Christopher M. Walker, Ph.D. :: Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio

Christopher M. Walker, Ph.D.

Christopher M. Walker, Ph.D.

Center for Vaccines and Immunity

Infectious Diseases Fellowship

Principal Investigator

Neuromuscular Disorders
Principal Investigator

Principal Investigator

Contact Information

The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital
700 Children's Drive
Columbus , Ohio 43205 [ map ]
PH: (614) 722.2735
FX: (614) 722.3680
Email Me


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  • Male

Languages Spoken:

  • English

Research Interests

Research Center:

Areas of Interest:

  • A major focus of our research is to understand how immune responses are subverted in a serious persistent virus infection of humans so that new vaccines can be developed. At the same time we are attempting to improve the success gene replacement for diseases like muscular dystrophy by preventing immunity to therapeutic proteins that might be recognized as foreign. The opposing goals of restoring immunity in one situation (persistent virus infection) and silencing it in another (gene therapy) are linked by our interest in common molecular switches that turn the human immune system on or off.

Education and Training

Post Doctoral

  • McMaster University
    Date Completed: 06/30/1985


  • University of California at San Francisco
    Date Completed: 06/30/1989

Professional Experience


  • The Wilby S. Cowan Endowed Chair in Pediatric Research, College of Medicine and Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.


  • Director, Center for Vaccines and Immunity, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH.


  • Professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital and The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.


  • Nationwide Children’s Hospital Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (Chair 2006-present; Member 2001-2005).


  • Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine and Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH


  • Director, Immunology Program, Virology and Vaccine Development, Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, CA


  • Associate Director, Virology and Vaccine Development, Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, CA


  • Senior Scientist, Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, CA


  • Principal Scientist, Virology and Vaccine Development, Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, CA.


  • Fellow, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA


  • Yi M, Hu F, Joyce M, Saxena V, Welsch C, Chavez D, Guerra B, Yamane D, Veselenak R, Pyles R, Walker CM , Tyrrell L, Bourne N, Lanford RE, Lemon SM. 2014. Evolution of a cell culture-derived genotype 1a hepatitis C virus (H77S.2) during persistent infection with chronic hepatitis in a chimpanzee.  J Virol. Vol. Epub ahead of print Jan 15, no. January: ena.
  • Mendell,Jerry,R; Rodino-Klapac,Louise,R; Sahenk,Zarife; Roush,Kandice; Bird,Loren; Lowes,Linda,P; Alfano,Lindsay; Gomez,Ann,Maria; Lewis,Sarah; Kota,Janaiah; Malik,Vinod; Shontz,Kim; Walker,Christopher,M; Flanigan,Kevin,M; Corridore,Marco; Kean,John,R; Allen,Hugh,D; Shilling,Chris; Melia,Kathleen,R; Sazani,Peter; Saoud,Jay,B; Kaye,Edward,M. 2013. Eteplirsen for the Treatment of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.  ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY. Vol. 74, no. 5. (November): 637-647.
  • Honegger,Jonathan,R; Kim,Seungtaek; Price,Aryn,A; Kohout,Jennifer,A; McKnight,Kevin,L; Prasad,Mona,R; Lemon,Stanley,M; Grakoui,Arash; Walker,Christopher,M. 2013. Loss of immune escape mutations during persistent HCV infection in pregnancy enhances replication of vertically transmitted viruses.  NATURE MEDICINE. Vol. 19, no. 11. (November): 1529-33.
  • Chicoine LG, Rodino-Klapac LR, Shao G, Xu R, Bremer WG, Camboni M, Golden B, Montgomery CL, Shontz K, Heller KN, Griffin DA, Lewis S, Coley BD, Walker CM, Clark KR, Sahenk Z, Mendell JR, Martin PT. 2013. Vascular delivery of rAAV rh74.MCK.GALGT2 to the gastrocnemius muscle of the rhesus macaque stimulates the expression of dystrophin and laminim a2 surrogates.  Mol Ther. Vol. Epub ahead of print Oct 22, no. October: ena.
  • Chicoine L, Montgomery C, Bremer W, Shontz K, Griffin D, Heller K, Lewis S, Malik V, Grose W, Shilling C, Campbell K, Preston T, Coley B, Martin P, Walker C, Clark K, Sahenk Z, Mendell J, Rodino-Klapac L. 2013. Plasmapheresis eliminates the negative impact of AAV antibodies on microdystrophin gene expression following vascular delivery.  Mol Ther. Vol. Epub ahead of print Oct 22, no. October: ena.
  • Flanigan,Kevin,M; Campbell,Katie; Viollet,Laurence; Wang,Wei; Gomez,Ana,Maria; Walker,Christopher,M; Mendell,Jerry,R. 2013. Anti-Dystrophin T Cell Responses in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Prevalence and a Glucocorticoid Treatment Effect.  HUMAN GENE THERAPY. Vol. 24, no. 9. (September): 797-806.
  • Fuller,Michael,J; Callendret,Benoit; Zhu,Baogong; Freeman,Gordon,J; Hasselschwert,Dana,L; Satterfield,William; Sharpe,Arlene,H; Dustin,Lynn,B; Rice,Charles,M; Grakoui,Arash; Ahmed,Rafi; Walker,Christopher,M. 2013. Immunotherapy of chronic hepatitis C virus infection with antibodies against programmed cell death-1 (PD-1).  PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Vol. 110, no. 37. (September): 15001-15006.
  • Feng,Zongdi; Hensley,Lucinda; McKnight,Kevin,L; Hu,Fengyu; Madden,Victoria; Ping,Lifang; Jeong,Sook-Hyang; Walker,Christopher; Lanford,Robert,E; Lemon,Stanley,M. 2013. A pathogenic picornavirus acquires an envelope by hijacking cellular membranes.  NATURE. Vol. 496, no. 7445. (April): 367-71.
  • Mendell JR, Rodino-Klapac L, Sahenk Z, Malik V, Kaspar BK, Walker CM, Clark KR. 2012. Gene therapy for muscular dystrophy: lessons learned and path forward.  Neurosci Lett. Vol. 527, no. 2. (October): 90-9.
  • Zhou Y, Callendret B, Xu D, Brasky KM, Feng Z, Hensley LL, Guedj J, Perelson AS, Lemon SM, Lanford RE, Walker CM. 2012. Dominance of the CD4(+) T helper cell response during acute resolving hepatitis A virus infection.  J Exp Med. Vol. 209, no. 8. (July): 1481-92.
  • Callendret B, Walker CM. 2012. 13. Will there be a vaccine to protect against the hepatitis C virus?.  Gastroenterology. Vol. 142, no. 6. (May): 1384-7.
  • Xu,Dan; Walker,Christopher,M. 2011. Continuous CD8(+) T-Cell Priming by Dendritic Cell Cross-Presentation of Persistent Antigen following Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Gene Delivery.  JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY. Vol. 85, no. 22. (November): 12083-12086.
  • Callendret,Benoit; Bukh,Jens; Eccleston,Heather,B; Heksch,Ryan; Hasselschwert,Dana,L; Purcell,Robert,H; Hughes,Austin,L; Walker,Christopher,M. 2011. Transmission of Clonal Hepatitis C Virus Genomes Reveals the Dominant but Transitory Role of CD8(+) T Cells in Early Viral Evolution.  JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY. Vol. 85, no. 22. (November): 11833-11845.
  • Lanford,Robert,E; Feng,Zongdi; Chavez,Deborah; Guerra,Bernadette; Brasky,Kathleen,M; Zhou,Yan; Yamane,Daisuke; Perelson,Alan,S; Walker,Christopher,M; Lemon,Stanley,M. 2011. Acute hepatitis A virus infection is associated with a limited type I interferon response and persistence of intrahepatic viral RNA.  PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Vol. 108, no. 27. (July): 11223-11228.
  • Mendell,Jerry,R; Campbell,Katherine; Rodino-Klapac,Louise; Sahenk,Zarife; Shilling,Chris; Lewis,Sarah; Bowles,Dawn; Gray,Steven; Li,Chengwen; Galloway,Gloria; Malik,Vinod; Coley,Brian; Clark,K,Reed; Li,Juan; Xiao,Xiao; Samulski,Jade; McPhee,Scott,W; Samulski,R,Jude; Walker,Christopher,M. 2010. Dystrophin immunity in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy.  New England journal of medicine. Vol. 363, no. 15. (October): 1429-1437.
  • Fuller MJ, Shoukry NH, Gushima T, Bowen DG, Callendret B, Campbell KJ, Hasselschwert DL, Hughes AL, Walker CM. 2010. Selection-driven immune escape is not a significant factor in the failure of CD4 T cell responses in persistent hepatitis C virus infection.  Hepatology. Vol. 51, no. 2. (January): 378-387.
  • Rodino-Klapac LR, Montgomery CL, Bremer WG, Shontz KM, Malik V, Davis N, Sprinkle S, Campbell KJ, Sahenk Z, Clark KR, Walker CM, Mendell JR, and Chicoine LG. 2010. Persistent Expression of FLAG-tagged micro dystrophin in nonhuman primates following intramuscular and vascular delivery.  Mol Ther. Vol. 18, no. 1. (January): 109-117.
  • Mendell JR, Campbell K, Rodino-Klapac L, Sahenk Z, Shilling C, Lewis S, Bowles D, Gray S, Li C, Galloway G, Malik V, Coley B, Clark KR, Li J, Xiao X, Samulski J, McPhee SW, Samulski RJ, Walker CM. 2010. Dystrophin immunity in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.  NEJM. Vol. 363, no. 15. (January): 1429-1437.
  • Walker CM. 2010. Adaptive immunity to the hepatitis C virus.  Adv Virus Res. Vol. 78, no. January: 43-86.
  • Malik V, Rodino-Klapac LR, Viollet L, Wall C, King W, Al-Dahhak R, Lewis S, Shilling CJ, Kota J, Serrano-Munuera C, Hayes J, Mahan JD, Campbell KJ, Banwell B, Dasouki M, Watts V, Sivakumar K, Bien-Willner R, Flanigan KM, Sahenk Z, Barohn RJ, Walker CM, and Mendell JR. 2010. Gentamicin-induced readthrough of stop codons in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.  Annals Neurol. Vol. 67, no. 6. (January): 771-780.
  • Mendell JR, Rodino-Klapac LR, Rosales XQ, Coley BD, Galloway G, Lewis S, Malik V, Shilling C, Byrne BJ, Conlon T, Campbell KJ, Bremer WG, Taylor LE, Flanigan KM, Gastier-Foster JM, Astbury C, Kota J, Sahenk Z, Walker CM, Clark KR. 2010. Sustained alpha-sarcoglycan gene expression after gene transfer in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, type 2D.  Ann Neurol. Vol. 68, no. 5. (January): 629-638.
  • Gottwein JM, Scheel TK, Callendret B, Li YP, Eccleston HB, Engle RE, Govindarajan S, Satterfield W, Purcell RH, Walker CM, Bukh J. 2010. Novel infectious cDNA clones of hepatitis C virus genotype 3a (strain S52) and 4a (strain ED43): genetic analyses and in vivo pathogenesis studies.  J Virol. Vol. 84, no. 10. (January): 5277-5293.
  • Kota J, Handy CR, Haidet AM, Montgomery CL, Eagle A, Rodino-Klapac LR, Tucker D, Shilling CJ, Therlfall WR, Walker CM, Weisbrode SE, Janssen PML, Clark KR, Sahenk Z, Mendell JR, Kaspar BK. 2009. Follistatin gene delivery enhances muscle growth and strength in nonhuman primates.  Science Translational Medicine. Vol. 1, no. 6. (November): 6-15.
  • Kamili S, Sozzi V, Thompson G, Campbell K, Walker CM, Locarnini S, and Krawczynski K. 2009. Efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine against antiviral drug-resistant hepatitis B virus mutants in the chimpanzee model.  Hepatology. Vol. 49, no. 5. (January): 1483-1491.
  • Gal-Tanamy M, Walker CM, Poung S, and Lemon SM. 2009. Hepatitis C. In Vaccines for Biodefense and Emerging and Neglected Diseases. 1st ed. Edited by Barrett ADT, Stanberry LW. London: Elsevier.
  • Mendell JR, Rodino-Klapac LR, Rosales-Quintero X, Kota J, Coley BD, Galloway G, Craenen JM, Lewis S, Malik V, Shilling C, Byrne BJ, Conlon T, Campbell KJ, Bremer WG, Viollet L, Walker CM, Sahenk Z, Clark KR. 2009. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D gene therapy restores alpha-sarcoglycan and associated proteins.  Ann Neurol. Vol. 66, no. 3. (January): 290-297.
  • Velazquez VM, Bowen DG, and Walker CM. 2009. Silencing of T lymphocytes by antigen-driven programmed death in recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV)-mediated gene therapy.  Blood. Vol. 113, no. 3. (January): 538-545.
  • Ramalingam RK, Meyer-Olson D, Shoukry NH, Bowen DG, Walker CM, Kalams SA. 2008. Kinetic analysis by real-time PCR of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T cells in peripheral blood and liver after challenge with HCV.  J Virol. Vol. 82, no. 21. (November): 10487-10492.
  • Uebelhoer L, Han JH, Callendret B, Mateu G, Shoukry NH, Hanson HL, Rice CM, Walker CM, Grakoui A. 2008. Stable cytotoxic T cell escape mutation in hepatitis C virus is linked to maintenance of viral fitness.  PLoS Pathog. Vol. 4, no. 9. (September): ee1000143.
  • Velazquez VM, Bowen DG, Walker CM. 2008. Silencing of T lymphocytes by antigen-driven programmed death in recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV)-mediated gene therapy.  Blood. Vol. 113, no. 3. (June): 538-545.
  • Bowen DG, Shoukry NH, Grakoui A, Fuller MJ, Cawthon AG, Dong C, Hasselschwert DL, Brasky KM, Freeman GJ, Seth NP, Wucherpfennig KW, Houghton M, Walker CM. 2008. Variable patterns of programmed death-1 expression on fully functional memory T cells after spontaneous resolution of hepatitis C virus infection.  J Virol. Vol. 82, no. 10. (May): 5109-5114.
  • Lemon SM, Walker CM, Alter MJ, Yi M. 2006. Hepatitis C Viruses. In Fields Virology. 5th ed. Edited by Knipe DM and Howley PM. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Grakoui A, Wherry EJ, Hanson, HL, Walker CM, Ahmed R. 2006. Turning on the off switch: regulation of anti-viral T cell responses in the liver by the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway.  J Hepatol. Vol. 45, no. 4. (January): 468-472.
  • Sidney, John; Asabe, Shinichi; Peters, Bjoern; Purton, Kelly-Anne; Chung, Josan; Pencille, Timothy, J; Purcell, Robert; Walker, Christopher, M; Chisari, Francis, V; Sette, Alessandro. 2006. Detailed characterization of the peptide binding specificity of five common Patr class I MHC molecules.  Immunogenetics. Vol. 58, no. 7. (January): 559-70.
  • Bowen, David, G; Walker, Christopher M. 2005. The origin of quasispecies: cause or consequence of chronic hepatitis C viral infection?.  Journal of hepatology. Vol. 42, no. 3. (January): 408-17.
  • Kimura, Yoichi; Gushima, Toshifumi; Rawale, Sharad; Kaumaya, Pravin; Walker, Christopher M. 2005. Escape mutations alter proteasome processing of major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted epitopes in persistent hepatitis C virus infection.  Journal of virology. Vol. 79, no. 8. (January): 4870-6.
  • Bowen, David, G; Walker, Christopher M. 2005. Mutational escape from CD8+ T cell immunity: HCV evolution, from chimpanzees to man.  The Journal of experimental medicine. Vol. 201, no. 11. (January): 1709-14.
  • Bowen, David, G; Walker, Christopher M. 2005. Adaptive immune responses in acute and chronic hepatitis C virus infection.  Nature. Vol. 436, no. 7053. (January): 946-52.
  • Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Shoukry, Naglaa, H; Brady, Kristen, W; Kim, Helen; Olson, Douglas, P; Hartman, Kelly; Shintani, Ayumi, K; Walker, Christopher, M; Kalams, Spyros A. 2004. Limited T cell receptor diversity of HCV-specific T cell responses is associated with CTL escape.  The Journal of experimental medicine. Vol. 200, no. 3. (January): 307-19.
  • Shoukry, Naglaa, H; Cawthon, Andrew, G; Walker, Christopher M. 2004. Cell-mediated immunity and the outcome of hepatitis C virus infection.  Annual review of microbiology. Vol. 58, no. January: 391-424.
  • Larsson M, Babcock E, Grakoui A, Shoukry NH, Rice C, Walker CM and Bhardwaj N. 2004. Lack of phenotypic and functional impairment in dendritic cells from chimpanzees chronically infected with hepatitis C virus.  J Virol. Vol. 78, no. January: 6151-6161.
  • Sundaram, Roshni; Lynch, Marcus, P; Rawale, Sharad; Dakappagari, Naveen; Young, Donn; Walker, Christopher, M; Lemonnier, Francois; Jacobson, Steven; Kaumaya, Pravin T P. 2004. Protective efficacy of multiepitope human leukocyte antigen-A*0201 restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte peptide construct against challenge with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 Tax recombinant vaccinia virus.  Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). Vol. 37, no. 3. (January): 1329-39.
  • Elkington, Rebecca; Shoukry, Naglaa, H; Walker, Susan; Crough, Tania; Fazou, Chrysa; Kaur, Amitinder; Walker, Christopher, M; Khanna, Rajiv. 2004. Cross-reactive recognition of human and primate cytomegalovirus sequences by human CD4 cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for glycoprotein B and H.  European journal of immunology. Vol. 34, no. 11. (January): 3216-26.
  • Shoukry, Naglaa, H; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Walker, Christopher M. 2004. Conserved hierarchy of helper T cell responses in a chimpanzee during primary and secondary hepatitis C virus infections.  Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Vol. 172, no. 1. (January): 483-92.
  • Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Brady, Kristen, W; Blackard, Jason, T; Allen, Todd, M; Islam, Sabina; Shoukry, Naglaa, H; Hartman, Kelly; Walker, Christopher, M; Kalams, Spyros A. 2003. Analysis of the TCR beta variable gene repertoire in chimpanzees: identification of functional homologs to human pseudogenes.  Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Vol. 170, no. 8. (January): 4161-9.
  • Sundaram, Roshni; Sun, Yiping; Walker, Christopher, M; Lemonnier, Francois, A; Jacobson, Steven; Kaumaya, Pravin T P. 2003. A novel multivalent human CTL peptide construct elicits robust cellular immune responses in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice: implications for HTLV-1 vaccine design.  Vaccine. Vol. 21, no. 21-22. (January): 2767-81.
  • Sette, Alessandro; Sidney, John; Livingston, Brian, D; Dzuris, John, L; Crimi, Claire; Walker, Christopher, M; Southwood, Scott; Collins, Edward, J; Hughes, Austin L. 2003. Class I molecules with similar peptide-binding specificities are the result of both common ancestry and convergent evolution.  Immunogenetics. Vol. 54, no. 12. (January): 830-41.
  • Grakoui, Arash; Shoukry, Naglaa, H; Woollard, David, J; Han, Jin-Hwan; Hanson, Holly, L; Ghrayeb, John; Murthy, Krishna, K; Rice, Charles, M; Walker, Christopher M. 2003. HCV persistence and immune evasion in the absence of memory T cell help.  Science (New York, N.Y.). Vol. 302, no. 5645. (January): 659-62.
  • Shoukry, Naglaa, H; Grakoui, Arash; Houghton, Michael; Chien, David, Y; Ghrayeb, John; Reimann, Keith, A; Walker, Christopher M. 2003. Memory CD8+ T cells are required for protection from persistent hepatitis C virus infection.  The Journal of experimental medicine. Vol. 197, no. 12. (January): 1645-55.
  • Woollard, David, J; Grakoui, Arash; Shoukry, Naglaa, H; Murthy, Krishna, K; Campbell, Katherine, J; Walker, Christopher M. 2003. Characterization of HCV-specific Patr class II restricted CD4+ T cell responses in an acutely infected chimpanzee.  Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). Vol. 38, no. 5. (January): 1297-306.
  • Walker CM. 2002. Cell-mediated immunity and the outcome of HCV infection in chimpanzees. In Frontiers in Viral Hepatitis. Edited by Schinazi RF, Rice C and Sommadossi J-P. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
  • Davis NL, West A, Reap E, MacDonald G, Collier M, Dryga S, Maughan M, Connell M, Walker CM, McGrath K, Cecil C, Ping L-H, Frelinger J, Olmsted R, Keith P, Swanstrom R, Williamson C, Johnson P, Montefiori D, and Johnston RE. 2002. Alphavirus replicon particles as candidate HIV vaccines.  JUBMB Life. Vol. 53, no. January: 209-211.
  • Buck, C, B; Shen, ; XEgan, M, A; Pierson, T, C; Walker, C, M; Siliciano, R F. 2001. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag gene encodes an internal ribosome entry site.  Journal of virology. Vol. 75, no. 1. (January): 181-91.
  • Paliard, ; XDoe, B; Selby, M, J; Hartog, K; Lee, A, Y; Burke, R, L; Walker, C M. 2001. Induction of herpes simplex virus gB-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in TAP1-deficient mice by genetic immunization but not HSV infection.  Virology. Vol. 282, no. 1. (January): 56-64.
  • Erickson, A, L; Kimura, Y; Igarashi, S; Eichelberger, J; Houghton, M; Sidney, J; McKinney, D; Sette, A; Hughes, A, L; Walker, C M. 2001. The outcome of hepatitis C virus infection is predicted by escape mutations in epitopes targeted by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.  Immunity. Vol. 15, no. 6. (January): 883-95.
  • Paliard, ; XLiu, Y; Wagner, R; Wolf, H; Baenziger, J; Walker, C M. 2000. Priming of strong, broad, and long-lived HIV type 1 p55gag-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells after administration of a virus-like particle vaccine in rhesus macaques.  AIDS research and human retroviruses. Vol. 16, no. 3. (January): 273-82.
  • Sidney, J; Dzuris, J, L; Newman, M, J; Johnson, R, P; Kaur, A; Amitinder, K; Walker, C, M; Appella, E; Mothe, B; Watkins, D, I; Sette, A. 2000. Definition of the Mamu A*01 peptide binding specificity: application to the identification of wild-type and optimized ligands from simian immunodeficiency virus regulatory proteins.  Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Vol. 165, no. 11. (January): 6387-99.
  • McKinney, D, M; Erickson, A, L; Walker, C, M; Thimme, R; Chisari, F, V; Sidney, J; Sette, A. 2000. Identification of five different Patr class I molecules that bind HLA supertype peptides and definition of their peptide binding motifs.  Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Vol. 165, no. 8. (January): 4414-22.
  • Cooper, S; Erickson, A, L; Adams, E, J; Kansopon, J; Weiner, A, J; Chien, D, Y; Houghton, M; Parham, P; Walker, C M. 1999. Analysis of a successful immune response against hepatitis C virus.  Immunity. Vol. 10, no. 4. (January): 439-49.
  • Ohnimus, H; Heinkelein, M; Heeney, J, L; Walker, C, M; Jassoy, C. 1999. Lysis of HIV envelope glycoprotein-expressing cells by CD4+ T lymphocytes from chimpanzees.  Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes and human retrovirology : official publication of the International Retrovirology Association. Vol. 20, no. 2. (January): 207-13.
  • Furchner, M; Erickson, A, L; Allen, T; Watkins, D, I; Sette, A; Johnson, P, R; Walker, C M. 1999. The simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein contains two epitopes presented by the Mamu-A*01 class I molecule.  Journal of virology. Vol. 73, no. 10. (January): 8035-9.
  • Walker CM. 1999. Hepatitis C Virus. In Persistent Viral Infections. Edited by Chen I and Ahmed R. New York, NY: Wiley Press.
  • Selby, M; Erickson, A; Dong, C; Cooper, S; Parham, P; Houghton, M; Walker, C M. 1999. Hepatitis C virus envelope glycoprotein E1 originates in the endoplasmic reticulum and requires cytoplasmic processing for presentation by class I MHC molecules.  Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Vol. 162, no. 2. (January): 669-76.
  • Barnett, S, W; Klinger, J, M; Doe, B; Walker, C, M; Hansen, L; Duliege, A, M; Sinangil, F M. 1998. Prime-boost immunization strategies against HIV.  AIDS research and human retroviruses. Vol. 14 Suppl 3, no. January: S299-309.
  • Selby M, Walker CM and Ulmer JB. 1998. Mechanisms of action of DNA vaccines.  Exp Opin Invest Drugs. Vol. 7, no. January: 1987-1995.
  • Cooper, S; Adams, E, J; Wells, R, S; Walker, C, M; Parham, P. 1998. A major histocompatibility complex class I allele shared by two species of chimpanzee.  Immunogenetics. Vol. 47, no. 3. (January): 212-7.
  • Paliard, ; XDoe, B; Walker, C M. 1998. The T cell repertoire primed by antiviral vaccination is influenced by self-tolerance.  Cellular immunology. Vol. 188, no. 1. (January): 73-9.
  • Manning, W, C; Paliard, ; XZhou, S; Pat Bland, M; Lee, A, Y; Hong, K; Walker, C, M; Escobedo, J, A; Dwarki, V. 1997. Genetic immunization with adeno-associated virus vectors expressing herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoproteins B and D.  Journal of virology. Vol. 71, no. 10. (January): 7960-2.
  • Walker, C M. 1997. Comparative features of hepatitis C virus infection in humans and chimpanzees.  Springer seminars in immunopathology. Vol. 19, no. 1. (January): 85-98.
  • Barnett, S, W; Rajasekar, S; Legg, H; Doe, B; Fuller, D, H; Haynes, J, R; Walker, C, M; Steimer, K S. 1997. Vaccination with HIV-1 gp120 DNA induces immune responses that are boosted by a recombinant gp120 protein subunit.  Vaccine. Vol. 15, no. 8. (January): 869-73.
  • Selby, M, J; Doe, B; Walker, C M. 1997. Virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity elicited by coimmunization with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genes regulated by the bacteriophage T7 promoter and T7 RNA polymerase protein.  Journal of virology. Vol. 71, no. 10. (January): 7827-31.
  • Walker CM. 1997. Cell-mediated immunity in the persistence and pathogenesis of Hepatitis C virus infection: What can be learned from the chimpanzee model?. In Treatments in Hepatology. Edited by Arroyo V, Bosch J, Rodes J. Barcelona: Masson, S.A..
  • Paliard, ; XLee, A, Y; Walker, C M. 1996. RANTES, MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta are not involved in the inhibition of HIV-1SF33 replication mediated by CD8+ T-cell clones.  AIDS (London, England). Vol. 10, no. 12. (January): 1317-21.
  • Kowalski, H; Erickson, A, L; Cooper, S; Domena, J, D; Parham, P; Walker, C M. 1996. Patr-A and B, the orthologues of HLA-A and B, present hepatitis C virus epitopes to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells from two chronically infected chimpanzees.  The Journal of experimental medicine. Vol. 183, no. 4. (January): 1761-75.
  • Cooper, S; Kowalski, H; Erickson, A, L; Arnett, K; Little, A, M; Walker, C, M; Parham, P. 1996. The presentation of a hepatitis C viral peptide by distinct major histocompatibility complex class I allotypes from two chimpanzee species.  The Journal of experimental medicine. Vol. 183, no. 2. (January): 663-8.
  • Doe, B; Walker, C M. 1996. HIV-1 p24 Gag-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in mice.  AIDS (London, England). Vol. 10, no. 7. (January): 793-4.
  • Doe, B; Selby, M; Barnett, S; Baenziger, J; Walker, C M. 1996. Induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes by intramuscular immunization with plasmid DNA is facilitated by bone marrow-derived cells.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Vol. 93, no. 16. (January): 8578-83.
  • Walker CM. 1996. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses to the hepatitis C virus in humans and chimpanzees.  Seminars in Virology. Vol. 7, no. January: 13-21.
  • Weiner,A,J; Erickson,A,L; Kansopon,J; Crawford,K; Muchmore,E; Houghton,M; Walker,C,M. 1995. Association of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations with persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.  Princess Takamatsu symposia. Vol. 25, no. January: 227-235.
  • Rice, C, M; Walker, C M. 1995. Hepatitis C virus-specific T lymphocyte responses.  Current opinion in immunology. Vol. 7, no. 4. (January): 532-8.
  • Weiner, A; Erickson, A, L; Kansopon, J; Crawford, K; Muchmore, E; Hughes, A, L; Houghton, M; Walker, C M. 1995. Persistent hepatitis C virus infection in a chimpanzee is associated with emergence of a cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape variant.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Vol. 92, no. 7. (January): 2755-9.
  • Erickson, A, L; Walker, C M. 1994. An epitope in the V1 domain of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gp120 protein is recognized by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes from an SIV-infected rhesus macaque.  Journal of virology. Vol. 68, no. 4. (January): 2756-9.
  • Hsueh, F, W; Walker, C, M; Blackbourn, D, J; Levy, J A. 1994. Suppression of HIV replication by CD8+ cell clones derived from HIV-infected and uninfected individuals.  Cellular immunology. Vol. 159, no. 2. (January): 271-9.
  • Doe, B; Steimer, K, S; Walker, C M. 1994. Induction of HIV-1 envelope (gp120)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in mice by recombinant CHO cell-derived gp120 is enhanced by enzymatic removal of N-linked glycans.  European journal of immunology. Vol. 24, no. 10. (January): 2369-76.
  • Erickson, A, L; Walker, C M. 1993. Class I major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic T cell responses to vaccinia virus in humans.  The Journal of general virology. Vol. 74 ( Pt 4), no. January: 751-4.
  • Walker, C M. 1993. Non-cytolytic control of HIV replication by CD8+ T cells.  Seminars in immunology. Vol. 5, no. 3. (January): 195-201.
  • Erickson, A, L; Houghton, M; Choo, Q, L; Weiner, A, J; Ralston, R; Muchmore, E; Walker, C M. 1993. Hepatitis C virus-specific CTL responses in the liver of chimpanzees with acute and chronic hepatitis C.  Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Vol. 151, no. 8. (January): 4189-99.
  • Perot, K; Walker, C, M; Spaete, R R. 1992. Primary chimpanzee skin fibroblast cells are fully permissive for human cytomegalovirus replication.  The Journal of general virology. Vol. 73 ( Pt 12), no. January: 3281-4.
  • Walker CM, Selby M, Erickson A, Cataldo D, Valensi JP and Van Nest GA. 1992. Cationic lipids deliver a viral glycoprotein into the class I MHC antigen presentation pathway.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. Vol. 89, no. January: 7915-7918.
  • Walker, C, M; Erickson, A, L; Hsueh, F, C; Levy, J A. 1991. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication in acutely infected CD4+ cells by CD8+ cells involves a noncytotoxic mechanism.  Journal of virology. Vol. 65, no. 11. (January): 5921-7.
  • Walker, C, M; Thomson-Honnebier, G, A; Hsueh, F, C; Erickson, A, L; Pan, L, Z; Levy, J A. 1991. CD8+ T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals inhibit acute infection by human and primate immunodeficiency viruses.  Cellular immunology. Vol. 137, no. 2. (January): 420-8.
  • Castro, B, A; Walker, C, M; Eichberg, J, W; Levy, J A. 1991. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus replication by CD8+ cells from infected and uninfected chimpanzees.  Cellular immunology. Vol. 132, no. 1. (January): 246-55.
  • Wiviott, L, D; Walker, C, M; Levy, J A. 1990. CD8+ lymphocytes suppress HIV production by autologous CD4+ cells without eliminating the infected cells from culture.  Cellular immunology. Vol. 128, no. 2. (January): 628-34.
  • Levy JA, Mackewicz CE, and Walker CM. 1990. Primary HIV-1 infection (letter).  N Engl J Med. Vol. 325, no. January: e734.
  • Walker, C M. 1989. How do CD8+ T lymphocytes control HIV replication in vivo?.  Research in immunology. Vol. 140, no. 1. (January): 115-8; discussion 122.
  • Walker, C, M; Levy, J A. 1989. A diffusible lymphokine produced by CD8+ T lymphocytes suppresses HIV replication.  Immunology. Vol. 66, no. 4. (January): 628-30.
  • Walker, C, M; Moody, D, J; Stites, D, P; Levy, J A. 1989. CD8+ T lymphocyte control of HIV replication in cultured CD4+ cells varies among infected individuals.  Cellular immunology. Vol. 119, no. 2. (January): 470-5.
  • Castro, B, A; Walker, C, M; Tateno, M; Cheng-Mayer, C; Heberling, R; Eichberg, J, W; Levy, J A. 1989. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from experimentally infected chimpanzees: isolation and characterization.  Journal of medical primatology. Vol. 18, no. 3-4. (January): 337-42.
  • Walker CM, Steimer KS, Rosenthal KL, Levy JA. 1988. Identification of HIV-1 envelope type-specific T helper cells in an HIV-infected individual.  J Clin Invest. Vol. 82, no. January: 2172-2175.
  • Cowan MJ, Walker CM, Culver K, Weintrub PS, Wara DW, and Levy JA. 1988. Maternally transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection in children.  AIDS. Vol. 2, no. January: 437-441.
  • Walker, C, M; Moody, D, J; Stites, D, P; Levy, J A. 1986. CD8+ lymphocytes can control HIV infection in vitro by suppressing virus replication.  Science (New York, N.Y.). Vol. 234, no. 4783. (January): 1563-6.
  • Rosenthal, K, L; Steiner, C; Rawls, W, E; Walker, C M. 1986. Studies concerning the relationship of Pichinde virus-induced natural killer cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes.  Medical microbiology and immunology. Vol. 175, no. 2-3. (January): 133-6.
  • Walker, C, M; Paetkau, V; Rawls, W, E; Rosenthal, K L. 1985. Abrogation of anti-Pichinde virus cytotoxic T cell memory by cyclophosphamide and restoration by coinfection or interleukin 2.  Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Vol. 135, no. 2. (January): 1401-7.
  • Clark DA, Chaput A, Walker CM and Rosenthal KL. 1985. Soluble suppressor activity obtained from murine decidua blocks the response to IL2.  J Immunol. Vol. 134, no. January: e1659.
  • Walker CM, Rawls WW, Rosenthal KL. 1984. Generation of memory cell-mediated immune responses following secondary infection of mice with Pichinde virus.  J Immunol. Vol. 132, no. January: e469.
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