on cancer in children, including causes, diagnosis, treatment, and coping

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About the Heart and Blood Vessels

Detailed anatomical description of the heart's blood vessels, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration

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Abrasions

An abrasion is a superficial rub or wearing off of the skin, usually caused by a scrape or a brush burn. Abrasions are usually minor injuries that can be treated at home.

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Acanthosis Nigricans

Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a dark patch that appears on a child's neck, armpit, under the breast or a skin crease. It is usually a sign that the body is making extra insulin that it cannot use well. Eating a healthy diet and increasing physical activity are steps to help cure acanthosis nigricans.

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Achalasia in Children

Achalasia is a rare disease that makes it hard to swallow foods and liquids. In achalasia, there is a problem with the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach (esophagus).

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Achondroplasia

Achondroplasia is the most common form of short-limb dwarfism. Individuals who have achondroplasia have short limbs but normal trunk height and head size with a prominent forehead. Children with achondroplasia can lead normal lives provided they receive appropriate care by knowledgeable providers.

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Achondroplasia in Children

Achondroplasia is a group of rare genetic (inherited) bone disorders. Achondroplasia is the most common type of what was once called dwarfism, in which the child's arms and legs are short in proportion to body length.

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Acne

Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Hair follicles are the areas around the base or root of each hair. Sebaceous glands are the tiny glands that release oil (sebum) into the hair follicles. The sebum moistens the skin and hair. The sebum and hair get to the skin surface through tiny holes called pores.

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Acne

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss the causes and treatment of acne. Acne is one of the most common skin problems that young people have. Almost everyone will develop acne to some degree and some people have more pimples than others. Treatment often requires time, patience and medicine.

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Acquired Hypothyroidism in Children

Hypothyroidism is when the thyroid gland doesn't make enough thyroid hormone. The condition is more common in adults. But it’s the most common thyroid disorder in children. Not enough thyroid hormone leads to signs such as slow growth, lack of activity, and poor performance in school.

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Active Tuberculosis Disease

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss Tuberculosis (TB). Active TB disease (the common name for Mycobacterium tuberculosis) is contagious. It is most often spread through the air. The standard of care for treatment of active TB is daily administration of medicines from health department nurses.

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Acute Bronchitis in Children

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the large breathing tubes (bronchi) in the lungs. Short-term (acute) bronchitis means that the symptoms often develop quickly and don't last long.

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Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy

AFLP is a rare, but serious, liver problem in pregnancy. With AFLP the liver cells have too much fat, which can damage the liver.

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Acute Flaccid Myelitis

Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is a rare but serious nerve-related condition that occurs mostly in children. AFM comes from a virus that is the common cold. AFM attacks the spinal cord and the nerves that go to the muscles. Patients begin with a respiratory illness and then end up with muscle weakness.

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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

Leukemia is cancer of the blood. It’s the most common form of cancer in childhood.

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Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)

Leukemia is cancer of the blood. It’s the most common form of cancer in childhood.

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Acute Renal Failure

Acute kidney disease starts suddenly. In some cases, it may be reversed and the kidneys can work normally again.

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Acute Respiratory Disorders

Detailed information on acute respiratory disorders in children

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Acute Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) in Children

Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is when the spinal cord is damaged from an accident or other situation. An SCI may be a bruise (contusion), a partial tear, or a complete tear (transection) in the spinal cord.

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Addiction

Addiction refers to a wide range of compulsive behaviors. Traditionally, addiction refers to the excessive use of substances, including alcohol, drugs, cigarettes and food. Addiction has a wider meaning for children and teens, including attachment to things like the Internet and video games.

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Adding to Mother's Milk

Your milk is best, but it's not always complete with the nutritional needs of very small premature babies or some very sick newborns.

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Addison Disease in Children

Addison disease is when the adrenal glands don't make enough of two steroid hormones. The hormones are cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol controls the body's metabolism, blocks inflammatory reactions, and affects the immune system. Aldosterone manages sodium and potassium levels. Addison disease is fairly rare and may first appear at any age.

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Adenovirus Infection in Children

Adenoviruses are a group of viruses that cause a variety of infections. These include the common cold, conjunctivitis, and croup.

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Adjustment Disorders in Children

An adjustment disorder is an unhealthy emotional or behavioral reaction to a stressful event or change in a person's life. The response happens within 3 months of the stressful event.

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Adnexal Cysts

The adnexa are made up of the fallopian tubes and ovaries. Cysts are fluid-filled structures that can develop in the adnexa. Cysts on the ovaries are usually caused by hormonal stimulation or bleeding at the time of ovulation (hemorrhagic ovarian cysts). Most ovarian cysts require no treatment.

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Adnexal Torsion

Adnexal torsion, when the adnexa twist inside the pelvis, may involve the fallopian tube, ovary or both. Torsion causes disruption in the blood flow to and from the adnexa, potentially causing tissue necrosis and damage. Adnexal torsion requires emergency surgery to detorse (untwist) the adnexa.

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Adolescent (13 to 18 Years)

Detailed information on adolescence, ages 13 to 18 years

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Adolescent Growth and Development

Detailed information on adolescent growth and development

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Adolescent Health Problems and Injuries

Detailed information on adolescent health problems and injuries, including acne, asthma, breast conditions, breast self-examination, diabetes, eye care, eye safety, gynecological conditions, menstrual conditions, gynecologic problems, pap test, vaginitis, vulvitis, menstrual disorders, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), high blood pressure, infectious mononucleosis, obesity, oral health, orthodontics, braces, wisdom teeth extraction, periodontal disease, orthopedic problems, osgood schlatter disease, scoliosis, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, sexually transmitted diseases, safer sex guidelines, sports safety, sports injuries, sprains, strains, tennis elbow, mouthguards, heat related illness, heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke

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Adolescent Mental Health

Detailed information on adolescent mental health disorders, including schizophrenia, mood disorders, major depression, dysthymia, manic depression (bipolar disorder), teen suicide, anxiety disorders, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, behavior disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, substance abuse/chemical dependence, and adjustment disorders

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Adolescent Problems of the Teeth and Mouth

Detailed information on adolescent problems of the teeth and mouth

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After a Burn: When to Call Your Child's Healthcare Provider

Details about when to call your child's healthcare provider after a burn.

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Age-Appropriate Speech and Hearing Milestones

A helpful look at age-appropriate hearing milestones for babies and toddlers.

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Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is a rare, congenital brain defect where a structure called the corpus callosum does not develop normally. The corpus callosum is a band of tissue connecting the left and right sides of the brain. The severity of the symptoms due to ACC is highly variable.

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AIDS-Related Lymphoma in Children

AIDS-related lymphoma is a type of cancer called non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It grows in some people with AIDS. AIDS is a disease that weakens the immune system. AIDS raises the risk for long-term (chronic) disease, such as cancer.

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Airway Obstruction Index

Infants and children under age 4 are particularly at risk for choking on food or small objects because their upper airways are smaller, and they tend to explore things with their mouths.

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Airway Obstruction: Prevention

Because most accidental child strangulations, chokings, and suffocations happen in the home, it's important to carefully childproof your residence.

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Airway Obstruction—Identifying High-Risk Situations

Choking hazards in the home: round, firm foods, such as grapes and popcorn, and small nonfood items, such as coins, balloons, and marbles.

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Allergic Rhinitis

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss allergic rhinitis. There are two main types of allergic rhinitis: seasonal (occurs certain times of the year) and perennial (happens all year). When symptoms occur in late summer or early fall, some people call it hayfever. Small changes at home can help.

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Allergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is a common condition caused by an abnormal reaction of the body’s immune system to various allergens. In this condition, the nasal lining can become very inflamed and swollen from the over-response of the body. Common allergens include dust, grass, pollen, mold, trees and dander.

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Allergic Rhinitis in Children

Allergic rhinitis can happen on a seasonal basis or year-round. There is often a family history of allergic rhinitis, eczema, asthma, or food allergy. Read on to learn details about treating and managing this condition.

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Allergies in Children

Allergies are problems of the immune system. Most allergic reactions happen when the immune system reacts to a “false alarm.” Normally, the human body defends itself against harmful things such as viruses or bacteria. But sometimes the defenses violently attack mostly mild things, such as dust, mold, or pollen.

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Allergies to Foods

A food allergy occurs when the body’s immune system overreacts to certain foods. The body then makes antibodies to that food and an allergic reaction occurs. Anaphylaxis is a severe and possibly life-threatening reaction. If a severe reaction occurs, use the EpiPen and call 9-1-1 immediately.

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Allergy

Detailed information on allergy, including symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment

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Allergy to Dust Mites

Dust mites are tiny insects that live indoors. The enzymes in their feces and their hard shells can cause allergy and asthma symptoms. When a person who is sensitive to the dust mite breathes in these particles, they can cause sneezing, coughing, runny nose, congestion and itchy, watery eyes.

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Allergy to Latex

Latex is the milky sap from the rubber tree. It is used to make many rubber products that are used in the hospital and home. Signs of a latex allergy include skin rash or scaliness, itching, hives, swelling, watery or puffy eyes, sneezing, coughing, wheezing or difficulty breathing.

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Allergy to Mold

Mold is a fungus that can be found almost anywhere, both indoors and outside. Only a few types of mold cause an allergic reaction. Mold seeds (or spores) get into the air and are then breathed in. For children at risk, this can cause allergy-like symptoms or trigger breathing problems like asthma.

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Allergy to Stinging Insects

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss local and systemic reactions to stinging insects. The most common stinging insects found in the Ohio area are honeybees, wasps, yellow jackets and hornets. Doctors often prescribe an automatic injector device such as an EpiPen® to treat severe reactions.

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Alopecia Areata

Alopecia areata is a form of hair loss that occurs in children and adults. It is considered an autoimmune condition that results in inflammation and loss of hair. Alopecia areata is non-scarring, which means that the hair follicle is not destroyed and that it has the ability to regrow hair.

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Alpha Thalassemia in Children

Alpha thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder. This means it is passed down through the parent’s genes. It causes anemia in affected children. Learn more about symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

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Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Screening Test

Alpha-fetoprotein screening is a blood test that measures the level of AFP in the mother's blood. Abnormal levels may indicate certain problems with the fetus.

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Alveolar Cleft

An alveolar cleft is a cleft of the upper gum line. It most often accompanies and cleft lip and/or cleft palate. Bone graft repair allows permanent teeth to descent into the cleft while providing stability to the upper jaw and support to the nose.

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Amenorrhea

Amenorrhea means a lack of menstrual periods. Primary amenorrhea means a patient has never had her first menstrual cycle. Secondary amenorrhea means the patient had menstrual cycles, but they are no longer happening at healthy intervals.

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Amenorrhea in Teens

Amenorrhea is when a girl's menstrual bleeding (period) doesn't occur.

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Amniotic Band Syndrome (ABS)

Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) is a rare congenital disorder that occurs when the lining of the amniotic sac is damaged during pregnancy, creating strands of tissue that wrap around different parts of the developing fetus or umbilical cord. The compression causes a wide range of birth defects.

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Anaphylaxis in Children

Anaphylaxis is a severe and sometimes life-threatening reaction to an allergen. An allergen is something that your child is allergic to. Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency. Your child can have a reaction within seconds or as long as an hour after contact.

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Anatomy and Development of the Mouth and Teeth

Children's teeth begin developing in the fetus. Good nutrition from the mother during pregnancy is important in the development of the teeth.

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Anatomy and Function of the Electrical System

Detailed anatomical description of the heart's electrical system, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration

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Anatomy and Function of the Heart Valves

Detailed anatomical description of the heart valves, including simple definitions and a labeled, full-color illustration.

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Anatomy and Physiology of the Ear

The main parts of the ear are the outer ear, the eardrum (tympanic membrane), the middle ear, and the inner ear.

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Anatomy and Physiology of the Nose and Throat

A helpful guide to the nose, the sinuses, and the throat.

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Anatomy of a Child's Brain

The brain can be divided into 3 main parts: the cerebrum, the brainstem, and the cerebellum.

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Anatomy of a Newborn Baby’s Skull

Detailed anatomical information on the newborn skull.

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Anatomy of the Endocrine System in Children

Detailed information on the endocrine system, its anatomy and function, including a full-color, labeled illustration

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Anatomy of the Respiratory System in Children

A detailed anatomical description of the respiratory system, including simple definitions and labeled, full-color illustrations.

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Anemia

Detailed information on anemia, including symptoms, diagnosis, causes, types, and treatment

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Anemia B12 Deficiency

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Anemia in Pregnancy

Anemia is when your blood has too few red blood cells. Having too few red blood cells makes it harder for your blood to carry oxygen or iron. This can affect how cells work in nerves and muscles. During pregnancy, your baby also needs your blood.

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Anemia Iron Deficiency

Iron deficiency anemia means there is not enough iron in the red blood cells.

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Anencephaly

Anencephaly is a condition present at birth that affects the formation of the brain and the skull bones that surround the head. Anencephaly results in minimal development of the brain. Often, the brain lacks part or all of the cerebrum. There is no cure or standard medical treatment for anencephaly.

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Anencephaly in Children

Anencephaly is a birth defect that affects the brain and skull bones. With this condition, the brain isn't fully formed. It often lacks part or all of the cerebrum.

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Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

An aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a highly destructive, blood-filled benign (non-cancerous) bone tumor. ABCs can cause pain, swelling and fractures. Doctors at Nationwide Children's have developed a minimally invasive approach to treating aneurysmal bone cysts utilizing sclerotherapy techniques.

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Anger Management: Strategies for Parents and Grandparents

Anger management helps you deal with your child or grandchild in a kind and constructive way. It also sets a good example of how to handle challenging situations and work out conflicts.

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Animal Bites

Detailed information on animal bites and rabies, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention

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Ankle Sprain

An ankle sprain is a torn or stretched ligament in the ankle. Signs of an ankle injury include pain, swelling and tenderness in the ankle that may spread to the whole ankle and foot, and trouble walking.

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Ankle Sprain

An ankle sprain is a stretching or tearing of the ligaments. Signs of an ankle injury include pain, swelling or trouble walking. This often happens after an injury that involves twisting or rolling of the ankle. Sprains can often be treated at home, but a doctor may need to be seen if symptoms remain.

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Ankyloglossia in Children

Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia) is a problem with the tongue that is present from birth. It causes speech and eating problems in some children.

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Anomalous Coronary Artery in Children

An anomalous coronary artery (ACA) is a heart defect. This is something your baby is born with (congenital). In ACA, the blood vessels that supply blood to your child’s heart muscle aren’t normal.

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Anorectal Malformation (ARM) or Imperforate Anus: Female

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss the symptoms and treatment of anorectal malformations (imperforate anus) in females. Different types of ARMs include perineal fistula, vestibular fistula, cloaca and no fistula. Young girls may be at risk for urology problems and gynecology problems.

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Anorectal Malformation (ARM) or Imperforate Anus: Male

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss the symptoms and treatment of anorectal malformations (imperforate anus) in males. Different types of ARMs include perineal fistula, rectourethral fistula, cloaca and no fistula. Young boys may be at risk for urology, spine and sacrum problems.

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Anorectal Malformation in Children

Anorectal malformations are birth defects, or problems that happen as an unborn baby is developing during pregnancy. With this defect, the anus and rectum don’t develop properly. They are the lower part of the digestive tract.

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Anorectal Malformations or Imperforate Anus

Imperforate anus (or anorectal malformation) is a congenital defect that happens early in pregnancy, while a baby is still developing. In this defect, the baby’s anal opening, the rectum and nerves do not develop properly, preventing the child from being able to have normal bowel movements.

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Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is a type of eating disorder in which a person severely limits the amount of food he or she eats to prevent weight gain or lose weight.

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Anorexia Nervosa in Children

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder. It is a form of self-starvation. Children and teens with this health problem have a distorted body image. They think they weigh too much.

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Tear

An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is a sprain of one of the four major ligaments of the knee. The ACL is a rope-like structure that helps maintain the normal position of the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (leg bone).

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Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear (ACL Tear)

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The ACL is one of four main ligaments in the knee. Surgery to rebuild the ACL is called arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. It usually takes 6 to 9 months of recovery before returning to normal activities.

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Anterior Pituitary Disorders

Detailed information on anterior pituitary disorders, including hypopituitarism

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Anticipatory Grief

Anticipatory grief is similar to the normal process of mourning, but it happens before the actual death.

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Antiphospholipid Syndrome in Pregnancy

Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disease. This happens when your immune system fights against normal cells. In this condition, your body makes antibodies that attack a kind of fat in cells. This makes your blood clot too easily.

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Anxiety

Anxiety disorders are the most common type of mental health disorder in children. There are many types of anxiety disorders (each with its own distinct symptoms) including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and others.

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Anxiety and Worry

Anxiety is a normal emotion. It can cause feelings of fear, tension and worry. It can also cause physical changes in the body.

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Anxiety Disorders in Children

Detailed information on the most common types of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias

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Aortic Stenosis in Children

Aortic stenosis means that your child has a heart valve that is too narrow or is blocked.  The aortic valve is 1 of 4 heart valves that keep blood flowing through the heart. The valves make sure blood flows in only one direction. The aortic valve keeps blood flowing from the left ventricle to the aorta.

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Apert Syndrome

Apert syndrome affects the skull, face, hands and feet. It is a genetic syndrome, which is due to a mutation on the FGFR2 gene.

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APGAR Scoring

The Apgar score helps find breathing problems and other health issues.

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Aplastic Anemia in Children

Detailed information on aplastic anemia, including cause, symptom, diagnosis, and treatment

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Apnea

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss apnea, which is a pause in breathing that lasts 20 seconds or longer for full-term infants. There are many reasons why a baby may have periods of apnea including brain immaturity, neurological issues, heart disease, gastrointestinal issues and others.

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Apnea of Prematurity

Apnea is a term that means breathing has stopped for more than 20 seconds. It can happen in full-term babies, but it is more common in premature babies. The more premature the baby, the greater the chances that apnea will occur.

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Appendicitis in Children

Appendicitis is a painful swelling and infection of the appendix.  It is a medical emergency. The appendix can burst or rupture. This is serious and can lead to more infection. If not treated, it can be fatal.

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Arrhythmias in Children

An arrhythmia is an abnormal rhythm of the heart. In an arrhythmia, abnormal electrical signals through the heart muscle may cause the heart to beat too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly. Read on to learn more.

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Arteriovenous Malformations

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Arthrogryposis

Arthrogryposis, also called arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC), involves a variety of non-progressive conditions that are characterized by multiple joint contractures (stiffness) and involves muscle weakness found throughout the body at birth. AMC is not a progressive disorder.

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Asperger's Syndrome

Asperger’s Syndrome, a form of Autism Spectrum Disorder, is a developmental disorder. Young people with Asperger’s Syndrome have a difficult time relating to others socially and their behavior and thinking patterns can be rigid and repetitive. They also may have trouble understanding body language.

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Aspiration in Babies and Children

Aspiration is when something enters the airway or lungs by accident. It may be food, liquid, or some other material. This can cause serious health problems, such as pneumonia.

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Assessments for Newborn Babies

Each newborn baby is carefully checked at birth for signs of problems or complications.

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Asthma and Reactive Airway Disease (RAD) (Wheezing)

Asthma is a disease of the lungs in which the airways are sensitive to things in the air. During a flare-up the airways swell and fill with mucus. The muscles around the airways also tighten and squeeze. This can cause noisy breathing or wheezing. Asthma action plans involve taking rescue medicine.

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Asthma in Children

Asthma is a long-term (chronic) lung disease that causes your child's airways to become sensitive to certain things (triggers).

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Asthma in Children Index

Detailed information on asthma, including triggers of an asthma attack, symptoms, diagnosis, management, and treatment

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Asthma Triggers

Your child's asthma may be triggered by a number of things: pollen, molds, certain foods, strong odors, or even exercise.

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Astrocytoma (aka Glioma)

An astrocytoma or glioma is a type of tumor that form in the brain or spinal cord as a result of abnormal growth of glial cells. Glial cells surround, protect and help with the functions of neurons—the cells that help send messages from your brain to the rest of your body. Astrocytomas specifically develop from the growth of astrocytomas, which are one type of glial cell.

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Astrocytoma in Children

Astrocytoma is the most common type of brain tumor in children. It is usually low grade, which means slow-growing.

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Atopic Dermatitis in Children

Atopic dermatitis is a long-term (chronic) skin condition. It causes dry, itchy skin. It’s a very common condition in babies and children. It often first appears between ages 3 and 6 months.

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Atrial Septal Defect

Atrial septal defects (ASD) are a congenital heart defect characterized by a hole in the wall (septum) that divides the upper chambers (atria) of the heart.

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Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) in Children

The atrial septum is the wall between the 2 upper chambers of the heart (right and left atria). An atrial septal defect (ASD) is an abnormal hole in this wall. ASD is a heart problem that is present at birth (congenital). Read on for details about symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

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Atrioventricular (AV) Canal Defect in Children

An atrioventricular (AV) canal defect is a congenital heart defect. This means that your child is born with it. These defects may range from partial to complete. These conditions cause oxygen-rich (red) blood and oxygen-poor (blue) blood to mix. This sends extra blood to the child's lungs.

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a condition characterized by inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms are usually noticed by the time a child starts school. Treatment of ADHD may include family or individual counseling. Medicines may also be prescribed.

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder. It affects about ten percent of school-age children. Boys are more likely than girls to be diagnosed with it. Young people with ADHD have an impulsive nature that is difficult for them to control.

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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavior disorder. It is often first diagnosed in childhood.

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Audiology

As part of a hearing evaluation, your child's healthcare provider will do a complete medical history and physical exam. In addition, there are many different types of hearing tests.

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Auditory Processing Disorder

Auditory Processing Disorder (APD), also referred to as Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD), is a disorder of the auditory (hearing) system that causes a disruption in the way that an individual’s brain understands what they are hearing. It is not a form of hearing loss.

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Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that impacts a child’s ability to communicate and interact socially. It also impacts the way the child thinks and behaves.

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Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children

Autism spectrum disorder is a problem that affects a child's nervous system and growth and development. It often shows up during a child's first 3 years of life.

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Autoimmune Diseases and Pregnancy

Detailed information on autoimmune diseases and pregnancy

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Autoimmune Hepatitis

Autoimmune hepatitis in children is a rare and serious disease of the liver. It happens when something goes wrong with the body’s immune system. In autoimmune hepatitis, the immune system attacks normal liver cells. This causes damage that makes it hard for the liver to work properly.

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Autosomal Dominant Opitz G/BBB Syndrome

22q.11.2 deletion syndrome includes the autosomal dominant form of Opitz G/BBB Syndrome.

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Autosomal Recessive: Cystic Fibrosis, Sickle Cell Anemia, Tay Sachs Disease

Overview of autosomal recessive inheritance, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and Tay Sachs disease

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Helping Hands Patient Education Materials

Written and illustrated by medical, nursing and allied health professionals at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Helping Hand instructions are intended as a supplement to verbal instructions provided by a medical professional. The information is periodically reviewed and revised to reflect our current practice. However, Nationwide Children's Hospital is not responsible for any consequences resulting from the use or misuse of the information in the Helping Hands.