Conditions We Treat

Deformational Plagiocephaly

Deformational plagiocephaly is when a baby’s head develops a lasting flat spot. The flat spot may be either on one side of the head or on the back of the head. This happens when a baby sleeps in the same position most of the time or because of problems with the neck muscles.

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Facial Paralysis

Facial paralysis is weakness or complete lack of motion of part or all of the face. It can involve one or both sides of the face. This decreased or lack of motion causes asymmetry and can lead to both functional and social interaction issues.

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Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, also known as Landouzy-Dejerine, causes severe weakness in muscles of the face, shoulders and back. As shoulder and back muscles weaken, they shrink and the shoulder blade sticks out excessively.

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Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD)

FSHD is a rare genetic muscle disease that affects the muscles of your child’s face, shoulders, upper arms, and lower legs.

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Factor V Leiden

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss Factor V Leiden, which is an inherited blood disorder. Doctors can find out if your child has Factor V Leiden by genetic testing.

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Factor V Leiden

Factor V (factor five) is a protein involved in the blood clotting process. Children born with Factor V Leiden produce a mutated form of Factor V that does not respond well to activated Protein C.

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Factors That May Lead to a Congenital Heart Defect (CHD)

In most cases of congenital heart defect, the cause is thought to be a combination of genetics and environment.

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Factors That May Lead to a Congenital Heart Defect (CHD)

In most cases of congenital heart defect, the cause is thought to be a combination of genetics and environment.

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Facts About Animal Bites and Scratches

Whether the bite is from a family pet or an animal in the wild, scratches and bites can become infected and cause scarring. Animals can also carry diseases that can be transmitted through a bite.

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Facts About Poisons

Medicines are the leading cause of poisoning in children. Poisoning by makeup and personal care products is the next most common cause.

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Failure to Thrive

Failure to thrive (FTT) is a term that is traditionally used for children who have failed to develop and grow normally. FTT occurs when a child is either not receiving enough calories or is unable to properly use the calories that are given, resulting in failure to grow or gain weight.

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Failure to Thrive (FTT) in Children

Failure to thrive (FTT) is slow physical development in a baby or child. It's caused by a baby or child not having enough nutrition.

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Failure to Thrive In Infants

Failure to Thrive (FTT) describes an infant or child who does not gain weight at the expected rate. The two kinds of FTT are organic and non-organic. Medical problems such as diarrhea or vomiting may be the cause of organic FTT.

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Falls

Detailed information on falls and preventing injuries and death in children

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Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP)

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), previously known as Gardner syndrome, is an inherited colorectal cancer syndrome characterized by the development of numerous adenomas throughout the digestive tract. Other organs of the body can be affected as well. FAP can be passed from one generation to the next or occur as a new genetically driven disorder.

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Family Support for Autism Spectrum Disorder

Having a child with autism spectrum disorder can be hard on the entire family. That's why it's so important to have a good support system in place. Read on to learn more.

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Fanconi Anemia

Fanconi anemia is a blood disorder in which the bone marrow doesn’t make enough blood cells or makes abnormal types of blood cells.

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Febrile Seizures

In some children, fever of 100.4˚ F or higher can bring on a seizure or a convulsion called febrile seizures. febrile seizures usually do not last long and do not cause brain damage, learning disabilities or epilepsy.

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Fecal Incontinence

Fecal incontinence is a very common problem in children. Soiling can be caused by medical conditions like chronic constipation or congenital conditions that may disrupt bowel control.

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Feeding Disorders

Feeding disorders are characterized by extreme food selectivity by type, texture, brand, shape or color.

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Feeding Guide for the First Year

It's important to feed your baby a variety of healthy foods at the proper time. Solid foods should not be started before 4 months of age.

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Feeding Your Child with Cystic Fibrosis

Children with cystic fibrosis often have poor weight gain. This can happen even when they get enough calories. Read on for details on how to make sure your child gets enough nutrients--and what to do if your child isn't gaining weight.

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Female Growth and Development

Detailed information on female physical development

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Female Physical Development

Detailed information on female physical development

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Femoral Anteversion

Femoral anteversion is a condition where the femur (thigh) bone rotates inward. This rotation causes the knee and foot to point inward as well. It is known as intoeing or being “pigeon-toed”. Often parents first notice this intoeing when their child begins to walk. It becomes most noticeable around 4 to 6 years of age. Femoral anteversion may exist in one or both legs.

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Femoral Anteversion in Children

Femoral anteversion is an inward twisting of the thighbone (femur). This health problem causes a child's knees and feet to turn inward. The child may have a pigeon-toed appearance.

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Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)

A baby born to a mother who drinks alcohol during pregnancy can have many problems. This is called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).

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Fetal Blood Sampling

Fetal blood sampling is a procedure to take a small amount of blood from an unborn baby (fetus) during pregnancy. Fetal blood sampling is usually done by a perinatologist with special training. This is a doctor who specializes in the care of babies in high-risk pregnancies.

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Fetal Circulation

Through the blood vessels in the umbilical cord, the fetus receives all the necessary nutrition, oxygen, and life support from the mother through the placenta.

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Fetal Echocardiography

Fetal echocardiography (echo) uses sound waves to check the heart of your developing baby.

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Fetal Growth Restriction

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a condition in which an unborn baby (fetus) is smaller than expected for the number of weeks of pregnancy (gestational age). It is often described as an estimated weight less than the 10th percentile. This means that the baby weighs less than 9 out of 10 babies of the same gestational age. Newborn babies with FGR may be called "small for gestational age."

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Fetal Monitoring

In pregnancy and during labor, your healthcare provider will want to check the health of your unborn baby (fetus). This is done by checking the baby’s heart rate and other functions. Monitoring can be done on the outside of your belly (external monitoring). Or it may be done directly on the baby while inside your uterus (internal monitoring). Fetal monitoring is a very common procedure.

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Fetal Movement Counting

Fetal movement counting is a way to check the health of a woman’s unborn baby (fetus). It’s often called kick counting. It’s done by counting the number of kicks you feel from your baby in the womb in a certain time period.

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Fever

In this Helping Hand™, we discuss fever, which is an increase in the body’s temperature above the normal range. Most doctors agree that a temperature over 101° F is a fever. Fevers lower than 101° F don't need to be treated unless your child is uncomfortable or has a history of febrile seizures.

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Fever in A Newborn

The system that controls body temperature is not well developed in a newborn. Here's what you need to know about fever and your baby.

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Fever in Children

When your child has a fever, the body resets its thermostat at a higher temperature. This helps the body fight off invading microorganisms.

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Fibromyalgia in Children

Fibromyalgia is a condition that causes pain in muscles and soft tissues all over the body. It is an ongoing (chronic) condition. It can affect the neck, shoulders, back, chest, hips, buttocks, arms, and legs.

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Fifth Disease (Erythema Infectiosum)

Fifth disease is a mild illness caused by a virus. Symptoms include a blotchy rash that begins on the cheeks and spreads to the arms, legs and torso.

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Fifth Disease in Children

Fifth disease is a viral illness that causes a rash. It occurs most often in the winter and spring.

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Fillings

Teeth that have tooth decay must be repaired. Advances in dental materials and techniques provide new, effective ways to restore teeth.

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Fire Safety and Burns

Detailed information on fire safety and burns and preventing injuries and death in children

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Fire Safety and Burns Overview

Know the types of burns you can get and how to keep you and your family safe.

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Fire Safety and Burns—Identifying High-Risk Situations

Children are at increased risk for serious fire and burn injuries and death because they have thinner skin than adults. This results in burns at lower temperatures.

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Firearms

Detailed information on firearm safety and preventing injuries and death in children

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First Aid for Poisonings in a Child

Sometimes accidental poisonings can be treated in the home under the direction of a poison control center or your child's healthcare provider. At other times, emergency medical care is necessary.

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First Aid for the Eyes

A helpful guide to treating different types of eye injuries.

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First Trimester Screening

First trimester screening combines fetal ultrasound and blood tests for the mother. It’s done during the first trimester of pregnancy, during weeks 1 to 12 or 13. It can help find out the risk of the fetus having certain birth defects.

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First-Degree Burn

A burn is damage to tissues of the body caused by contact with things such as heat, radiation, or chemicals. A first-degree burn affects only the outer layer of skin (epidermis).

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Flat or Inverted Nipples

Detailed information on breastfeeding and flat or inverted nipples

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Flea, Mite, or Chigger Bites in Children

Fleas, mites, and chiggers are different kinds of small insects. They are also parasites. This means they feed off the blood, skin, or both of animals and humans. These insects are more common in the warm weather. They bite skin and cause symptoms such as bumps, redness, pain, or itching.

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Flossing and Children

Flossing should be started when your child is about 2 to 3 years old, under the direction of your child's dentist. Read on for helpful tips, including step-by-step flossing directions.

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Fluoride and Children

Fluoride helps prevent tooth decay, strengthens tooth enamel, and reduces the harmful effects of plaque.

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Folliculitis

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Folliculitis

Folliculitis is a common inflammation of the hair follicles, which are the openings in the skin where the hair grows. The rash appears as small red bumps or pus bumps that can itch or be mildly painful.

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Folliculitis, Furuncles, and Carbuncles in Children

Bacteria on the skin can cause an infection of one or more hair follicles. A hair follicle is the base or root of a hair.

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Food Allergies in Children

A food allergy is when your child’s body has a bad immune reaction to a certain food. This is different than a food intolerance which does not affect the immune system. This is true even though some of the same signs may be present.

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Food Allergy

A food allergy is when the immune system mistakenly responds to a food protein, resulting in inflammation or damage to the intestinal tract. Allergies can present with an immediate or a delayed reaction.

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Food Poisoning

When people eat tainted food, they can develop anything from a mild illness to a serious disease. Germs that cause food poisoning include Campylobacter, E-Coli, Salmonella and Shigella.

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Foot Sprain or Strain

A foot sprain is a stretching or tearing of the ligaments that connect the bones of the foot. A foot strain is a stretching or tearing of the tendons and muscles in the foot.

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For Parents: Important Decisions to Be Made in the Dying Process

Detailed information on important decisions to be made when a child is dying, including the right to refuse treatment, to die at home versus the hospital, advanced directives, do not resuscitate, autopsy, organ donation, palliative hospice care, and funeral arrangements.

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Foreign Bodies in the Ear, Nose, and Airway

Children usually place things in their ears because they are bored, curious, or copying other children. Some objects may cause no symptoms, but other objects, such as food and insects, may cause pain in the ear, redness, or drainage.

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Foreign Bodies in the Eye in Children

A foreign body in your child’s eye is any object that isn’t supposed to be there. The foreign object may be in the conjunctiva. This is a thin membrane that covers the white of the eye. Or it may be in the cornea. This is the clear, dome-shaped surface that covers the colored part of the eye and the pupil.

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Fractures in Children

A fracture is a partial or complete break in the bone. When a fracture happens, it is classified as either open or closed.

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Fractures of the Orbit in Children

An orbital fracture happens when one or more bones around one of your child's eyes is broken. The orbit is the bony structure around the eye.

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Frostbite

Frostbite is damage to the skin and underlying tissues caused by the cold. It occurs most often on small, exposed areas of the body such as the hands and fingers, feet and toes, and the ears, nose and cheeks.

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Frostbite and Frostnip

Frostbite is damage to parts of the body from freezing. It occurs when ice crystals form in the skin or in deeper tissue. Frostnip is a mild form of frostbite. It does not cause permanent tissue damage.

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Fungal Infections

Detailed information on fungal skin infections, including Candidiasis, Tinea Infections, and Tinea Versicolor

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Helping Hands Patient Education Materials

Written and illustrated by medical, nursing and allied health professionals at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Helping Hand instructions are intended as a supplement to verbal instructions provided by a medical professional. The information is periodically reviewed and revised to reflect our current practice. However, Nationwide Children's Hospital is not responsible for any consequences resulting from the use or misuse of the information in the Helping Hands.