Conditions We Treat

Browse Conditions A-Z

Ear Disorders

Detailed information on ear disorders in children

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Ear Infections (Otitis Media)

Ear infections, also known as otitis media, occur when the middle ear is infected or inflamed. There are two main types of otitis media: acute otitis media with effusion (fluid in the middle ear space) and chronic otitis media with effusion.

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Ear Tube Insertion for Children

An ear tube insertion is when a tiny tube is placed in the eardrum to let fluid leave the middle ear. Read on to learn all about this procedure.

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Early Puberty in Boys

Puberty is the time when boys’ bodies and minds mature and they grow into young men. This usually starts when a boy is about 12 years old. Sometimes, a younger boy starts to show the signs of puberty. This is called precocious or early puberty. These early signs of puberty can be hard for a child.

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Early Puberty in Girls

Puberty is the time when girls’ bodies and minds mature and they grow into young women. This usually starts when a girl is about 10 years old. Sometimes, a younger girl starts to show signs of puberty. This is called precocious or early puberty. These early signs of puberty can be hard for a child.

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Eating Disorders and Young Athletes

Playing competitive sports can boost self-esteem and teach teamwork and leadership lessons. But sometimes being on a team that focuses too heavily on performance--or appearance--may trigger an eating disorder.

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Eating Disorders in Children

Detailed information on adolescents and eating disorders, including anorexia, bulimia, and obesity

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Echocardiography

Echocardiography is an imaging test. It uses sound waves to make detailed pictures of the heart.

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Echocardiography for Children

Echocardiography is an imaging test. It uses sound waves to make detailed pictures of the heart.

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Ectopic Pregnancy

A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus is called ectopic pregnancy. This nearly always happens in a fallopian tube. So it’s often called tubal pregnancy. Rarely, an ectopic pregnancy will happen in an ovary, in the cervix, or the belly (abdomen).

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Eczema

Eczema is a chronic dry, itchy skin condition that often runs in families. Eczema is not contagious. Eczema often affects the insides of elbows, backs of knees, and the face.

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Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis)

Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a chronic skin problem characterized by dry, itchy, rough skin rashes. Eczema can cause skin to appear thickened, wrinkled, red (irritated), and rough and dry.

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Effective Sucking

It's important for your baby's health to be able to effectively remove milk from your breast during nursing. To do this, your baby must learn the proper way to suck. But how do you know if your baby is actually getting the nutrition he or she needs? Here's a guide to help you.

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Egg Allergy Diet for Children

Parents of children with egg sensitivity may not be aware of the many food products that contain eggs. That's why it's important to carefully read food labels.

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Ehlers Danlos Syndrome with Associated Bleeding Disorders

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) is a genetic (inherited) disorder that affects mainly the skin and joints. There are many types of EDS. People with some types of EDS may bruise or bleed easily.

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Eisenmenger Syndrome in Children

Eisenmenger syndrome is an advanced form of

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Electrical Burns

Electrical burns occur when a child comes in contact with electricity, either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC).

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Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)

Electrocardiography (ECG) is a simple, fast test to check the electrical activity of your child's heart as blood moves through it. Abnormal ECG results may mean there is a problem with your child's heart.

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Electrocardiography for Children

Electrocardiography (ECG) is a simple, fast test to check the electrical activity of your child's heart as blood moves through it.

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Electroencephalogram (EEG) for Children

An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test that measures the electrical activity in the brain (brain waves). Small, round discs with wires (electrodes) are placed on the scalp during the test. The electrodes are not painful to your child.

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Emergency Contact Information

In an emergency, it is easy to "forget" even the most well-known information. That's why it is crucial to complete the information in this form for each member of your household.

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Emergency Treatment of a Burn Injury

Detailed information on emergency treatment of a burn injury

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Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is a rare form of MD that affects only males. Symptoms may begin in childhood or adolescence. The condition causes slowly progressive weakness in the muscles of the shoulders, upper arms, and lower legs and joint stiffness.

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Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy in Children

EDMD is a rare inherited muscle disease. It causes weakness in your child’s shoulders, upper arms, and calves. The disease also causes stiff joints that can’t move well.

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Emotional and Family Issues in Children with Heart Disease

A detailed look at the way children may feel about having congenital heart disease--and tips for helping them cope.

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Encephalitis in Children

Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. The inflammation causes the brain to swell. This leads to changes in a child's nervous system that can include confusion, changes in alertness, and seizures.

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Encephalitis in Children

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Encopresis

Encopresis is when your child leaks stool into his or her underwear. It is also called stool soiling. It is most often because of long-term (chronic) constipation. Encopresis happens to children ages 4 and older who have already been toilet trained.

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Encopresis

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Endometriosis

Endometriosis is an inflammatory and estrogen-dependent condition in which the menstrual tissue is found outside the uterus, within the pelvis. Pain due to endometriosis is different from normal menstrual pain. Girls who have a family history of endometriosis have an increased chance of developing it.

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Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Children

Endoscopic sinus surgery is a procedure to open the passages of the nose and sinuses. It is done to treat long-term (chronic) sinus infections. An ear, nose, and throat specialist (ENT) does the surgery.

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Enlarged Adenoid

The adenoid is a structure located at the junction of the nose and throat (nasopharynx) that functions in the immune system. Adenoids sometimes become enlarged during childhood and the increased size may cause problems.

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Enlarged Lymph Nodes

There are thousands of collections of immune cells throughout the body called lymph nodes. When an infection is present, lymph nodes can become enlarged as an immune response is mounted.

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Enlarged Tonsils

The function of the tonsils is to help identify and fight infections caused by viruses or bacteria. They can cause problems if they are enlarged or become infected.

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Enterovirus D68 Infographic

Learn about Enterovirus D68, the symptoms that are associated with it and how it can be treated.

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Enteroviruses in Children

There are many types of enteroviruses. The viruses mostly cause illness in babies, children, and teens. This is because most adults have already been exposed to many enteroviruses and have built up immunity.

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Enuresis (Bedwetting)

Enuresis is the medical term for wetting the bed. It means a child urinates without meaning to. Treatment usually means helping a child to form habits that will allow him to control his need to urinate.

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Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EOE)

Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is a condition caused by inflammation of the esophagus, or swallowing tube, from the mouth to stomach. The inflammation is caused by the accumulation of white blood cells, called eosinophils, in the esophageal tissue.

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Epididymitis in Children

Epididymitis is an inflammation or infection of the epididymis. This is a thin, coiled tube that sits on top of a male testicle. In younger boys, this condition can be caused by a urinary tract infection. In older boys and teens, it's often caused by a sexually transmitted disease (STD).

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Epiglottitis in Children

The epiglottis is a flap of cartilage at the base of the tongue at the very back of the throat. When the epiglottis becomes swollen and inflamed, it is called epiglottitis.

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Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a neurological condition involving the brain that makes people more susceptible to having recurrent unprovoked seizures. The two broad categories of epileptic seizures are generalized and partial seizures.

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Epilepsy and Seizures in Children

Epilepsy is a brain condition that causes a child to have seizures. It is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system.

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Epilepsy During Pregnancy

Epilepsy is a disorder of the nervous system. It is also called a seizure disorder. Normally the body's nerves send information by electrical and chemical signals. People with epilepsy have abnormal electrical signals in the brain. This can cause a seizure. Seizures can cause severe shaking of muscles. Or they may be very mild with hardly any symptoms at all.

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EPT Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. If left untreated, Chlamydia can damage the reproductive organs and may lead to sterility.

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EPT Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STI). It is caused by a parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis.

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Equipment That Is Used in the NICU

NICUs are equipped with complex machines and devices to monitor nearly every system of a baby's body - temperature, heart rate, breathing, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, and blood pressure.

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Evaluating a Child for Birth Defects

Detailed information on evaluating a child for birth defects

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Evaluation Procedures for Children

Detailed information on evaluation procedures used to diagnosis orthopedic disorders in children.

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Evoked Auditory Potentials

Learn more about evoked auditory potentials.

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Ewing Sarcoma in Children

Ewing sarcoma is a rare type of cancer. It’s most common in children and teens between the ages 10 and 19. It usually grows in bone, but it can also grow in soft tissue that’s connected to the bone. This may include tendons, ligaments, cartilage, or muscles.

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Ewing's Sarcoma

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Ewing's Sarcoma

Ewing sarcoma is a form of cancer that usually starts in the bone. The tumors, sometimes referred to as the Ewing Family of Tumors, include Ewing sarcoma, atypical Ewing sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal (PNET) tumor of the bone.

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Examples of Teratogens

Detailed information on examples of teratogens

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Exercise and Children

Exercise is an important part of keeping children healthy. Encouraging healthy lifestyles in children and teens is important for when they grow older.

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Exercise and Teenagers

Teens need at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity on most days for good health and fitness and for healthy weight during growth.

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Exercise Electrocardiogram (ECG) Testing for Children

Electrocardiography (ECG) is a simple, fast test to check the electrical activity of your child's heart as blood moves through it. Abnormal ECG results may mean there is a problem with your child's heart.

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Exercised Induced Asthma (EIA)

Exercise-induced asthma, also known as EIA, is defined as breathing difficulty that is triggered by increased activity. Symptoms of exercise-induced asthma include chest tightness, coughing, shortness of breath and wheezing.

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Expressing Milk for Your High-Risk Baby

You will have to remove milk from your breasts on a regular basis if you are to provide enough of your milk for your high-risk baby.

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Expressing Your Milk - Helpful Equipment

Hospital-grade, electric breast pumps are the only pumps built for frequent and prolonged use. These pumps automatically cycle suction with release of suction—similar to a baby's sucking action.

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Exstrophy of the Bladder and Epispadias in Children

Exstrophy of the bladder is when a baby's bladder has grown inside out and is sticking through the belly wall. It often occurs together with epispadias. This is when the opening of the tube that carries urine out of the body (the urethra) is in the wrong place.

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Extreme Prematurity

A birth that occurs any time prior to 37 weeks of pregnancy is considered premature. Sometimes that baby is referred to as preterm, near-term or a preemie. The most extreme issues occur in babies born at less than 28 weeks.

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Eye Disorders in Children

Detailed information on eye disorders in children

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Eye Injury Corneal Abrasion

The cornea is the clear part of the eye that covers the iris and pupil. A corneal abrasion is an injury caused by something scratching or rubbing the surface of the eye.

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Eye Medicine and Vitamin K Injection for Newborns

Newborn babies routinely receive eye medicine and vitamin K injections soon after birth. Both prevent serious conditions.

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Eye Safety and First Aid

Detailed information on eye safety and tips to avoid eye injury

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Eye Trauma

Detailed information on eye trauma in children

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Eyeglasses and Contact Lenses

A child who needs vision correction may wear eyeglasses or contact lenses. Either choice comes in a range of choices.

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Eyelid Lacerations in Children

Eyelid lacerations are cuts to the eyelid. They are caused by injury.

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Helping Hands Patient Education Materials

Written and illustrated by medical, nursing and allied health professionals at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Helping Hand instructions are intended as a supplement to verbal instructions provided by a medical professional. The information is periodically reviewed and revised to reflect our current practice. However, Nationwide Children's Hospital is not responsible for any consequences resulting from the use or misuse of the information in the Helping Hands.