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Bernadette Chen, MD, is a member of the Section of Neonatology at Nationwide Children’s Hospital and an Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at The Ohio State University College of Medicine. She is also an investigator in the Center for Perinatal Research at The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital. Dr. Chen’s interests are in the Adenylate Cyclase-cAMP-Phosphodiesterase 3 pathway and its role in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Both cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP are second messengers in the pulmonary vasculature. There has been a primary focus on cGMP in the pulmonary vasculature, however, cAMP may also be a key factor in promoting pulmonary vasodilation. Adenylate cyclase is responsible for the production of cAMP, while PDE3 degrades both cAMP and cGMP. Although PDE3 has high affinities for both cyclic nucleotides, the rate at which PDE3 hydrolyzes cAMP is much greater. It is known that the vascular effects of cGMP are not only mediated through the activation of protein kinase G, but also through inhibition of PDE3. Therefore, understanding the regulation of this complex pathway may allow for a better understanding of the pulmonary vascular response to different modalities, such as oxygen and nitric oxide, as well as the development of new strategies in the treatment of PPHN.