Conditions We Treat

Browse Conditions A-Z

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

Deep Vein Thrombosis is a blood clot that has formed in a large blood vessel. It may completely or partially block the blood flow in that vein. Symptoms of DVT include pain, swelling and feeling warm. In most cases, a DVT will be treated with an anticoagulation medicine.

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Dehydration

There are many reasons why children can get dehydrated or dried out. For example, a child can lose too much liquid from the body from diarrhea or vomiting. If the liquids are not replaced, the child may need to have an IV.

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Delayed Puberty

Puberty that happens late is called delayed puberty. This means a child's physical signs of sexual maturity don’t appear by age 12 in girls or age 14 in boys. This includes breast or testicle growth, pubic hair, and voice changes. These are known as secondary sexual characteristics.

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Delirium

Delirium is a serious disturbance in mental abilities. It involves changes in behavior, confused thinking, and reduced awareness of a person's surroundings. Delirium is a serious complication of medical illness.

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Dental Emergencies

One type of dental emergency is a knocked-out tooth. If it's a permanent tooth, rinse it and place it back in the socket. Then immediately take your child to the dentist.

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Dental Health and Children

Detailed information on dental health in children

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Dental Health Overview

Generally, dental examinations and cleanings are recommended every six months for children. Encourage good oral hygiene at home by helping your child brush his or her own teeth.

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Dental Procedures for Children

Detailed information on the most common dental procedures, including braces, bleaching, bridges, dentures, dental implants, fillings, root canal, sealants, and wisdom teeth extraction

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Depression

Clinical depression in children includes several disorders: major depressive disorder, disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, and persistent depressive disorder.

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Dermatitis in Children

Detailed information on dermatitis, including the different types of dermatitis such as atopic dermatitis (eczema), contact dermatitis, dermatitis herpetiformis, generalized exfoliative dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, localized scratch dermatitis, nummular dermatitis, perioral dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis

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Dermoid Cyst

Dermoid cysts, also called epidermoid cysts or dermal/epidermal inclusion cysts, are masses in children and adults, most commonly found in the head, face, neck and upper chest. Dermoid cyst ablation is a minimally-invasive procedure that is an alternative to surgically removing the dermoid cyst.

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Dermoid Cyst in Children

A dermoid cyst is a collection of tissue under the skin. It may contain hair follicles, oil, and sweat glands.

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Describing a Child's Skin Condition

A helpful look at some of the terms a healthcare provider may use to describe your child's skin condition.

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Desmopressin tablets

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Determining Body Mass Index for Teens

Although it is not a perfect measure, BMI gives a fairly accurate assessment of how much of your teen's body is composed of fat.

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Developmental Care for Babies in the NICU

Premature babies especially need a supportive environment to help them continue to mature and develop as they would in their mother's womb.

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Developmental Disorders

Detailed information on developmental disorders in children

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Developmental Disorders

Learn more about developmental disorders that could be affecting your child.

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Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Children

In a normal hip joint, the top (head) of the thighbone (femur) fits snugly into the hip socket. In a child with DDH, the hip socket is shallow. As a result, the head of the femur may slip in and out.

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Developmental Hip Dysplasia

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Diabetes During Pregnancy

Diabetes is a condition in which the body can't make enough insulin, or can't use insulin normally. Insulin is a hormone. It helps sugar (glucose) in the blood get into cells of the body to be used as fuel. When glucose can’t enter the cells, it builds up in the blood. This is called high blood sugar (hyperglycemia).

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Diabetes Index

Detailed information on diabetes, including type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, teens and diabetes, and diet and diabetes

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Diabetes Insipidus in Children

Diabetes insipidus is a condition caused by not enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the body. ADH is also known as vasopressin. This is a hormone that helps the kidneys keep the correct amount of water in the body. The condition is also called “water diabetes.”

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Diabetes Ketoacidosis (DKA)

Diabetic ketoacidosis, also known as DKA, is a serious complication of diabetes. When cells do not have glucose to use for energy, the body starts to use fat for energy.

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Diabetes Type II

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that occurs when your body makes insulin but does not know how to use it well. This is called insulin resistance.

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Diabetes: MODY

MODY is the name given to a collection of different types of inherited forms of diabetes that usually develop in adolescence or early adulthood. MODY stands for “Maturity-onset diabetes of the young.”

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Diabetes: Type 1

Type 1 diabetes, formerly known as juvenile diabetes, is a chronic condition that occurs when your body makes little to no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is made in the pancreas and keeps blood glucose (sugar) at a normal level.

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Diabetes: Type 2

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss diabetes, a disease that affects how the body uses glucose. Glucose is a type of sugar in the blood that comes from the foods we eat.

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Diagnosing and Evaluating Heart Disease in Children

Detailed information on diagnosing and evaluating heart disease in children

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Diagnosing Anemia in Children

In most cases, anemia can be diagnosed with a few simple blood tests. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all infants be given a blood test to look for anemia at 6 months, 9 months, or 12 months of age.

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Diagnosing Cancer

Many tests are necessary to determine whether a child has cancer, or if another condition is imitating the symptoms of cancer.

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Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis

A detailed look at how cystic fibrosis is diagnosed.

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Diagnostic Tests for Allergy in Children

Detailed information on allergy testing, including blood tests and skin tests.

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Diagnostic Tests for Neurological Disorders in Children

Detailed information on the most common diagnostic tests for neurological disorders in children

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Dialysis

Detailed information on dialysis, including peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis

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Diamond Blackfan Anemia

Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare blood disorder that is usually diagnosed in children during their first year of life. Children with DBA do not make enough red blood cells – the cells that carry oxygen to all other cells in the body.

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Diaper Dermatitis (Diaper Rash)

Diaper rash (diaper dermatitis) is a red, sore rash that happens when urine and bowel movements irritate your baby's skin. The Helping Hand™ will teach you how to prevent and treat diaper rash.

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Diaper Dermatitis in Children

Diaper dermatitis is inflammation of the skin in the diaper area. It’s a very common condition in babies and toddlers.

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Diapers and Diaper Rash

You have 2choices in diapers—cloth or disposable. Each type has advantages and disadvantages. You must decide which works best for your child and family.

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Diaphragmatic Hernia in Children

A diaphragmatic hernia is a birth defect. It happens in a baby during pregnancy. In this condition, there’s an opening in your baby’s diaphragm. This is the muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity.

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Diarrhea

Diarrhea (loose, watery bowel movements) is a common problem for young children. Diarrhea may be caused by a serious illness, but usually, it is only the result of a minor infection.

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Diarrhea in Children

Diarrhea is a common problem. It may last 1 or 2 days and go away on its own. If diarrhea lasts more than 2 days, your child may have a more serious problem.

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Diet and Diabetes

It is important to learn about proper meal-planning when your child has diabetes. The type and amount of food your child eats affects his/her blood sugar levels.

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Difficulty with Latching On or Sucking

Detailed information on problems with latching-on or sucking during breastfeeding, and how to handle them .

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DiGeorge Syndrome

DiGeorge Syndrome is also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

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Digestive and Liver Disorders

Detailed information on digestive and liver disorders during pregnancy

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Digestive and Liver Disorders Overview

What is digestion?Food and drink must be changed into smaller molecules of nutrients to be absorbed into the blood and carried to cells throughout the body.

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Digestive Disorders

Detailed information on the most common digestive disorders in high-risk newborns

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Diphtheria in Children

A detailed look at diphtheria, including symptoms, treatment, and a vaccination schedule.

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Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (DTaP)

Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus are serious illnesses. A combination vaccine is given to babies and children to provide protection against all 3 diseases.

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Discharge from the Hospital

Even after minor surgery, some children will remain in the hospital overnight for observation and to receive medicines to help with pain or to prevent infection.

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Discipline

Detailed information on disciplining a child, including information on time-out, temper tantrum, lying, stealing, and television and children

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Disciplining Your Child at Any Age

Each child is different, but most children need to be given clear rules about behavior.

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Discomforts and Complications After a Child Has Surgery

Common discomforts after surgery include nausea and vomiting, soreness in the throat, and restlessness or sleeplessness.

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Discussing Death with Children

The ultimate goal in discussing death with a dying child is to optimize his or her comfort and alleviate any fears. If the child is not ready to discuss death, the most helpful step parents can take is to wait until he or she is ready.

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Dislocations

A dislocation is a joint injury. It occurs when the ends of 2 connected bones come apart. Dislocations happen more often among teens.

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Disorders Affecting Calcium Metabolism

Detailed information on disorders affecting calcium metabolism, including juvenile osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and DiGeorge syndrome

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Disorders Affecting the Adrenal Glands

Detailed information on disorders affecting the adrenal glands, including underactive adrenal glands (Addison's disease), overactive adrenal glands (Cushing's syndrome), and pheochromocytoma

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Disorders Affecting the Pituitary Gland

Detailed information on disorders affecting the pituitary gland, including posterior anterior disorders and anterior pituitary disorders

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Disorders Affecting the Thyroid

Detailed information on disorders affecting the thyroid gland, including hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) and hypothyroidism

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Disorders of Sex Development

When a child's gender is in question at birth, the child has atypical genitalia (ambiguous genitalia). This means that the genitals don't seem to be clearly male or female.

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Disorders of the Brain and Nervous System

Detailed information on the most common disorders of the brain and nervous system in high-risk newborns

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Disruptive Behavior Disorders

Children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) show ongoing patterns of uncooperative and defiant behavior. The most common types of these disorders include disruptive behavior disorder not otherwise specified (DBD NOS), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD).

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Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

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Distal Radius Buckle (Torus) Fracture

A distal radius buckle (torus) fracture causes one side of the bone to bend but does not actually break through the bone. It is an incomplete fracture that normally heals within 1 month.

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Double Outlet Right Ventricle

Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a congenital heart defect where the two great arteries are both attached to the right ventricle. In DORV, the normally separated oxygen-rich arterial blood and oxygen-poor venous blood is mixed prior to leaving the heart.

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Double Outlet Right Ventricle in Children

Detailed information about double outlet right ventricle (DORV), a heart malformation that is present from birth.

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Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21) in Children

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that includes certain birth defects, learning problems, and facial features.

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D-Transposition of the Great Vessels

D-Transposition of the great vessels (d-TGA) is a congenital heart defect where the aorta and pulmonary artery are switched from their normal positions. Shortly after birth, babies with d-TGA are blue because not enough oxygen is getting to the body.

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Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited neuromuscular disorder that affects all races and ethnicities. DMD only affects males. Children with DMD may lose the ability to walk as early as 7 years of age.

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Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in Children

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a rare genetic condition that weakens your child's muscles. It appears in young boys, usually between ages 2 and 5.

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Dyskeratosis Congenita in Children

Dyskeratosis congenita is a congenital disease. This means it is present at birth. It affects the skin and nails. In its most severe form, it causes bone marrow failure. When bone marrow doesn't make enough blood cells, it can be life-threatening.

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Dyskeratosis Congenital

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Dysmenorrhea

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Dysphagia in Children

Dysphagia means trouble swallowing. This condition happens when food or liquids can’t pass easily from your child’s mouth, into the throat, down the esophagus, and into the stomach when swallowing.

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Dysthymia

Persistent depressive disorder is a type of depression. Depression involves a child’s body, mood, and thoughts.

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Helping Hands Patient Education Materials

Written and illustrated by medical, nursing and allied health professionals at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Helping Hand instructions are intended as a supplement to verbal instructions provided by a medical professional. The information is periodically reviewed and revised to reflect our current practice. However, Nationwide Children's Hospital is not responsible for any consequences resulting from the use or misuse of the information in the Helping Hands.