Understanding Rhabdo: Why You Should Take Exertional Rhabdomyolysis Seriously
Feb 07, 2017
Not long after one sports season ends, many high school and university teams quickly begin rigorous off-season training programs to prepare for the next season. While some athletes are starting preseason team workouts, countless others are working on aggressive new personal workout and training regimens.
Overtraining has countless psychological, physical, and medical risks. Frequently we hear in the media or personal accounts of athletes admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis after grueling strength and conditioning workouts on and off school campuses.
Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) or “rhabdo” is a rare, yet serious, and potentially fatal, condition if not recognized and treated appropriately. It is defined as the breakdown of normal skeletal muscle fibers due to injury or exercise. Exercise to create this reaction is typically excessive, repetitive, or prolonged, and outside of the athletes accustomed training regimen.
The muscle fiber breakdown results in the release of muscle contents into the blood which then circulate throughout the athlete’s body. These components may overwhelm normal filtration of blood, leading to injury of the kidneys. Additionally, imbalances in circulating electrolytes place the athlete at risk for abnormal heart rhythms and even death.
The severity of ER is directly related to the amount of muscle injury and breakdown. There is an increased risk of ER after excessive muscle exertion in athletes who are dehydrated, using certain medications or nutritional supplements, or exposed to extreme heat. Additionally, athletes with sickle cell trait also carry a unique risk for this condition. While it is safe for athletes with sickle cell trait to participate in sports they may benefit from a personalized plan to increase their training intensity.
Symptoms begin with severe muscle pain, swelling, weakness, cramping, and fatigue during or after an overly intense workout. These symptoms are typically out of proportion to normal post-exercise soreness and do not rapidly improve after stopping exercise. The athlete will likely notice dark “tea” or “cola” colored urine as muscle components are filtered through the kidney. With these symptoms, an athlete should go to an emergency room where blood tests will assist in diagnosis and early treatment can begin.
Treatment includes rest from the offending activity and very aggressive hydration, usually requiring IV fluids, as more fluids are required than can be taken by mouth. As symptoms and blood tests improve the athlete is not out of the woods yet and requires a gradual return to sport. Plan to do so safely and to minimize the risk of further episodes. While each medical staff may have their own specific program for return to play, all should include a period of light exercise, at the athletes own pace, in a temperature-controlled environment. This should be followed by a gradual return to sport specific activities. The athlete should avoid max lifting and competitive or timed drills until appropriately conditioned back to their normal level of exercise.
Early and accurate recognition and treatment of exertional rhabdomyolisis is imperative to the management of this condition. Prevention of ER is just as important, by being appropriately conditioned for each workout.
Athletes should gradually build into intense pre, or off, season workouts. Any increase in exercise intensity should be met with an appropriate increase in hydration and nutrition to appropriately fuel the athlete. The Sports Medicine team at Nationwide Children’s Hospital includes physicians, athletic trainers, and dietitians to provide guidance and help prevent and treat exertional rhabdomyolysis and other conditions.
Jonathan Napolitano, MD, brings diverse training and experience to our physician team with dual appointments in both Sports Medicine and Orthopedics. Board certified in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation with subspecialty certification in Sports Medicine, Dr. Napolitano is uniquely prepared to care for athletes of all ages, experience levels, and physical abilities. He serves as a clinical assistant professor in the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at The Ohio State University College of Medicine.
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