Conditions We Treat

Browse Conditions A-Z

Rabies in Children

Rabies is a viral infection that attacks the nervous system. Once symptoms develop, it is often fatal. But a rabies vaccine, or a series of vaccines, given soon after contact with an animal infected with rabies can prevent the illness.

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Radiation Exposure from X-rays in Children

X-rays are a kind of imaging test that provides your healthcare provider with information about structures inside the body. These tests expose children to low doses of radiation.

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Ranula

A ranula is a fluid collection or cyst that forms in the mouth under the tongue. It is filled with saliva that has leaked out of a damaged salivary gland. If a ranula stays in the mouth underneath the tongue it is called a simple ranula. If it grows down into the neck it is called a plunging ranula.

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Rashes Caused by Viruses

Detailed information on viral exanthems (rashes)

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RBC Count

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Recognizing Internal Injuries in Young Athletes

Internal abdominal injuries from blunt trauma are serious injuries that occur when the body hits or collides with a large object. These types of injuries are most common in contact sports like football, ice hockey, soccer, and lacrosse.

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Recognizing Urologic or Gynecologic Problems

Vaginal bleeding and discharge are a normal part of a teen girl's menstrual cycle. If your daughter notices anything different or unusual, talk with your teen's healthcare provider.

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Recovery Room/Post-Anesthesia Care Unit

Once surgery has been completed, your child will be brought to the recovery room, also called the post-anesthesia care unit.

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Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP)

RRP is caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), which is a highly prevalent virus.

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Red Cell Disorders

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Refractive Errors in Children

The most common refractive errors in children are nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.

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Relationship Development

Adolescent attention often shifts to a more intense focus on social interactions and friendships expanding from same sex friends to same sex groups of friends to heterosexual groups of friends.

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Renal Failure

Detailed information on renal failure, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and diet

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Renal Failure in Children

Renal failure refers to temporary or permanent damage to the kidneys that results in loss of normal kidney function. There are two different types of renal failure—acute and chronic.

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Respiratory Disorders in the Newborn

Detailed information on respiratory disorders in high-risk newborns

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Respiratory Distress

Respiratory distress describes symptoms related to breathing problems. There can be many causes of respiratory distress in children. Usually, it is caused by infections, chronic illness or a blocked airway. Call 911 or take your child to the nearest emergency room if you think they are in danger.

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Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) in Premature Babies

Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a common problem in premature babies. It causes babies to need extra oxygen and help with breathing.

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Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Newborn

Respiratory distress syndrome, also known as RDS, is caused by not having enough surfactant in the lungs. It is the most common lung disease in premature infants and it occurs because the baby’s lungs are not fully developed. Babies with RDS need extra oxygen and surfactant as well as medicine.

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Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is most common from fall to spring. Symptoms of RSV include sneezing, stuffy or runny nose, sore throat and fever. For healthy babies, it is like getting a cold and can be treated at home. In some infants, RSV can be very serious and may require a hospital stay.

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Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) in Children

RSV is a viral illness that causes symptoms such as trouble breathing. It’s the most common cause of inflammation of the small airways in the lungs (bronchiolitis) and pneumonia in babies.

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Restless Leg Disorders in Kids with ADHD

Research suggests children with ADHD are more likely to have sleep disorders. These include insomnia, daytime sleepiness, and restless leg disorders.

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Retinoblastoma

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Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastoma is a cancer of the retina. This type of cancer is usually found in children younger than 3 years of age.

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Retinoblastoma in Children

Retinoblastoma is a rare cancer of the retina of the eye. The retina is in the back of the eye. It’s the part of the eye that receives light. Retinoblastoma is the most common tumor affecting the eye in children. It almost always occurs in children less than 5 years old.

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Retinopathy of Prematurity

Retinopathy of prematurity is an eye problem that happens to premature babies. The retina lines the back of the eye. It receives light as it comes through the pupil. From there, the optic nerve sends signals to the brain. Retinopathy of prematurity is a problem of the blood vessels of the retina.

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Retinopathy of Prematurity

Retinopathy of prematurity, also known as ROP, is an eye problem for which premature babies are at high risk.

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Returning Home After a Burn Injury

Detailed information for helping your child if he/she has difficulty adjusting following a burn injury

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Reye Syndrome in Children

Reye syndrome is a rare but very serious illness that causes brain swelling and liver damage. It can also affect all of the body’s organs.

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Reye Syndrome in Children

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Rh Disease

Rh disease occurs during pregnancy. It happens when the Rh factors in the mom’s and baby’s blood don’t match. It may also happen if the mom and baby have different blood types.

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Rhabdomyosarcoma

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Rhabdomyosarcoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma (rab-doe-my-oh-sar-KOE-mah), or RMS, is a soft-tissue cancer. It can start in muscle cells (rhabdomyoblasts) from many different areas of the body.

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Rhabdomyosarcoma in Children

Rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer. It starts in cells that grow into skeletal muscle cells. The cells are called rhabdomyoblasts. Skeletal muscles control all of a person’s voluntary muscle movements. The cancer is most common in children under age 10, but it is rare. It can form anywhere in the body.

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Rheumatic Fever

Rheumatic fever is a complex disease that affects the joints, skin, heart, blood vessels, and brain. It occurs mainly in children between the ages of 5 to 15.

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Rheumatic Heart Disease in Children

Rheumatic heart disease is a condition that causes permanent damage to the heart valves.

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Ringworm

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Ringworm (Tinea Corporis)

Ringworm, also known as tinea corporis) is a contagious infection of the skin caused by a fungus. The infection starts as a rash with tiny red pimples. The pimples slowly spread and form a round or oval ring. A single patch of ringworm can be treated with an over-the-counter antifungal cream.

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Ringworm in Children

Ringworm is a type of skin infection cause by a fungus. It looks like a red skin rash that forms a ring around normal-looking skin. Ringworm can be of several types.

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Risk Factors for Pregnancy

Detailed information on identifying potential risks of a pregnancy as an important part of preconception care

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Risks of Pregnancy Over Age 30

Many women today are waiting until later in life to have children. In the United States, birth rates for women in their 30s are at the highest levels in four decades.

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Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by the Rickettsia bacteria. This bacteria is most commonly carried by dog ticks.

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Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) in Children

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a bacterial infection. It’s spread by the bite of an infected tick.

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Roseola

Roseola (ROSE–ee-OH-lah) is a common childhood illness caused by a virus. It usually affects children age 6 months to 3 years but can occur in children somewhat younger or older.

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Roseola in Children

Roseola is a contagious viral illness. It causes a high fever and then a rash that develops as the fever goes away.

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Rotator Cuff Tendinitis

Rotator Cuff Tendinitis is inflammation of the rotator cuff muscles tendons surrounding the shoulder joint.

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Rotavirus

Rotavirus is a contagious illness caused by a virus. It can affect the digestive system and cause diarrhea (large amount of watery stools). It is very important to keep your child from getting dehydrated. Do not give only water, your child should also drink Pedialyte or other electrolyte solutions.

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Rotavirus Infection in Children

Rotavirus is a contagious virus that causes nausea and diarrhea. It is the leading cause of severe infectious diarrhea in children.

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Roundworm Infection in Children

Roundworm infection is a type of parasitic illness. This is an illness in which an organism lives inside the body of another creature. The worms live and grow inside the body and may cause symptoms.

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Rubella

Rubella, also known as German measles, is an illness caused by a virus.

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Rubella in Children

Rubella is a viral illness that causes a mild fever and a skin rash. It is also called German measles, but is not caused by the same virus that causes measles (rubeola).

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Rumination Syndrome

Rumination Syndrome (RS) is a condition where people constantly regurgitate and either vomit or re-swallow their food or drink soon after eating. RS falls into a category of GI conditions called functional gastrointestinal disorders.

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Helping Hands Patient Education Materials

Written and illustrated by medical, nursing and allied health professionals at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Helping Hand instructions are intended as a supplement to verbal instructions provided by a medical professional. The information is periodically reviewed and revised to reflect our current practice. However, Nationwide Children's Hospital is not responsible for any consequences resulting from the use or misuse of the information in the Helping Hands.