Conditions We Treat

Ganglion Cysts

A ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled lump under the skin, often over a joint or in a tendon in the hand or wrist. If the cyst appears on top of the wrist, it is called a dorsal wrist ganglion cyst. A cyst on the palm side of the wrist is a volar wrist ganglion cyst. These cysts are usually harmless.

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Gastroesophageal Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux, also known as chalasia or spitting up, is so common that it should be considered normal for babies. In infants, the sphincter that keeps food in the stomach is not as strong, so some formula or food can come back up. Reflux can cause heartburn which may make the baby fussy.

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Gastroesophageal Reflux (GERD)

Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a digestive disorder. Gastroesophageal refers to the stomach and esophagus. The esophagus is the tube that connects the throat to the stomach. Reflux means to flow back or return.

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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) in Infants

In this Helping Hand™ document, we discuss Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, also known as GERD, in infants. This document provides tips on feeding your child, medications, positioning and safe sleep to help you manage your infant's reflux. Call your child's doctor if they fail to gain weight.

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Gastrointestinal Problems

If your baby seems fussy and you've fed and changed him, he may have an upset stomach or colic. But don't worry, there are lots of things you can do to make your little one more comfortable and keep both of you calm.

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Gastroparesis

Gastroschisis is a defect in the abdominal (belly) wall that forms before the baby is born. Part of the intestine is outside of the baby's body, rather than inside the abdomen. If the defect is small, surgery may be done right away. Larger defects may require a sterile "silo" bag until surgery.

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Gastroschisis

Gastroschisis is a defect in the abdominal wall. Part of the intestine is outside of the baby's body, rather than inside the abdomen.

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a mental health problem. A child with GAD has a lot of worry and fear that seems to have no real cause.

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Genetic Disorders Associated with Congenital Heart Disease

Detailed information on congenital heart disease, including patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, atrioventricular canal, tricuspid atresia, pulmonary atresia, transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, double outlet right ventricle, truncus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, aortic stenosis and hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

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Genital Herpes

It's important not to get genital herpes during pregnancy. A first episode during pregnancy raises the risk of passing the disease on to your baby.

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Genital Warts

The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) commonly causes genital warts. In females, these warts can occur around the vagina, on the cervix or around the rectum. Some strains of HPV can cause different types of cancer, however, most do not.

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Genital Warts (HPV Infection)

Genital warts are skin-colored, cauliflower-like, painless growths. They are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). Genital warts are usually spread by sexual contact. During pregnancy or delivery, the HPV virus can be passed on to the baby from an infected mother.

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Genital Warts in Babies and Children

Genital warts are common skin-colored growths that are caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). In males, they can occur on the penis or around the rectum. In females, they can occur around the vagina or rectum. Treatment includes freezing with liquid nitrogen or applying topical medicine.

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GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease) in Children

GERD, or gastroesophageal reflux disease, is a long-term (chronic) digestive disorder. It happens when stomach contents flow back up (reflux) into the food pipe (esophagus).

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Germ Cell Tumors

Germ cells form as a baby grows in the womb. The cells usually form the eggs (ova) in females and the sperm in males. Germ cell tumors are made up of these underdeveloped cells. The tumors may be cancer (malignant) or not cancer (benign).

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Gestational Age Assessment

It's not always easy to tell a newborn's age by their size. Premature babies are usually small, but full-term and past-term babies can be small, too. That's when healthcare providers will do a gestational assessment to determine if a newborn needs special treatment.

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Gestational Hypertension

Gestational hypertension is high blood pressure in pregnancy. It occurs in about 3 in 50 pregnancies.

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GI Bleeding (Upper and Lower)

Upper GI bleeding occurs when irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum result in bleeding. Lower GI bleeding occurs most frequently from the large intestine (colon) and rectum. Pediatricians and pediatric gastroenterologists see this problem quite regularly.

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Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis is a kidney disease that involves inflammation of tiny filter units in the kidneys called glomeruli. Due to inflammation, these filters can leak blood and protein into the urine. Symptoms may include dark brown-colored urine (from blood and protein) and diminished urine output.

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Glomerulonephritis in Children

Glomerulonephritis is a type of kidney disease that makes it hard for the kidneys to filter blood from urine.

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Gonadotropin-Independent Precocious Puberty

Puberty that happens early is called precocious puberty. Gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty is caused by early secretion of high levels of sex hormones. These include the male androgens and female estrogens.

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Gonadotropin-Independent Precocious Puberty

Puberty that happens early is called precocious puberty. Gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty is caused by early secretion of high levels of sex hormones. These include the male androgens and female estrogens.

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Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae. If it is not treated, gonorrhea can cause serious damage in both males and females. It can cause damage to joints, the heart muscle or the brain. In females, it may lead to an infection called PID.

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Granuloma Annulare

Granuloma annulare is a raised, bumpy ring-like rash. This starts as a smooth bump on the skin and becomes a circular ring. Granuloma annulare is common, but no one knows what causes it. It is not infectious or contagious. Granuloma annulare is often mistaken for ringworm or bug bites.

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Graves' Disease

Graves’ disease is the most common kind of hyperthyroidism. It happens when a person’s immune system acts against his or her thyroid gland by mistake. It makes too much of the hormone thyroxine. Graves’ disease can happen at any age in both males and females. It is more common in women.

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Graves Disease in a Newborn (Neonatal Graves Disease)

Graves disease is an autoimmune disease. The immune system normally protects the body from germs with chemicals called antibodies. But with an autoimmune disease, it makes antibodies that attack the body’s own tissues. With Graves disease, antibodies cause the thyroid gland to make too much thyroid hormone. This is known as hyperthyroidism. Extra thyroid hormone in the bloodstream leads to the body's metabolism being too active.

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Graves Disease in a Newborn (Neonatal Graves Disease)

Graves disease is an autoimmune disease. The immune system normally protects the body from germs with chemicals called antibodies. But with an autoimmune disease, it makes antibodies that attack the body’s own tissues. With Graves disease, antibodies cause the thyroid gland to make too much thyroid hormone. This is known as hyperthyroidism. Extra thyroid hormone in the bloodstream leads to the body's metabolism being too active.

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Graves Disease in Children

Graves disease is an autoimmune disease. With this disease, antibodies cause the thyroid gland to make too much thyroid hormone. This is known as hyperthyroidism. Excess thyroid hormone in the bloodstream leads to the body's metabolism being too active. It can cause problems such as weight loss, nervousness, fast heartbeat, tiredness, and other issues. It’s an ongoing (chronic) condition that needs lifelong treatment.

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Graves Disease in Pregnancy

Graves disease is a condition where the thyroid gland makes too much thyroid hormone. This is called hyperthyroidism or overactive thyroid. Graves disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy.

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Grief and Bereavement

The process of grieving is often long and painful for parents, siblings, relatives, friends, peers, teachers, neighbors, and anyone that understands the loss of a child.

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Group B Streptococcus Infection in Babies

Group B streptococcus (strep) is a type of bacteria. It can be found in the digestive tract, urinary tract, and genital area of adults. About 1 in 4 pregnant women carry GBS in their rectum or vagina. During pregnancy, the mother can pass the infection to the baby. The fetus can get GBS during pregnancy. Newborns can get it from the mother's genital tract during delivery.

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Growth and Development in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

Children with congenital heart disease often grow and develop more slowly than other children.

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Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is when the pituitary gland doesn't make enough growth hormone. GH is needed to stimulate growth of bone and other tissues. This condition can occur at any age. GH deficiency does not affect a child's intelligence.

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Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is when the pituitary gland doesn't make enough growth hormone. GH is needed to stimulate growth of bone and other tissues. This condition can occur at any age. GH deficiency does not affect a child's intelligence.

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Growth in Children

Detailed information on growth in children, including normal growth, newborn screening tests, growth problems, growth hormone deficiency and achondroplasia.

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Growth in Children

Detailed information on growth in children, including normal growth, newborn screening tests, growth problems, growth hormone deficiency, and achondroplasia

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Growth Problems in Children

A growth problem means that a child falls either below or above the average range of growth for a child's age, sex, family history, or racial background.

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Growth Problems in Children

A growth problem means that a child falls either below or above the average range of growth for a child's age, sex, family history, or racial background.

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Growth-Related Disorders

Detailed information on the most common growth-related disorders in children

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Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Children

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a short-term but often life-threatening disorder that affects the nerves in the body. GBS can cause muscle weakness, pain, and short-term (temporary) paralysis of the facial, chest, and leg muscles.

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Gynecological and Menstrual Conditions

Detailed information on the most common gynecological and menstrual conditions that affect adolescents

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Gynecological Health

Detailed information on gynecological health of a child

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Gynecological Infections

Detailed information on gynecological problems in a child

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Gynecomastia

Gynecomastia is excess growth of breast tissue in males. Usually, it is caused by an imbalance of estrogen and testosterone. This is known as physiologic gynecomastia.

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Helping Hands Patient Education Materials

Written and illustrated by medical, nursing and allied health professionals at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Helping Hand instructions are intended as a supplement to verbal instructions provided by a medical professional. The information is periodically reviewed and revised to reflect our current practice. However, Nationwide Children's Hospital is not responsible for any consequences resulting from the use or misuse of the information in the Helping Hands.