Conditions We Treat

Browse Conditions A-Z

Ibuprofen Chewable Tablets

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Identification, Treatment, and Prevention of Birth Defects

Detailed information on the identification, treatment, and prevention of birth defects

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If Your Child Has Trouble Adjusting After a Burn Injury

Agitated behavior such as crying, sleep disturbances and nightmares, and repeated episodes of sadness are signs that your child may be having difficulty coping with stress.

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Iliotibial Band Syndrome

The Iliotibial Band (IT Band) is an extension of muscle located on the outside of the thigh. IT Band syndrome is a painful condition caused by overuse.

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Immune Deficiencies

Detailed information on immune deficiency disorders in children, including Severe Combined Immunodeficiency, Common Variable Immunodeficiency, DiGeorge Syndrome, and X-linked Agammaglobulinemia

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Immune Disorders

Detailed information on the immune system and immune disorders

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Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP)

A child with immune thrombocytopenia, or ITP, may have a platelet count of less than 1,000. ITP happens when the body attacks and destroys its own platelets.

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Immune Thrombocytopenia Purpura (ITP)

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Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Children

ITP is a blood disorder that causes a decrease in the number of platelets in the blood. Platelets help stop bleeding. So, a decrease in platelets can result in easy bruising, bleeding gums, and bleeding inside the body. The lower the platelet count, the greater the risk of bleeding.

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Imperforate Anus in Children

Imperforate anus is a problem that your child is born with. It happens when your child has a blocked or missing anus.

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Impetigo

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Impetigo

Impetigo is a common skin infection caused by bacteria.

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Impetigo in Children

Impetigo is an infection of the skin. When it affects just the surface, it’s called superficial impetigo. Impetigo can also affect deeper parts of the skin. This is called ecthyma. It may occur on healthy skin. Or it may occur where the skin was injured by a cut, scrape, or insect bite.

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Increased Intracranial Pressure

Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) means greater than normal pressure on the brain. It results from a greater volume of fluid or swelling of the brain. Call 911 if your child loses consciousness or has convulsions (seizures) lasting longer than 5 minutes.

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Infant

Detailed information on infant health

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Infant Feeding Guide

How much, what, and when to feed your baby can seem daunting. But this cheat sheet will give you the information you need to start your baby on the right nutritional path.

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Infant Nutrition

Choosing how to feed your baby is an important decision that has life-long effects for your baby and for you.

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Infant of a Mother with Diabetes

An infant of a mother with diabetes is a baby who is born to a mother with diabetes. Because the mother has diabetes, the baby is at risk for problems.

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Infant Play

Hang brightly colored objects near your newborn. Sing and talk to your baby. Rock your baby, and take him or her for walks.

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Infant Problems of the Teeth and Mouth

Detailed information on infant problems of the teeth and mouth

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Infant Sleep

If you know anything about your baby's sleeping pattern, it's probably that it doesn't coincide with yours. But learning more about your baby's nighttime and daytime sleep needs can help you recognize what's normal, and what's not.

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Infection in Babies

Newborns are particularly susceptible to infections. One of the best ways to keep your baby infection-free is to wash your hands before and after handling him or her. Other preventive measures may also be necessary.

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Infectious Diseases

Detailed information on infectious diseases in children

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Infectious Mononucleosis (Mono) in Teens and Young Adults

Infectious mononucleosis is a contagious illness. It’s common in teens and young adults.

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Inflammatory and Infectious Digestive Disorders

Detailed information on digestive inflammatory and infectious disorders in children

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Inflammatory and Infectious Musculoskeletal Disorders

Detailed information on the most common types of inflammatory and infectious disorders in children

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Inflammatory and Infectious Neurological Disorders

Detailed information on the most common inflammatory and infectious disorders in children

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Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) refers to a chronic inflammation of the intestines not due to infections or other identifiable causes. There are two main types of IBD: ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

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Influenza

Influenza (in flu EN za), also known as “the flu,” is an illness caused by a virus. A child who has the flu may have some or all of these symptoms: High fever Headache Dry cough Sore throat Runny or stuffy nose Muscle aches Tiredness Stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea In some people, the

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Influenza (Flu) in Children

Influenza (flu) is a very contagious viral infection that affects the air passages of the lungs. It causes a high fever, body aches, a cough, and other symptoms.

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Informed Consent

You will be asked to sign an informed consent form. It states in detail that you understand the risks and benefits of your child's surgery.

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Inguinal and Umbilical Hernias in Children

A hernia is when a part of the intestine pushes through a weak spot in the belly (abdominal) muscles. The hernia creates a soft lump or bulge under the skin.

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Inguinal and Umbilical Hernias in Children

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Inguinal Hernia in Children

A hernia occurs when a part of the intestine pushes through a weakness in the belly (abdominal) muscles. A hernia in the groin area is called an inguinal hernia.

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Injuries to the Teeth

The injury may be to a primary tooth or a permanent tooth. A tooth can be cracked, chipped, or totally detached from its socket.

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Insect Bites and Children

Detailed information on insect bites, including fleas, mites, chiggers, and ticks

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Insect Stings and Allergic Reactions

For most children, the reaction to a sting is brief, with redness and swelling followed by pain and itching. Others may have an allergic reaction that is life-threatening.

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Insect Stings in Children

Insect stings can occur anywhere on the body and can be painful and frightening for a child. Most insect stings cause only minor discomfort. Most stings are from honeybees or yellow jackets, also called ground hornets.

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Insects in a Child's Ear

Don't try to remove the insect by poking it with a cotton swab. This may push the insect farther into the ear or damage to the middle ear and eardrum.

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Installing and Using Child Safety Seats and Booster Seats

As part of your preparation for your new baby, you probably got an infant safety seat for the car. But do you know how to make sure it’s installed properly? And when do you switch to a child safety seat? Learn the ins and outs of safe car travel for your little one.

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Intensive Care

Intensive care is needed for children who have had certain types of major surgery: heart operations, organ transplants, or neurosurgery.

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Interacting with a Child Who Has Autism Spectrum Disorder

If you are a parent or grandparent of a child with ASD, it can be heartbreaking if you feel like you just can't connect with him or her. Here are some things to know that can help you and your relationship.

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Intestinal Malrotation and Volvulus in Children

Intestinal malrotation is a birth defect. It happens when your baby’s intestinal tract doesn’t form as it should during pregnancy. Malrotation happens when your baby’s intestine doesn’t turn like it should.

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Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri)

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, sometimes called pseudotumor cerebri, is a condition in which the cerebro-spinal fluid (the fluid inside the skull) is not able to drain normally.

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Intraoperative Care for Children

Detailed information on intraoperative management

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Intravenous (IV) Line and Tubes

Because most babies in the NICU are too small or sick to take milk feedings, medicines and fluids are often given through their veins or arteries.

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Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Babies

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is bleeding inside or around the ventricles in the brain. The ventricles are the spaces in the brain that contain the cerebral spinal fluid.

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Intussusception (Inpatient)

Intussusception is a blockage of the intestines. It happens when one part of the intestine folds into another part. In most cases the cause is not known.

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Intussusception (Outpatient)

Intussusception (In-TUSS-uh-SEP-shun) is a blockage of the intestines. It happens when one part of the intestine folds into another part. In most cases the cause is not known. It may occur any time between 3 months and 5 years of age, but is more common in children younger than 18 months.

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Intussusception in Children

Intussusception is a serious problem in the intestine. It occurs when one part of the intestine slides inside another part. The intestine then folds into itself like a telescope. This creates a blockage or obstruction. It stops food that is being digested from passing through the intestine.

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Iron Deficiency Anemia

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Iron Deficiency Anemia

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Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Children

Anemia is a common health problem in children. The most common cause of anemia is not getting enough iron. A child who is anemic does not have enough red blood cells or enough hemoglobin.

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder that affects the large intestine (colon). Symptoms are caused by changes in how the GI tract works. IBS is a group of symptoms that occur together, not a disease.

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in Children

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a long-term (chronic) disorder that affects the large intestine or colon. IBS causes painful belly (abdominal) and bowel symptoms.

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Is Your Teen Abusing Drugs or Alcohol?

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Jaundice (Hyperbilirubinemia)

Jaundice, also called hyperbilirubinemia, means that there is a high level of bilirubin in the blood. This is a pigment that settles in body tissues and can make your baby’s skin look yellow. Jaundice often occurs in newborns. If high bilirubin levels are untreated they can cause serious problems.

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Jaw Abnormalities

Jaw abnormalities affect the bite and appearance of patients. These may be due to a cleft lip and palate, or other causes. When planning surgery, most patients will need orthodontics. Treatment may include LeFort1, bilateral sagittal splint osteotomy (BSSO) and genioplasty.

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Jeune's Syndrome

Jeune's Syndrome is a form of congenital dwarfism causing children to have a deformity of their chest wall.

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Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis (JAS) in Children

Juvenile ankylosing spondylitis is a type of arthritis. It affects the spine and the places where the muscles, tendons, and ligaments are attached to bone. Ankylosing means stiff or rigid. Spondyl means spine. Itis refers to inflammation.

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Juvenile Arthritis and Other Rheumatic Diseases

Arthritis is an inflammation of the joints that causes pain and swelling. Juvenile arthritis is the term used for arthritis in children. Arthritis is one category of rheumatic diseases. Rheumatic diseases can cause pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints, and bones. They can also affect other areas of the body, including organs.

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Juvenile Dermatomyositis

Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare disease that causes muscle inflammation and a skin rash.

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Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a form of arthritis in children. Arthritis causes joint swelling (inflammation) and joint stiffness. JIA is arthritis that affects 1 or more joints for at least 6 weeks in a child age 16 or younger.

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Juvenile Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a condition where the bones are thinner than normal. It’s a condition that gets worse over time. This means that bones get thinner over time, or don’t grow as they should. The bones are then weaker and at higher risk of breaking. The condition is much more common in older adults. But it can also occur during childhood. In children, it’s called juvenile osteoporosis.

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Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome (JPS)

Juvenile polyposis syndrome is an inherited condition that is characterized by the development of hamartomatous polyps throughout the digestive tract.

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Helping Hands Patient Education Materials

Written and illustrated by medical, nursing and allied health professionals at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Helping Hand instructions are intended as a supplement to verbal instructions provided by a medical professional. The information is periodically reviewed and revised to reflect our current practice. However, Nationwide Children's Hospital is not responsible for any consequences resulting from the use or misuse of the information in the Helping Hands.