Toshiharu Shinoka, MD, PhD :: Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio

Toshiharu Shinoka, MD, PhD

Toshiharu Shinoka, MD, PhD

Cardiology Fellowship

Cardiothoracic Surgery
Physician Team

Heart Center
Physician Team

Heart Surgery
Surgeon Team

Heart-Lung Transplant
Surgeon Team

Lung Transplant
Surgeon Team

Transplant Program
Surgeon Team

Contact Information

Cardiothoracic Surgery
700 Children's Dr
Columbus, OH 43205 [ map ]
PH: (614) 722-3103
FX: (614) 722-3111

Location Information for Patients

Main Campus


Toshiharu Shinoka, MD, PhD, is a Co-Director of the Tissue Engineering Program at Nationwide Children’s Hospital. His clinical and research interests center on bioengineered tissue for use in surgery. Working with Dr. Christopher K. Breuer, he was the first in the world to tissue engineer blood vessels and implant them in human infants. Dr. Shinoka has many honors recognizing his contributions, including the Blue Ribbon 1st Place Poster from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Meeting.


  • Male

Languages Spoken:

  • English
  • Japanese

Research Interests

Areas of Interest:

Education and Training

Medical School

  • Hiroshima University School of Medicine
    Date Completed: 03/31/1983


  • Tokyo Women's Medical University
    Date Completed: 03/31/1985


  • Tokyo Women's Medical University
    Date Completed: 03/31/1989


  • Boston Children's Hospital
    Date Completed: 07/31/1997


  • Cardiothoracic Surgery


  • Cardiovascular Surgery

Date of Appointment at Nationwide Children’s Hospital:

  • 10/26/2012


  • James, A, Yi, T, Tara, S, Best, CA, Stuber, AJ, Shah, KV, Austin, BF, Sugiura, T, Lee, YU, Lincoln, J, Trask, AJ, Shinoka, T, Breuer, CK. 2015. Hemodynamic characterization of a mouse model for investigating the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neotissue formation in tissue-engineered heart valves.  Tissue Eng. Part C Methods. Vol. 21, no. 9. (September): 987-994.
  • Tara, S, Kurobe, H, Maxfield, MW, Rocco, KA, Yi, T, Naito, Y, Breuer, CK, Shinoka, T. 2015. Evaluation of remodeling process in small-diameter cell-free tissue-engineered arterial graft.  Journal of Vascular Surgery. Vol. 62, no. 3. (September): 734-743.
  • Kurobe,Hirotsugu; Tara,Shuhei; Maxfield,Mark,W; Rocco,Kevin,A; Bagi,Paul,S; Yi,Tai; Udelsman,Brooks,V; Dean,Ethan,W; Khosravi,Ramak; Powell,Heather,M; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2015. Comparison of the Biological Equivalence of Two Methods for Isolating Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells for Fabricating Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts.  Tissue Engineering Part C-Methods. Vol. 21, no. 6. (June): 597-604.
  • Hibino,Narutoshi; Mejias,Dane; Pietris,Nicholas; Dean,Ethan; Yi,Tai; Best,Cameron; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Breuer,Christopher. 2015. The innate immune system contributes to tissue-engineered vascular graft performance.  FASEB Journal. Vol. 29, no. 6. (June): 2431-2438.
  • Ichihara,Yuki; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Matsumura,Goki; Ikada,Yoshito; Yamazaki,Kenji. 2015. A new tissue-engineered biodegradable surgical patch for high-pressure systems.  Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery. Vol. 20, no. 6. (June): 768-776.
  • Tara, S, Shoji, T, Shinoka, T. 2015. Neotissue Remodeling of Tissue-Engineered Arterial Graft. In Nanomaterials and Regenerative Medicine. Columbus: IAPX-OBP.
  • Khosravi,Ramak; Miller,Kristin,S; Best,Cameron,A; Shih,Yushane,C; Lee,Yong-Ung; Yi,Tai; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Breuer,Christopher,K; Humphrey,Jay,D. 2015. Biomechanical Diversity Despite Mechanobiological Stability in Tissue Engineered Vascular Grafts Two Years Post-Implantation.  Tissue Engineering Part A. Vol. 21, no. 9-10. (May): 1529-1538.
  • Kurobe,Hirotsugu; Maxfield,Mark,W; Tara,Shuhei; Rocco,Kevin,A; Bagi,Paul,S; Yi,Tai; Udelsman,Brooks; Zhuang,Zhen,W; Cleary,Muriel; Iwakiri,Yasuko; Breuer,Christopher,K; Shinoka,Toshiharu. 2015. Development of Small Diameter Nanofiber Tissue Engineered Arterial Grafts.  PLOS ONE. Vol. 10, no. 4. (April): ee0120328.
  • Duncan,Daniel,R; Chen,Pei-Yu; Patterson,Joseph,T; Lee,Yong-Ung; Hibino,Narutoshi; Cleary,Muriel; Naito,Yuji; Yi,Tai; Gilliland,Thomas; Kurobe,Hirotsugu; Church,Spencer,N; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Fahmy,Tarek,M; Simons,Michael; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2015. TGF beta R1 Inhibition Blocks the Formation of Stenosis in Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts.  Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Vol. 65, no. 5. (February): 512-514.
  • Melchiorri,A,J; Hibino,N; Yi,T; Lee,Y,U; Sugiura,T; Tara,S; Shinoka,T; Breuer,C; Fisher,J,P. 2015. Contrasting Biofunctionalization Strategies for the Enhanced Endothelialization of Biodegradable Vascular Grafts.  Biomacromolecules Journal. Vol. 16, no. 2. (February): 437-446.
  • Kurobe,Hirotsugu; Maxfield,Mark,W; Naito,Yuji; Cleary,Muriel; Stacy,Mitchel,R; Solomon,Daniel; Rocco,Kevin,A; Tara,Shuhei; Lee,Avione,Y; Sinusas,Albert,J; Snyder,Edward,L; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2015. Comparison of a Closed System to a Standard Open Technique for Preparing Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts.  Tissue Engineering Part C-Methods. Vol. 21, no. 1. (January): 88-93.
  • Tara,Shuhei; Kurobe,Hirotsugu; Rocco,Kevin,A; Maxfield,Mark,W; Best,Cameron,A; Yi,Tai; Naito,Yuji; Breuer,Christopher,K; Shinoka,Toshiharu. 2014. Well-organized neointima of large-pore poly(L-lactic acid) vascular graft coated with poly(L-lactic-co-epsilon-caprolactone) prevents calcific deposition compared to small-pore electrospun poly(L-lactic acid) graft in a mouse aortic implantation model.  Atherosclerosis. Vol. 237, no. 2. (December): 684-691.
  • Stacy,Mitchel,R; Naito,Yuji; Maxfield,Mark,W; Kurobe,Hirotsugu; Tara,Shuhei; Chan,Chung; Rocco,Kevin,A; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Sinusas,Albert,J; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2014. Targeted imaging of matrix metalloproteinase activity in the evaluation of remodeling tissue-engineered vascular grafts implanted in a growing lamb model.  Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Vol. 148, no. 5. (November): 2227-2233.
  • Shinoka, T. 2014. Development of a tissue-engineering vascular graft for use in congenital heart surgery.  EBioMedicine. Vol. 1, no. 1. (October): 12-13.
  • Lee,Yong-Ung; Yi,Tai; James,Iyore; Tara,Shuhei; Stuber,Alexander,J; Shah,Kejal,V; Lee,Avione,Y; Sugiura,Tadahisa; Hibino,Narutoshi; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2014. Transplantation of Pulmonary Valve Using a Mouse Model of Heterotopic Heart Transplantation.  JOVE-Journal of Visualized Experiments. Vol. 4, no. 89. (July): ee51695.
  • Lee,Yong-Ung; Yi,Tai; Tara,Shuhei; Lee,Avione,Y; Hibino,Narutoshi; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2014. Implantation of Inferior Vena Cava Interposition Graft in Mouse Model.  JOVE-Journal of Visualized Experiments. Vol. 4, no. 88. (June): ee51632.
  • Tara,Shuhei; Rocco,Kevin,A; Hibino,Narutoshi; Sugiura,Tadahisa; Kurobe,Hirotsugu; Breuer,Christopher,K; Shinoka,Toshiharu. 2014. Vessel Bioengineering - Development of Small-Diameter Arterial Grafts.  Circulation Journal. Vol. 78, no. 1. (January): 12-19.
  • Naito,Yuji; Lee,Yong-Ung; Yi,Tai; Church,Spencer,N; Solomon,Daniel; Humphrey,Jay,D; Shin'oka,Toshiharu; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2014. Beyond Burst Pressure: Initial Evaluation of the Natural History of the Biaxial Mechanical Properties of Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts in the Venous Circulation Using a Murine Model.  Tissue Engineering Part A. Vol. 20, no. 1-2. (January): 346-355.
  • Kurobe H, Maxfield MW, Naito Y, Breuer CK, Shinoka T. 2014. Stem Cells in Tissue Enginered Blood Vessels for Cardiac Repair. In Cardiac Regeneration and Repair: Volume 2 - Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering. Toronto: Woodhead Publishing.
  • Tara, S, Rocco, KA, Hibino, N, Sugiura, T, Kurobe, H, Breuer, CK, Shinoka, T. 2014. Vessel Bioengineering. In Development of Small-Diameter Arterial Grafts. Boston: Circulation Journal.
  • Shinoka, Toshiharu. 2014. Tissue Engineering Vascular Graft. In Past, Now, and Future. Columbus: Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery.
  • Naito,Yuji; Rocco,Kevin; Kurobe,Hirotsugu; Maxfield,Mark; Breuer,Christopher; Shinoka,Toshiharu. 2014. Tissue Engineering in the Vasculature.  Anatomical Record-Advances In Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology. Vol. 297, no. 1. (January): 83-97.
  • Shinoka, Toshiharu, Naito, Y, Rocco, K, Kurobe, H, Maxfield, M, Breuer, C. 2013. Tissue Engineering in the Vasculature. In The Anatomical Record Advance in. Not Listed: Anat Rec (Hoboken).
  • Toshiharu Shinoka. 2013. Chapter 58: Vessel Bioengineering (Ed: Orland). In Regenerative Medicine Technology as Applied to Organ Transplantation..
  • Shinoka, Toshiharu, Kurobe, H, Maxfield, MW, Breuer, CK. 2012. Concise Review: Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts for Cardiac Surgery: Past, Present, and Future. In Past, Present, and Future. Not Listed: Stem Cells Translational Medicine.
  • Kurobe,Hirotsugu; Maxfield,Mark,W; Breuer,Christopher,K; Shinoka,Toshiharu. 2012. Concise Review: Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts for Cardiac Surgery: Past, Present, and Future.  Stem Cells Translational Medicine. Vol. 1, no. 7. (July): 566-571.
  • Shinoka, Toshiharu, Patterson, JT, Gilliland, T, Maxfield, MW, Church, S, Natio, Y. 2012. Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts for Use in the Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease. In From the Bench to the Clinic and Back Again. Columbus: Regenerative Medicine.
  • Patterson,Joseph,T; Gilliland,Thomas; Maxfield,Mark,W; Church,Spencer; Naito,Yuji; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2012. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts for use in the treatment of congenital heart disease: from the bench to the clinic and back again.  Regenerative Medicine. Vol. 7, no. 3. (May): 409-419.
  • Hibino,Narutoshi; Duncan,Daniel,R; Nalbandian,Ani; Yi,Tai; Qyang,Yibing; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2012. Evaluation of the use of an induced puripotent stem cell sheet for the construction of tissue-engineered vascular grafts.  Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Vol. 143, no. 3. (March): 696-703.
  • Naito,Yuji; Williams-Fritze,Misty; Duncan,Daniel,R; Church,Spencer,N; Hibino,Narutoshi; Madri,Joseph,A; Humphrey,Jay,D; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2012. Characterization of the Natural History of Extracellular Matrix Production in Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts during Neovessel Formation.  Cells Tissues Organs. Vol. 195, no. 1-2. (January): 60-72.
  • Toshiharu Shinoka. 2012. Stem Cells in Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels for Cardiac Repair. In In: Cardiac Regeneration and Repair: Volume 2 -- Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering.. Toronto: Li RK and Reisel R - Woodhead Publishing.
  • Harrington,Jamie,K; Chahboune,Halima; Criscione,Jason,M; Li,Alice,Y; Hibino,Narutoshi; Yi,Tai; Villalona,Gustavo,A; Kobsa,Serge; Meijas,Dane; Duncan,Daniel,R; Devine,Lesley; Papademetri,Xenophon; Shin'oka,Toshiharu; Fahmy,Tarek,M; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2011. Determining the fate of seeded cells in venous tissue-engineered vascular grafts using serial MRI.  FASEB Journal. Vol. 25, no. 12. (December): 4150-4161.
  • Hibino,Narutoshi; Yi,Tai; Duncan,Daniel,R; Rathore,Animesh; Dean,Ethan; Naito,Yuji; Dardik,Alan; Kyriakides,Themis; Madri,Joseph; Pober,Jordan,S; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2011. A critical role for macrophages in neovessel formation and the development of stenosis in tissue-engineered vascular grafts.  FASEB Journal. Vol. 25, no. 12. (December): 4253-4263.
  • Hibino,Narutoshi; Nalbandian,Ani; Devine,Lesley; Martinez,Rajendra,Sawh; McGillicuddy,Edward; Yi,Tai; Karandish,Safa; Ortolano,Girolamo,A; Shin'oka,Toshiharu; Snyder,Edward; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2011. Comparison of Human Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Isolation Methods for Creating Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts: Novel Filter System Versus Traditional Density Centrifugation Method.  Tissue Engineering Part C-Methods. Vol. 17, no. 10. (October): 993-998.
  • Hibino,Narutoshi; Villalona,Gustavo; Pietris,Nicholas; Duncan,Daniel,R; Schoffner,Adam; Roh,Jason,D; Yi,Tai; Dobrucki,Lawrence,W; Mejias,Dane; Sawh-Martinez,Rajendra; Harrington,Jamie,K; Sinusas,Albert; Krause,Diane,S; Kyriakides,Themis; Saltzman,W,Mark; Pober,Jordan,S; Shin'oka,Toshiharu; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2011. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts form neovessels that arise from regeneration of the adjacent blood vessel.  FASEB Journal. Vol. 25, no. 8. (August): 2731-2739.
  • Udelsman,Brooks; Hibino,Narutoshi; Villalona,Gustavo,A; McGillicuddy,Edward; Nieponice,Alejandro; Sakamoto,Yuki; Matsuda,Shojiro; Vorp,David,A; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2011. Development of an Operator-Independent Method for Seeding Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts.  Tissue Engineering Part C-Methods. Vol. 17, no. 7. (July): 731-736.
  • Naito,Yuji; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Duncan,Daniel; Hibino,Narutoshi; Solomon,Daniel; Cleary,Muriel; Rathore,Animesh; Fein,Corey; Church,Spencer; Breuer,Christopher. 2011. Vascular tissue engineering: Towards the next generation vascular grafts.  Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. Vol. 63, no. 4-5. (April): 312-323.
  • Toshiharu Shinoka. 2011. Restoring blood vessels. In In Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine..
  • Toshiharu Shinoka. 2011. Cardiovascular system tissue engineered vascular grafts. In Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering..
  • Nagashima, M, Shinoka, T. 2010. Benefits of Hemofiltration for Lung Function. In Principles of Pulmonary Protection During Heart Surgery. London: Springer Link.
  • Mirensky, TL, Hibino, N, Sawh-Martinez, RF, Yi, T, Villalona, G, Shinoka, T, Breuer, CK. 2010. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts: does cell seeding matter?.  Journal of Pediatric Surgery. Vol. 45, no. 6. (June): 1299-1305.
  • Villalona,Gustavo,A; Udelsman,Brooks; Duncan,Daniel,R; McGillicuddy,Edward; Sawh-Martinez,Rajendra,F; Hibino,Narutoshi; Painter,Christopher; Mirensky,Tamar; Erickson,Benjamin; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2010. Cell-Seeding Techniques in Vascular Tissue Engineering.  Tissue Engineering Part B-Reviews. Vol. 16, no. 3. (June): 341-350.
  • Roh,Jason,D; Sawh-Martinez,Rajendra; Brennan,Matthew,P; Jay,Steven,M; Devine,Lesley; Rao,Deepak,A; Yi,Tai; Mirensky,Tamar,L; Nalbandian,Ani; Udelsman,Brooks; Hibino,Narutoshi; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Saltzman,W,Mark; Snyder,Edward; Kyriakides,Themis,R; Pober,Jordan,S; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2010. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts transform into mature blood vessels via an inflammation-mediated process of vascular remodeling.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Vol. 107, no. 10. (March): 4669-4674.
  • Okamura,Toru; Shin'oka,Toshiharu; Ishibashi,Nobuyuki; Ishii,Hikaru; Kurosawa,Hiromi. 2010. Simultaneous use of argatroban and heparin during cardiopulmonary bypass.  Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals. Vol. 18, no. 1. (February): 22-26.
  • Hibino, N, McGillicuddy, E, Matsumura, G, Ichihara, Y, Naito, Y, Breuer, C, Shinoka, T. 2010. Late-term results of tissue-engineered vascular grafts in humans.  Journal of Thoracic Cardiovascular Surgery. Vol. 139, no. 2. (February): 431-436.
  • Okamura, T, Shinoka, T, Ishibashi, N, Ishi, H, Kurosawa, H. 2010. Simultaneous use of argatroban and heparin during cardiopulmonary bypass.  Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals. Vol. 18, no. 1. (February): 22-26.
  • Miyamoto,Shinka; Kawaguchi,Nanako; Ellison,Georgina,M; Matsuoka,Rumiko; Shin'oka,Toshiharu; Kurosawa,Hiromi. 2010. Characterization of Long-Term Cultured c-kit(+) Cardiac Stem Cells Derived From Adult Rat Hearts.  Stem Cells and Development. Vol. 19, no. 1. (January): 105-116.
  • Shinoka, Toshiharu, Salameh, BS, Mirensky, TL, Breuer, CK. 2010. Tissue Engineered Bloos Vessels: From the Bench to the Bedside and Back Again. In Development of a Vascular Conduit for use in Congenital Heart Surgery. Edited by Hsiai, Tzung K, Blackman, Brett, Hanjoong, Jo. New Haven: Hemodynamics & Mechanobiology of Endothelium.
  • Toshiharu Shinoka. 2010. Benefits of hemofiltration for lung function. In Principles of pulmonary protection during heart surgery..
  • Salameh, BS, Mirensky, TLShinoka, Toshiharu, Breuer, CK. 2010. Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels: From the Bench to the Bedside and Back Again (Development of a Vascular Conduit for use in Congenital Heart Surgery). In Hemodynamics & Mechanobiology of Endothelium. Engelska: Basu, Joydeep.
  • Shinoka, Toshiharu,. 2010. Cell Seeding Techniques in Vascular Tissue Engineering. In Tissue Eng Part B. Not Listed: Not Listed.
  • Mirensky, TL, Nelson, GN, Brennan, MP, Roh, JD, Hibino, N, Yi, T, Shinoka, T, Breuer, CK. 2009. Tissue-engineered arterial grafts: long-term results after implantation in a small animal model.  Journal of Pediatric Surgery. Vol. 44, no. 6. (June): 1127-1132.
  • Shinoka,Toshiharu; Breuer,Christopher. 2008. Tissue-engineered blood vessels in pediatric cardiac surgery.  Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. Vol. 81, no. 4. (December): 161-166.
  • Iwata,Yusuke; Imai,Yasuharu; Shin'oka,Toshiharu; Kurosawa,Hiromi. 2008. Subaortic stenosis associated with systolic anterior motion.  Heart and Vessels. Vol. 23, no. 6. (November): 436-439.
  • Kimura,Naritaka; Shukunami,Chisa; Hakuno,Daihiko; Yoshioka,Masatoyo; Miura,Shigenori; Docheva,Denitsa; Kimura,Tokuhiro; Okada,Yasunori; Matsumura,Goki; Shin'oka,Toshiharu; Yozu,Ryohei; Kobayashi,Junjiro; Ishibashi-Ueda,Hatsue; Hiraki,Yuji; Fukuda,Keiichi. 2008. Local Tenomodulin Absence, Angiogenesis, and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activation Are Associated With the Rupture of the Chordae Tendineae Cordis.  Circulation. Vol. 118, no. 17. (October): 1737-1747.
  • Brennan,Matthew,P; Dardik,Alan; Hibino,Narutoshi; Roh,Jason,D; Nelson,Gregory,N; Papademitris,Xenophon; Shinoka,Toshiharu; Breuer,Christopher,K. 2008. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts demonstrate evidence of growth and development when implanted in a juvenile animal model.  Annals of Surgery. Vol. 248, no. 3. (September): 370-376.
  • Matsumura,Goki; Shin'oka,Toshiharu; Ikada,Yoshito; Sakamoto,Takahiko; Kurosawa,Hiromi. 2008. Novel anti-adhesive pericardial substitute for multistage cardiac surgery.  Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals. Vol. 16, no. 4. (August): 309-312.
  • Naito,Yuji; Shin'oka,Toshiharu; Hibino,Narutoshi; Matsumura,Goki; Kurosawa,Hiromi. 2008. A novel method to reduce pericardial adhesion: A combination technique with hyaluronic acid biocompatible membrane.  Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Vol. 135, no. 4. (April): 850-856.
  • Hobo,Kyoko; Shimizu,Tatsuya; Sekine,Hidekazu; Shin'oka,Toshiharu; Okano,Teruo; Kurosawa,Hiromi. 2008. Therapeutic angiogenesis using tissue engineered human smooth muscle cell sheets.  Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. Vol. 28, no. 4. (April): 637-643.
  • Shinoka, Toshiharu. 2007. Vascular Tissue Engineering. In Tissue Engineering 2007. Tokyo: Tabata, Y.
  • Toshiharu Shinoka. 2007. Vascular Graft. In In Regenerative Medicine..
  • Toshiharu Shinoka. 2007. Vascular Tissue Engineering. In In Tissue Engineering..
  • Shinoka, Toshiharu. 2007. Vascular Graft. In In Regenerative Medicine. London: Ikada, Y.

featured video

Dr. Christopher Breuer and Dr. Toshiharu Shinoka, co-directors of the Tissue Engineering Program at Nationwide Children's Hospital, are the first surgeons in the world to engineer tissue-engineered vascular grafts using a child's own cells.
Bennett was born with complex congenital heart disease and received a rare double switch operation at Nationwide Children's Hospital.
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